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cardiovascular risk assessment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793176/non-ldl-dyslipidemia-is-prevalent-in-the-young-and-determined-by-lifestyle-factors-and-age-the-lifelines-cohort
#1
Jeroen K de Vries, Jan W Balder, Michelle J Pena, Petra Denig, Andries J Smit
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Non-LDL dyslipidemia (NLD) confers cardiovascular risk, and prevalence rates appear to be high in elderly populations. Small cohorts have identified several lifestyle, anthropometric, and medical factors associated with NLD. We aimed to assess sex- and age-specific prevalence of NLD in a contemporary population cohort (n = 167 729), and to identify independent determinants of NLD, focusing on lifestyle, anthropometric, and medical factors. METHODS: The prevalence of NLD was assessed per 10-year age intervals in adults without cardiovascular disease not using lipid-modifying drugs from the Dutch LifeLines cohort...
May 21, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793175/apolipoprotein-ciii-and-n-terminal-prohormone-b-type-natriuretic-peptide-as-independent-predictors-for-cardiovascular-disease-in-type-2-diabetes
#2
Marco Colombo, Helen C Looker, Bassam Farran, Felix Agakov, M Julia Brosnan, Paul Welsh, Naveed Sattar, Shona Livingstone, Paul N Durrington, D John Betteridge, Paul M McKeigue, Helen M Colhoun
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Developing sparse panels of biomarkers for cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes would enable risk stratification for clinical decision making and selection into clinical trials. We examined the individual and joint performance of five candidate biomarkers for incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in type 2 diabetes that an earlier discovery study had yielded. METHODS: Apolipoprotein CIII (apoCIII), N-terminal prohormone B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), high sensitivity Troponin T (hsTnT), Interleukin-6, and Interleukin-15 were measured in baseline serum samples from the Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes trial (CARDS) of atorvastatin versus placebo...
May 21, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792483/when-anger-expression-might-be-beneficial-for-african-americans-the-moderating-role-of-chronic-discrimination
#3
Jiyoung Park, Abdiel J Flores, Kirstin Aschbacher, Wendy Berry Mendes
OBJECTIVES: Anger expression is assumed to have mostly negative health effects. Yet, evidence is mixed on how anger expression influences African Americans' cardiovascular health. The present research aimed to clarify this link by examining moderating effects of chronic discrimination on the relationship between anger expression and cardiovascular risk among African Americans in experimental (Study 1) and epidemiological (Study 2) studies. METHOD: Study 1 examined how African Americans' trait anger expression was linked to (a) physiologic reactivity to acute social rejection during an interracial encounter (Session 1); and (b) total/HDL cholesterol assessed two months later (Session 2)...
May 24, 2018: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792262/chronic-kidney-disease-as-a-cardiovascular-risk-factor-lessons-from-kidney-donors
#4
REVIEW
Anna M Price, Nicola C Edwards, Manvir K Hayer, William E Moody, Richard P Steeds, Charles J Ferro, Jonathan N Townend
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease but is often associated with other risks such as diabetes and hypertension and can be both a cause and an effect of cardiovascular disease. Although epidemiologic data of an independent association of reduced glomerular filtration rate with cardiovascular risk are strong, causative mechanisms are unclear. Living kidney donors provide a useful model for assessing the "pure" effects of reduced kidney function on the cardiovascular system...
May 9, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789994/performance-evaluation-of-a-semi-automated-method-for-18-f-fdg-uptake-in-abdominal-visceral-adipose-tissue
#5
Stefanie A de Boer, Daan S Spoor, Riemer H J A Slart, Douwe J Mulder, Melanie Reijrink, Ronald J H Borra, Gerbrand M Kramer, Otto S Hoekstra, Ronald Boellaard, Marcel J Greuter
PURPOSE: Severity of abdominal obesity and possibly levels of metabolic activity of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this context, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the reproducibility and repeatability of a semi-automated method for assessment of the metabolic activity of VAT using 2-deoxy-2-[18 F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18 F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/x-ray computed tomography (CT)...
