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growth and development pediatric

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186446/de-novo-avm-formation-following-venous-sinus-thrombosis-and-prior-avm-resection-in-adults-report-of-2-cases
#1
Siyu Shi, Raghav Gupta, Justin M Moore, Christoph J Griessenauer, Nimer Adeeb, Rouzbeh Motiei-Langroudi, Ajith J Thomas, Christopher S Ogilvy
Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are traditionally considered congenital lesions, arising from aberrant vascular development during the intrauterine period. Rarely, however, AVMs develop in the postnatal period. Individual case reports of de novo AVM formation in both pediatric and adult patients have challenged the traditional dogma of a congenital origin. Instead, for these cases, a dynamic picture is emerging of AVM growth and development, initially triggered by ischemic and/or traumatic events, coupled with genetic predispositions...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170387/early-growth-faltering-in-post-institutionalized-youth-and-later-anthropometric-and-pubertal-development
#2
Brie M Reid, Bradley S Miller, Lorah D Dorn, Christopher Desjardins, Bonny Donzella, Megan Gunnar
BACKGROUND: Early life adversity that increases the risk of growth stunting is hypothesized to increase the risk of obesity and, in girls, early onset puberty. This hypothesis was tested in children adopted from orphanages. METHODS: Post-institutionalized (PI) youth were compared with youth reared in comparable families (non-adopted; NA) on height, weight, pubertal stage, and fat mass (127 PI, 80 female; 156 NA, 85 female, aged 7-14 years). Anthropometrics at adoption were obtained from first US clinic visits...
February 7, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165873/overuse-physeal-injuries-in-youth-athletes
#3
Amanda Arnold, Charles A Thigpen, Paul F Beattie, Michael J Kissenberth, Ellen Shanley
CONTEXT: Despite rising awareness of the risks associated with sports participation, overuse injuries continue to increase in youth athlete populations. Physeal injuries are one type of overuse injury exclusive to pediatric populations that are often sustained during athletic practice or competition. Overuse physeal injuries are, in theory, preventable; however, little consensus has been reached surrounding the risk factors, prevention, and treatment strategies. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review summarizes the best available evidence concerning overuse physeal injuries in youth and adolescent athletes...
February 1, 2017: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148893/stem-cell-cultures-derived-from-pediatric-brain-tumors-accurately-model-the-originating-tumors
#4
Anna Wenger, Susanna Larsson, Anna Danielsson, Kirstine Juul Elbæk, Petronella Kettunen, Magnus Tisell, Magnus Sabel, Birgitta Lannering, Claes Nordborg, Elizabeth Schepke, Helena Carén
Brain tumors are the leading cause of cancer-related death in children but high-grade gliomas in children and adolescents have remained a relatively under-investigated disease despite this. A better understanding of the cellular and molecular pathogenesis of the diseases is required in order to improve the outcome for these children. In vitro-cultured primary tumor cells from patients are indispensable tools for this purpose by enabling functional analyses and development of new therapies. However, relevant well-characterized in vitro cultures from pediatric gliomas cultured under serum-free conditions have been lacking...
January 26, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143914/pediatric-accountable-care-organizations-insight-from-early-adopters
#5
James M Perrin, Edward Zimmerman, Andrew Hertz, Timothy Johnson, Tom Merrill, David Smith
Partly in response to incentives in the Affordable Care Act, there has been major growth in accountable care organizations (ACO) in both the private and public sectors. For several reasons, growth of ACOs in pediatric care has been more modest than for older populations. The American Academy of Pediatrics collaborated with Leavitt Partners, LLC, to carry out a study of pediatric ACOs, including a series of 5 case studies of diverse pediatric models, a scan of Medicaid ACOs, and a summit of leaders in pediatric ACO development...
