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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923268/trends-in-gastrointestinal-cancer-incidence-in-iran-2001-2010-with-joinpoint-analysis
#1
Mehdi Darabi, Mohsen Asadi Lari, Abbas Motevalian, Ali Motlagh, Shahram Arsang-Jang, Maryam Karimi Jaberi
OBJECTIVES: The main purpose of this study is to consider changes in time trends of stomach, colorectal, and esophageal cancers during the past decade in Iran. METHODS: Cancer incidence data during the years 2001 to 2010 obtained from cancer registration in Health ministry. In order to recognize significant changes in time trends, we made use of Joint point analysis. Then, the annual percent change for each segment of the trend was calculated. RESULTS: Incidence rate for stomach cancer increased from 4...
December 5, 2016: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923249/thyroid-function-in-human-obesity-underlying-mechanisms
#2
L C Fontenelle, M M Feitosa, J S Severo, T E C Freitas, J B S Morais, F L Torres-Leal, G S Henriques, D do Nascimento Marreiro
Obesity is associated with several metabolic and endocrine disorders; and changes in plasma concentrations, secretion patterns, and clearance of various hormones are observed in obese patients. In this context, recent research has shown that overweight can influence the function of the thyroid gland, usually leading to increased thyrotropin concentrations and changes in the ratio between the hormones triiodothyronine and thyroxine, though within the normal range. The etiology of these changes is still unclear; however, several mechanisms have been proposed including the adaptive process to increase energy expenditure, hyperleptinemia, changes in the activity of deiodinases, the presence of thyroid hormones resistance, chronic low-grade inflammation, and insulin resistance...
December 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923231/congenital-absence-of-the-pericardium-a-systematic-approach-to-diagnosis-and-management
#3
Bo Xu, Jorge Betancor, Craig Asher, Adriana Rosario, Allan Klein
Congenital absence of the pericardium (CAP) is a rare condition. Failure to recognize the clinical features of this condition can lead to incorrect and delayed diagnosis. Limited data are available regarding the optimal approach to diagnose and manage patients with suspected CAP. Due to the rare nature of CAP, this condition can present diagnostic and management dilemmas for clinicians. Using 3 cases of CAP as a framework, a clinically focused review on the diagnosis and management of CAP is presented. Clinicians will be provided with a systematic approach to evaluating patients with suspected CAP, incorporating key history, examination, and multimodality cardiovascular imaging investigations...
December 7, 2016: Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923201/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-a-new-class-of-benzothiazines-as-neuroprotective-agents
#4
Alessandra Mancini, Alessia Chelini, Angela Di Capua, Loretta Castelli, Simone Brogi, Marco Paolino, Germano Giuliani, Andrea Cappelli, Maria Frosini, Lorenzo Ricci, Erminia Leonelli, Gianluca Giorgi, Antonio Giordani, Jacopo Magistretti, Maurizio Anzini
Neurodegenerative diseases are disorders related to the degeneration of central neurons that gradually lead to various, severe alterations of cognitive and/or motor functions. Currently, for no such diseases does any pharmacological treatment exist able to arrest its progression. Riluzole (1) is a small molecule able to interfere with multiple cellular and molecular mechanisms of neurodegeneration, and is the only approved treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the progression of which proved to significantly slow, thus increasing somewhat average survival...
November 27, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923148/patient-and-clinician-reported-outcome-in-eating-disorders
#5
Laura Al-Dakhiel Winkler, Jacob Stampe Frølich, Claire Gudex, Kirsten Hørder, Niels Bilenberg, René Klinkby Støving
Patient-reported outcome is increasingly applied in health sciences. Patients with eating disorders (EDs) characteristically have a different opinion of their needs to that of the health professionals, which can lead to ambivalence towards treatment and immense compliance difficulties. This cross-sectional study compared data assessed by the clinician to patient-reported measures in patients with a history of EDs. We included data from a cohort of patients with EDs (n=544) referred to a specialized ED unit in Denmark...
November 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923140/h2s-adsorption-onto-cu-zn-ni-nanoparticles-loaded-activated-carbon-and-ni-co-nanoparticles-loaded-%C3%AE-al2o3-optimization-and-adsorption-isotherms
#6
A Daneshyar, M Ghaedi, M M Sabzehmeidani, A Daneshyar
The nanocomposites based on copper, zinc and nickel were loaded on activated carbon (Cu-Zn-Ni-NPs-AC) and cobalt and nickel nanoparticles was loaded on γ-alumina (Ni-Co-NPs-γAl2O3) and applied for removal of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from natural gas and their efficiency were compared. Cu-Zn-Ni/AC and Ni-Co/γ-Al2O3 was characterized using different techniques such as energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The effects of variables such as amount of adsorbent, flow rate, temperature, pressure and volume of gas on H2S removal were examined and optimum values were found to be 0...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923099/cesarean-birth-is-not-associated-with-early-childhood-body-mass-index
#7
L G Smithers, B W Mol, L Jamieson, J W Lynch
Cesarean birth leads to a markedly different microbiome compared to vaginal birth, and the microbiome has been implicated in childhood obesity. Among mothers who had a previous cesarean, we compared anthropometry of 3- to 6-year-old children who were subsequently born by cesarean section versus vaginal birth. This large population-based study involved linking de-identified administrative perinatal and anthropometric data. Children's weight and height were collected at community-based clinics and converted to age- and sex-adjusted z-scores of height-for-age (HFAz), weight-for-age (WFAz) and BMI-for-age (BMIz)...