May 22, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789878/nuts-as-a-replacement-for-carbohydrates-in-the-diabetic-diet-a-reanalysis-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
David J A Jenkins, Cyril W C Kendall, Benoît Lamarche, Monica S Banach, Korbua Srichaikul, Edward Vidgen, Sandy Mitchell, Tina Parker, Stephanie Nishi, Balachandran Bashyam, Russell J de Souza, Christopher Ireland, Sathish C Pichika, Joseph Beyene, John L Sievenpiper, Robert G Josse
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In line with current advice, we assessed the effect of replacing carbohydrate consumption with mixed nut consumption, as a source of unsaturated fat, on cardiovascular risk factors and HbA1c in type 2 diabetes. The data presented here are from a paper that was retracted at the authors' request ( https://doi.org/10.2337/dc16-rt02 ) owing to lack of adjustment for repeated measures in the same individual. Our aim, therefore, was to fix the error and add new complementary data of interest, including information on clotting factors and LDL particle size...
May 23, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789711/physical-activity-but-not-sedentary-time-is-associated-with-vitamin-d-status-in-adolescents-study-of-cardiovascular-risk-in-adolescents-erica
#7
Ana Carla Moreira da Silva, Felipe Vogt Cureau, Cecília Lacroix de Oliveira, Denise Tavares Giannini, Katia Vergetti Bloch, Maria Cristina Caetano Kuschnir, Eliane Said Dutra, Beatriz D Schaan, Kênia Mara Baiocchi de Carvalho
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The association between active lifestyle components and vitamin D status in adolescents remains relatively unexplored. We aimed to investigate independent and joint associations of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in adolescents. METHODS: This multicenter cross-sectional study involved 1152 Brazilian adolescents (age 12-17 years). Serum 25(OH)D was measured in a single laboratory and categorized as ≤20, 21-29, or ≥30 ng/mL...
May 23, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789493/critical-appraisal-of-advanced-glycation-end-products-ages-and-circulating-soluble-receptors-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-srage-as-a-predictive-biomarkers-for-cardiovascular-disease-in-hemodialysis-patients
#8
Adel M A Assiri, Hala F M Kamel, Abeer A ALrefai
The interaction of advanced glycation end products (AGE) and their receptors promote vascular complications of diabetes in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The soluble form of the receptor for the advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE) has been studied as a vascular biomarker in various diseases with controversial results. Our aim was to evaluate the association of the serum levels of the AGEs and their receptor sRAGE with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the cardiovascular risk factors among HD patients. There were 130 HD patients and 80 age and gender matched control subjects were involved; 31...
May 22, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789355/hdl-functionality-and-cardiovascular-outcome-among-non-dialysis-chronic-kidney-disease-patients
#9
Kathrin Untersteller, Sabine Meissl, Markus Trieb, Insa Emrich, Adam Zawada, Michael Holzer, Eva Knuplez, Danilo Fliser, Gunnar Heine, Gunther Marsche
Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD profoundly affects high-density lipoprotein (HDL) composition and functionality, but if abnormal HDL independently contributes to cardiovascular events in CKD patients remains elusive. In the present study, we assessed whether compositional and functional properties of HDL predict cardiovascular outcome among 526 non-dialysis CKD patients who participate in the CARE FOR HOMe study. We measured HDL cholesterol, the content of HDL-associated pro-inflammatory serum amyloid A (SAA) and activities of the HDL enzymes paraoxonase and lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2)...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788955/effect-of-canagliflozin-on-left-ventricular-diastolic-function-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#10
Daisuke Matsutani, Masaya Sakamoto, Yosuke Kayama, Norihiko Takeda, Ryuzo Horiuchi, Kazunori Utsunomiya
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) greatly increases the risks of cardiovascular disease and heart failure. In particular, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction that develops from the early stages of T2DM is an important factor in the onset and exacerbation of heart failure. The effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors on left ventricular diastolic function has not been elucidated. We have performed the first prospective study on the effects of canagliflozin on left ventricular diastolic function in T2DM...