January 31, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141790/caffeine-administration-modulates-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-but-does-not-attenuate-blunted-alveolarization-in-a-hyperoxia-based-mouse-model-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#6
Philipp Rath, Claudio Nardiello, David E Surate Solaligue, Ronald Agius, Ivana Mižíková, Sebastian Hühn, Konstantin Mayer, István Vadász, Susanne Herold, Frank Runkel, Werner Seeger, Rory E Morty
BACKGROUND: Caffeine is widely used to manage apnea of prematurity, and reduces the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Deregulated transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling underlies arrested post-natal lung maturation in BPD. It is unclear whether caffeine impacts TGF-β signaling or post-natal lung development in affected lungs. METHODS: The impact of caffeine on TGF-β signaling in primary mouse lung fibroblasts and alveolar epithelial type II cells was assessed in vitro...
January 31, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141706/attached-to-a-diagnosis-the-quandary-of-social-deficits-and-reactive-attachment-disorder
#7
Randall Phelps, Debra Eisert, Susan Schulz, Marilyn Augustyn
Alex is a 9-year-old boy brought to you, his primary care provider, for a "fifth opinion." You have cared for Alex since he was adopted from a Romanian orphanage at 3 years of age. He has been physically healthy with normal growth parameters and no evidence of fetal alcohol syndrome. Alex has long-standing history of social difficulties, impulsivity, lying, controlling, manipulative behaviors, violent outbursts at home with subsequent lack of remorse, and excessive chatter. You referred Alex to an interdisciplinary child development clinic 2 years ago, where he was diagnosed with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139365/vitamin%C3%A2-a-in-pediatrics-an-update-from-the-nutrition-committee-of-the-french-society-of-pediatrics
#8
M Vidailhet, D Rieu, F Feillet, A Bocquet, J-P Chouraqui, D Darmaun, C Dupont, M-L Frelut, J-P Girardet, R Hankard, J-C Rozé, U Siméoni, D Turck, A Briend
Vitamin A (retinol) fulfills multiple functions in vision, cell growth and differentiation, embryogenesis, the maintenance of epithelial barriers and immunity. A large number of enzymes, binding proteins and receptors facilitate its intestinal absorption, hepatic storage, secretion, and distribution to target cells. In addition to the preformed retinol of animal origin, some fruits and vegetables are rich in carotenoids with provitamin A precursors such as β-carotene: 6μg of β-carotene corresponds to 1μg retinol equivalent (RE)...
January 27, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133940/outcomes-of-pediatric-living-donor-kidney-transplantation-a%C3%A2-single-center-experience
#9
Sonia Pérez-Bertólez, Rafael Barrero, Julia Fijo, Verónica Alonso, Devicka Ojha, Miguel Ángel Fernández-Hurtado, Jerónimo Martínez, Eduardo León, Francisco García-Merino
Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for children with ESRD offering advantages of improved survival, growth potential, cognitive development, and quality of life. The aim of our study was to compare the outcomes of LDKT vs DDKT performed in children at a single center. Retrospective chart review of pediatric patients who underwent kidney transplantation from 2005 to 2014 was performed. Ninety-one renal transplants were accomplished, and 31 cases (38.27%) were LDKT, and in 96.7% of the cases, the graft was obtained through laparoscopy...
January 29, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129857/discovering-novel-oncogenic-pathways-and-new-therapies-using-zebrafish-models-of-sarcoma
#10
M N Hayes, D M Langenau
Sarcoma is a type of cancer affecting connective, supportive, or soft tissue of mesenchymal origin. Despite rare incidence in adults (<1%), over 15% of pediatric cancers are sarcoma. Sadly, both adults and children with relapsed or metastatic disease have devastatingly high rates of mortality. Current treatment options for sarcoma include surgery, radiation, and/or chemotherapy; however, significant limitations exist with respect to the efficacy of these strategies. Strong impetus has been placed on the development of novel therapies and preclinical models for uncovering mechanisms involved in the development, progression, and therapy resistance of sarcoma...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121970/resorbable-mesh-cranioplasty-repair-of-bilateral-cerebrospinal-fluid-leaks-following-pediatric-simultaneous-bilateral-auditory-brainstem-implant-surgery
#11
Giacomo Colletti, Marco Mandalà, Vittorio Colletti, Alberto Deganello, Fabiana Allevi, Liliana Colletti
OBJECTIVE: To present a child with cochlear nerve deficiency (CND) who received simultaneous bilateral simultaneous auditory brainstem implants (BS-ABI) and subsequently presented with bilateral cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks unresponsive to standard treatments. To propose a novel rigid retrosigmoid cranioplasty for treating and preventing CSF leaks in children at high risk for this complication. PATIENT: A 3.5-year-old child with CND, vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiac defects, tracheo-esophageal fistula, renal anomalies, and limb abnormalities, coloboma, heart defect, atresia choanae, retarded growth and development, genital abnormality, and ear abnormality, Arnold Chiari malformation, previous treated tracheo-esophageal fistula underwent BS-ABI...