December 6, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923055/a-novel-rrm3-function-in-restricting-dna-replication-via-an-orc5-binding-domain-is-genetically-separable-from-rrm3-function-as-an-atpase-helicase-in-facilitating-fork-progression
#8
Salahuddin Syed, Claus Desler, Lene J Rasmussen, Kristina H Schmidt
In response to replication stress cells activate the intra-S checkpoint, induce DNA repair pathways, increase nucleotide levels, and inhibit origin firing. Here, we report that Rrm3 associates with a subset of replication origins and controls DNA synthesis during replication stress. The N-terminal domain required for control of DNA synthesis maps to residues 186-212 that are also critical for binding Orc5 of the origin recognition complex. Deletion of this domain is lethal to cells lacking the replication checkpoint mediator Mrc1 and leads to mutations upon exposure to the replication stressor hydroxyurea...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923053/different-evolutionary-paths-to-complexity-for-small-and-large-populations-of-digital-organisms
#9
Thomas LaBar, Christoph Adami
A major aim of evolutionary biology is to explain the respective roles of adaptive versus non-adaptive changes in the evolution of complexity. While selection is certainly responsible for the spread and maintenance of complex phenotypes, this does not automatically imply that strong selection enhances the chance for the emergence of novel traits, that is, the origination of complexity. Population size is one parameter that alters the relative importance of adaptive and non-adaptive processes: as population size decreases, selection weakens and genetic drift grows in importance...
December 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923052/filariae-retrovirus-co-infection-in-mice-is-associated-with-suppressed-virus-specific-igg-immune-response-and-higher-viral-loads
#10
Kirsten Katrin Dietze, Ulf Dittmer, Daniel Karim Koudaimi, Simone Schimmer, Martina Reitz, Minka Breloer, Wiebke Hartmann
Worldwide more than 2 billion people are infected with helminths, predominantly in developing countries. Co-infections with viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are common due to the geographical overlap of these pathogens. Helminth and viral infections induce antagonistic cytokine responses in their hosts. Helminths shift the immune system to a type 2-dominated immune response, while viral infections skew the cytokine response towards a type 1 immune response. Moreover, chronic helminth infections are often associated with a generalized suppression of the immune system leading to prolonged parasite survival, and also to a reduced defence against unrelated pathogens...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923048/contribution-of-wastewater-irrigation-to-soil-transmitted-helminths-infection-among-vegetable-farmers-in-kumasi-ghana
#11
Isaac Dennis Amoah, Amina Abubakari, Thor Axel Stenström, Robert Clement Abaidoo, Razak Seidu
Wastewater irrigation is associated with several benefits but can also lead to significant health risks. The health risk for contracting infections from Soil Transmitted Helminths (STHs) among farmers has mainly been assessed indirectly through measured quantities in the wastewater or on the crops alone and only on a limited scale through epidemiological assessments. In this study we broadened the concept of infection risks in the exposure assessments by measurements of the concentration of STHs both in wastewater used for irrigation and the soil, as well as the actual load of STHs ova in the stool of farmers and their family members (165 and 127 in the wet and dry seasons respectively) and a control group of non-farmers (100 and 52 in the wet and dry seasons, respectively)...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923046/mitochondria-and-caspases-tune-nmnat-mediated-stabilization-to-promote-axon-regeneration
#12
Li Chen, Derek M Nye, Michelle C Stone, Alexis T Weiner, Kyle W Gheres, Xin Xiong, Catherine A Collins, Melissa M Rolls
Axon injury can lead to several cell survival responses including increased stability and axon regeneration. Using an accessible Drosophila model system, we investigated the regulation of injury responses and their relationship. Axon injury stabilizes the rest of the cell, including the entire dendrite arbor. After axon injury we found mitochondrial fission in dendrites was upregulated, and that reducing fission increased stabilization or neuroprotection (NP). Thus axon injury seems to both turn on NP, but also dampen it by activating mitochondrial fission...
December 6, 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923040/a-low-correlation-resting-state-of-the-striatum-during-cortical-avalanches-and-its-role-in-movement-suppression
#13
Andreas Klaus, Dietmar Plenz
During quiet resting behavior, involuntary movements are suppressed. Such movement control is attributed to cortico-basal ganglia loops, yet population dynamics within these loops during resting and their relation to involuntary movements are not well characterized. Here, we show by recording cortical and striatal ongoing population activity in awake rats during quiet resting that intrastriatal inhibition maintains a low-correlation striatal resting state in the presence of cortical neuronal avalanches. Involuntary movements arise from disturbed striatal resting activity through two different population dynamics...