May 22, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788255/reproductive-hormones-and-subclinical-cardiovascular-disease-in-midlife-women
#11
Rebecca C Thurston, Shalender Bhasin, Yuefang Chang, Emma Barinas Mitchell, Karen A Matthews, Ravi Jasuja, Nanette Santoro
Context: Reproductive hormones are understood to be important to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women. However, standard estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) assays lack sensitivity at the levels of postmenopausal women. Objective: Investigate relations of mass spectrometry-assessed estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and testosterone (T), and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and subclinical CVD in women. Design, Setting, Participants: 304 peri- and postmenopausal women, aged 40-60 years, and free of clinical CVD underwent subclinical CVD measurements...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788140/immune-unreactive-urinary-albumin-as-a-predictor-of-cardiovascular-events-the-hortega-study
#12
Fernando Martínez, Gernot Pichler, Adrian Ruiz, Juan C Martín-Escudero, Felipe J Chaves, Veronica Gonzalez-Albert, Maria Tellez-Plaza, Hiddo J L Heerspink, Dick D E Zeeuw, Josep Redon
Background: We aimed to determine if immune-unreactive albumin excretion (IURAE) is associated with cardiovascular (CV) events in a representative sample of a general population from Spain. Methods: We included 1297 subjects (mean age ± standard error 48.0 ± 0.2 years, 48% females), who participated in the Hortega Follow-Up Study. The primary endpoint was incidence of fatal and non-fatal CV events. Urinary albumin excretion (UAE) was measured in spot voided urine, frozen at -80°C, by immunonephelometry [immune-reactive albumin excretion (IRAE)] and by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) [total albumin excretion (AE)]...
May 16, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788059/impact-of-right-ventricular-volume-and-function-evaluated-using-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-imaging-on-outcomes-after-surgical-ventricular-reconstruction
#13
Sachiko Yamazaki, Satoshi Numata, Tomoya Inoue, Keiichi Itatani, Kazuki Morimoto, Suguru Ohira, Kaichiro Manabe, Isao Yokota, Hitoshi Yaku
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate whether cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived right ventricular (RV) assessment can facilitate risk stratification among patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy who underwent surgical ventricular reconstruction (SVR). METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 53 patients who underwent SVR. The patients were preoperatively evaluated using cardiac MRI. Cine-MRI was acquired for left ventricular (LV) and RV volume. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI was performed to evaluate LV scarring...
May 17, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787898/long-term-effects-of-air-pollution-on-ankle-brachial-index
#14
Siqi Zhang, Kathrin Wolf, Susanne Breitner, Florian Kronenberg, Massimo Stafoggia, Annette Peters, Alexandra Schneider
BACKGROUND: Ankle-brachial index (ABI) has been linked to the risk of cardiovascular events. However, the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and abnormal ABI has not been fully investigated. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved 4544 participants from the KORA Study (2004-2008) in the region of Augsburg, Germany. Participants' residential annual mean concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) were predicted with land-use regression models, and the traffic information was collected from geographic information systems...
May 19, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787859/design-and-rationale-of-the-insyte-study-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-study-to-test-the-efficacy-of-a-synbiotic-on-liver-fat-disease-biomarkers-and-intestinal-microbiota-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#15
Eleonora Scorletti, Paul R Afolabi, Elizabeth A Miles, Debbie E Smith, Amal Almehmadi, Albandri Alshathry, Helen E Moyses, Geraldine F Clough, Mark Wright, Janisha Patel, Laure Bindels, Nathalie M Delzenne, Philip C Calder, Christopher D Byrne
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum of fat-related conditions ranging from simple fatty liver, to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis and cirrhosis. There is growing evidence that NAFLD is a multisystem disease, affecting several extra-hepatic organs and regulatory pathways. Furthermore, since the gut and liver are linked anatomically via the portal vein, disturbances of the gut microbiota (dysbiosis) can affect the liver. OBJECTIVES: In patients with NAFLD, we are testing the effects of a synbiotic which is the combination of a prebiotic (fructooligosaccharides; 4 g/day) and a probiotic (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp...