January 24, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121066/family-estimates-of-risk-for-neurocognitive-late-effects-following-pediatric-cancer-from-diagnosis-through-the-first-three-years-of-survivorship
#12
Emily L Shultz, Vicky Lehmann, Joseph R Rausch, Madelaine C Keim, Adrien M Winning, Randal S Olshefski, Kathryn A Vannatta, Bruce E Compas, Cynthia A Gerhardt
BACKGROUND: Families often express a need for additional information about neurocognitive late effects (NCLE) after a pediatric cancer diagnosis. Therefore, we examined: (i) differences in parent, child, and oncologist estimates of risk for NCLE; (ii) whether the estimates of parents and/or children change over time; and (iii) whether estimates are different for children treated with central nervous system (CNS) directed therapies. PROCEDURE: Mothers, fathers, and children (initial age: 5-17, self-report: >10) from 258 families reported their perceived likelihood of the child developing "thinking/learning problems" on a visual analog scale (0-100%) at 2 months (T1), 1 year (T2), and 3 years (T3) following cancer diagnosis/relapse...
January 25, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115362/mouse-models-of-pediatric-supratentorial-high-grade-glioma-reveal-how-cell-of-origin-influences-tumor-development-and-phenotype
#13
Smitha Sreedharan, Naga Prathyusha Maturi, Yuan Xie, Anders Sundström, Malin Jarvius, Sylwia Libard, Irina Alafuzoff, Holger Weishaupt, Mårten Fryknäs, Rolf Larsson, Fredrik J Swartling, Lene Uhrbom
High-grade glioma (HGG) is a group of primary malignant brain tumors with dismal prognosis. Whereas adult HGG has been studied extensively, childhood HGG, a relatively rare disease, is less well-characterized. Here, we present two novel platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-driven mouse models of pediatric supratentorial HGG. Tumors developed from two different cells of origin reminiscent of neural stem cells (NSC) or oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC). Cross-species transcriptomics showed that both models are closely related to human pediatric HGG as compared with adult HGG...
February 1, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106721/exercise-induced-oxidative-stress-responses-in-the-pediatric-population
#14
REVIEW
Alexandra Avloniti, Athanasios Chatzinikolaou, Chariklia K Deli, Dimitris Vlachopoulos, Luis Gracia-Marco, Diamanda Leontsini, Dimitrios Draganidis, Athanasios Z Jamurtas, George Mastorakos, Ioannis G Fatouros
Adults demonstrate an upregulation of their pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms in response to acute exercise while systematic exercise training enhances their antioxidant capacity, thereby leading to a reduced generation of free radicals both at rest and in response to exercise stress. However, less information exists regarding oxidative stress responses and the underlying mechanisms in the pediatric population. Evidence suggests that exercise-induced redox perturbations may be valuable in order to monitor exercise-induced inflammatory responses and as such training overload in children and adolescents as well as monitor optimal growth and development...
January 17, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104732/iatrogenic-cushing-s-syndrome-due-to-topical-ocular-glucocorticoid-treatment
#15
Daisuke Fukuhara, Toshihiko Takiura, Hiroshi Keino, Annabelle A Okada, Kunimasa Yan
Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a severe adverse effect of systemic glucocorticoid (GC) therapy in children, but is extremely rare in the setting of topical ocular GC therapy. In this article, we report the case of a 9-year-old girl suffering from idiopathic uveitis who developed CS due to topical ocular GC treatment. She was referred to the ophthalmology department with a complaint of painful eyes, at which time she was diagnosed with bilateral iridocyclitis and started on a treatment of betamethasone sodium phosphate eye drops...