December 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922985/video-analysis-of-anterior-cruciate-ligament-acl-injuries-a-systematic-review
#14
Victor R Carlson, Frances T Sheehan, Barry P Boden
BACKGROUND: As the most viable method for investigating in vivo anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, video analysis is critical for understanding ACL injury mechanisms and advancing preventative training programs. Despite the limited number of published studies involving video analysis, much has been gained through evaluating actual injury scenarios. METHODS: Studies meeting criteria for this systematic review were collected by performing a broad search of the ACL literature with use of variations and combinations of video recordings and ACL injuries...
November 29, 2016: JBJS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922967/cervical-spine-deformity-in-long-standing-untreated-congenital-muscular-torticollis
#15
Mohammed Ahmed Hussein, In Sik Yun, Hanna Park, Yong Oock Kim
BACKGROUND: Congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) is a benign condition. With early diagnosis and appropriate management, it can be cured completely, leaving no residual deformity. However, long-standing, untreated CMT can lead to permanent craniofacial deformities and asymmetry. METHODS: Four adult patients presented to the author with long-standing, untreated CMT. Initial clinical assessment demonstrated tightness of the sternocleidomastoid muscle on the affected side...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922963/publication-trends-in-craniofacial-distraction-a-bibliometrical-analysis
#16
Asra Hashmi, Adam Schumaier, Shenita White, Christina Yi, Faraz A Khan, Curtis J Hanba, Faisal Al-Mufarrej
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the craniofacial distraction literature published over the last 50 years and to determine various trends in publications. METHODS: A literature search was conducted in November and December 2015. The date search range was 1965 to 2015. Databases searched included Medline, Web of Science, Biosis, SciELO, Data Citation, and Zoologic Records. Data were collected on distraction type, author specialty, date of publication, country, state (if United States), number of citations, journal name, journal type, and Le Fort type (for midfacial distractions)...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922947/microbiology-and-antimicrobial-challenges-of-prosthetic-joint-infection
#17
Douglas R Osmon
Research that leads to better strategies to diagnose and treat prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is critical because PJI is a devastating complication of total knee arthroplasty. A key to the diagnosis and management of PJI is defining the microbiology of PJI and improving the medical management of PJI utilizing both systemic and local antimicrobial therapy. In this review, the author will present his opinions on future research needs as they relate to the microbiology of PJI, including antimicrobial resistance and the antimicrobial treatment of PJI...
December 5, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922945/staphylococcal-biofilms-and-immune-polarization-during-prosthetic-joint-infection
#18
Casey M Gries, Tammy Kielian
Staphylococcal species are a leading cause of community- and nosocomial-acquired infections, where the placement of foreign materials increases infection risk. Indwelling medical devices and prosthetic implants are targets for staphylococcal cell adherence and biofilm formation. Biofilm products actively suppress proinflammatory microbicidal responses, as evident by macrophage polarization toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype and the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. With the rise in prosthetic hip and knee arthroplasty procedures, together with the recalcitrance of biofilm infections to antibiotic therapy, it is imperative to better understand the mechanism of crosstalk between biofilm-associated bacteria and host immune cells...
December 5, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922921/the-effects-of-muscle-relaxation-and-therapeutic-walking-on-depression-suicidal-ideation-and-quality-of-life-in-breast-cancer-patients-receiving-chemotherapy
#19
Fan-Ko Sun, Chao-Ming Hung, YuChun Yao, Chu-Yun Lu, Chun-Ying Chiang
BACKGROUND: The suicide rate of cancer patients is high in Taiwan. Breast cancer has a high incidence rate and is the leading cause of cancer in women. There is a lack of research examining breast cancer-related depression, suicidal ideation, and quality of life. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effects of muscle relaxation and therapeutic walking on depression, suicidal ideation, and quality of life in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. METHODS: An experimental approach was adopted...
December 5, 2016: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922917/adherence-to-oral-administration-of-endocrine-treatment-in-patients-with-breast-cancer-a-qualitative-study
#20
Laura Iacorossi, Francesca Gambalunga, Alessandra Fabi, Diana Giannarelli, Anna Marchetti, Michela Piredda, Maria Grazia De Marinis
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in the world, and it is also the leading cause of cancer deaths among women. Nevertheless, breast cancer survival has increased as a result of improvements in early diagnosis and therapy, for example, oral endocrine therapy. Despite the importance of adherence to endocrine therapy, its trend appears complex and multidimensional and therefore has many loopholes and missing information. OBJECTIVE: The study aims to explore the experiences of adherence to endocrine therapy in women with breast cancer and their perceptions of the challenges they face in adhering to their medication prescribed...
December 5, 2016: Cancer Nursing
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