May 19, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786535/evaluating-the-importance-of-sham-controlled-trials-in-the-investigation-of-medical-devices-in-interventional-cardiology
#16
Robert A Byrne, Davide Capodanno, Felix Mahfoud, Jean Fajadet, Stephan Windecker, Peter Jüni, Andreas Baumbach, William Wijns, Michael Haude
Cardiovascular medicine is one of the specialties that has relied most heavily on evidence from randomized clinical trials in determining best practice for the management of common disease conditions. When comparing treatment approaches, trials incorporating random allocation are the most appropriate method for protecting against treatment allocation bias. In order to protect against performance and ascertainment bias, trial designs including placebo control are preferable where feasible. In contrast to testing of medicines, treatments based on procedures or use of medical devices are more challenging to assess, as sham procedures are necessary to facilitate blinding of participants...
May 22, 2018: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786159/gestational-dyslipidaemia-and-adverse-birthweight-outcomes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
J Wang, D Moore, A Subramanian, K K Cheng, K A Toulis, X Qiu, P Saravanan, M J Price, K Nirantharakumar
BACKGROUND: Low and high birthweight is known to increase the risk of acute and longer-term adverse outcomes, such as stillbirth, infant mortality, obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Gestational dyslipidaemia is associated with a numbers of adverse birth outcomes, but evidence regarding birthweight is still inconsistent to reliably inform clinical practice and treatment recommendations. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between maternal gestational dyslipidaemia and neonatal health outcomes, namely, birthweight, metabolic factors and inflammatory parameters...
May 21, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785956/using-alternatives-to-the-car-and-risk-of-all-cause-cardiovascular-and-cancer-mortality
#18
Jenna Panter, Oliver Mytton, Stephen Sharp, Søren Brage, Steven Cummins, Anthony A Laverty, Katrien Wijndaele, David Ogilvie
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between using alternatives to the car which are more active for commuting and non-commuting purposes, and morbidity and mortality. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study using data from 3 58 799 participants, aged 37-73 years, from UK Biobank. Commute and non-commute travel were assessed at baseline in 2006-2010. We classified participants according to whether they relied exclusively on the car or used alternative modes of transport that were more active at least some of the time...
May 21, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785580/a-comprehensive-review-and-meta-analysis-of-risk-factors-for-statin-induced-myopathy
#19
REVIEW
Khoa A Nguyen, Lang Li, Deshun Lu, Aida Yazdanparast, Lei Wang, Rolf P Kreutz, Elizabeth C Whipple, Titus K Schleyer
PURPOSE: To aid prescribers in assessing a patient's risk for statin-induced myopathy (SIM), we performed a comprehensive review of currently known risk factors and calculated aggregated odds ratios for each risk factor through a meta-analysis. METHODS: This meta-analysis was done through four phases: (1) Identification of the relevant primary literature; (2) abstract screening using inclusion and exclusion criteria; (3) detailed review and data extraction; and (4) synthesis and statistical analysis...
May 22, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785212/reduction-of-vascular-inflammation-ldl-c-or-both-for-the-protection-from-cardiovascular-events
#20
REVIEW
Andromachi Reklou, Michael Doumas, Konstantinos Imprialos, Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Dimitris Patoulias, Vasilios G Athyros
Background: Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and low grade arterial inflammation are key pathogenic factors for atherosclerosis and its manifestation, cardiovascular disease (CVD). Objective: In this narrative review we assessed if decreasing LDL-C levels or inflammation or both is more effective in reducing CVD events. Results: In the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S), all statin trials of the 90s' and the Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research with PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects with Elevated Risk (FOURIER) the benefit came from the LDL-C reduction...
2018: Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal
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