February 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101803/lung-retransplantation-in-an-adult-13%C3%A2-years-after-single-lobar-transplant-in-childhood
#16
Seiichiro Sugimoto, Shinji Otani, Takashi Ohki, Takeshi Kurosaki, Kentaroh Miyoshi, Masaomi Yamane, Shinichiro Miyoshi, Takahiro Oto
Single living-donor lobar lung transplantation provides acceptable results for critically ill children; however, an additional lung transplantation may be required in the future as the recipient grows. We describe a case of successful lung retransplantation in a grown-up patient after single lobar lung transplantation in childhood. A 23-year-old man underwent bilateral cadaveric lung retransplantation for chronic lung allograft dysfunction 13 years after right single living-donor lobar transplantation for idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension performed at the age of 10 years...
January 18, 2017: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100071/neck-tongue-syndrome-a-systematic-review
#17
Amy A Gelfand, Hannah Johnson, Marc Ep Lenaerts, Jessica R Litwin, Charles De Mesa, Nikolai Bogduk, Peter J Goadsby
Objective Neck-Tongue syndrome (NTS) is characterized by brief attacks of neck or occipital pain, or both, brought out by abrupt head turning and accompanied by ipsilateral tongue symptoms. As the disorder is rare, we undertook a systematic review of the literature to identify all reported cases in order to phenotype clinically the disorder and subsequently inform clinical diagnostic criteria. Methods Two electronic databases were searched using the search term "neck tongue syndrome". All English language references were reviewed in full...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096130/early-life-nutrition-and-neurodevelopment-use-of-the-piglet-as-a-translational-model
#18
REVIEW
Austin T Mudd, Ryan N Dilger
Optimal nutrition early in life is critical to ensure proper structural and functional development of infant organ systems. Although pediatric nutrition historically has emphasized research on the relation between nutrition, growth rates, and gastrointestinal maturation, efforts increasingly have focused on how nutrition influences neurodevelopment. The provision of human milk is considered the gold standard in pediatric nutrition; thus, there is interest in understanding how functional nutrients and bioactive components in milk may modulate developmental processes...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094893/a-comparison-of-skeletal-maturity-assessed-by-radiological-and-ultrasonic-methods
#19
Katinka Utczas, Agota Muzsnai, Noel Cameron, Annamaria Zsakai, Eva B Bodzsar
OBJECTIVES: The estimation of skeletal maturity is a useful tool in pediatric practice to determine the degree of delay or advancement in growth disorders and the effectiveness of treatment in conditions that influence linear growth. Skeletal maturity of children is commonly assessed using either Greulich-Pyle (GP) or Tanner-Whitehouse methods (TW2 and TW3). However, a less invasive ultrasonic method, that does not use ionizing radiation, has been suggested for use in epidemiological studies of skeletal maturity...
January 17, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094001/autophagy-inhibition-overcomes-multiple-mechanisms-of-resistance-to-braf-inhibition-in-brain-tumors
#20
Jean M Mulcahy Levy, Shadi Zahedi, Andrea M Griesinger, Andrew Morin, Kurtis D Davies, Dara L Aisner, B K Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, Brent E Fitzwalter, Megan L Goodall, Jacqueline Thorburn, Vladimir Amani, Andrew M Donson, Diane K Birks, David M Mirsky, Todd C Hankinson, Michael H Handler, Adam L Green, Rajeev Vibhakar, Nicholas K Foreman, Andrew Thorburn
Kinase inhibitors are effective cancer therapies, but tumors frequently develop resistance. Current strategies to circumvent resistance target the same or parallel pathways. We report here that targeting a completely different process, autophagy, can overcome multiple BRAF inhibitor resistance mechanisms in brain tumors. BRAF(V600E)mutations occur in many pediatric brain tumors. We previously reported that these tumors are autophagy-dependent and a patient was successfully treated with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine after failure of the BRAF(V600E) inhibitor vemurafenib, suggesting autophagy inhibition overcame the kinase inhibitor resistance...
January 17, 2017: ELife
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