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growth and development pediatric

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156447/pd-1-blockade-in-advanced-nsclc-a-focus-on-pembrolizumab
#1
REVIEW
Solange Peters, Keith M Kerr, Rolf Stahel
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most prevalent cancers and is responsible for a large proportion of all cancer-related deaths. Current treatment options are inadequate, reflecting a substantial unmet clinical need. Increasing knowledge regarding the mechanisms and genetic aberrations underlying tumor development and growth has heralded a new era of therapy in oncology, moving away from indiscriminate cytotoxic chemotherapy toward more finely focused, targeted medicine. The development of small-molecule drugs and monoclonal antibodies directed toward specific components of dysfunctional molecular or immune pathways, and mutated genes specific to particular cancer types, is leading the field to more personalized and less toxic treatment options, many of which have demonstrated greater efficacy and survival benefits than their chemotherapeutic counterparts...
October 23, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153232/development-of-the-pediatric-temporomandibular-joint
#2
REVIEW
Melissa E Bender, Rosa B Lipin, Steven L Goudy
This article focuses on the embryologic development and growth of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and touches on the development and growth of surrounding structures. Aberrations in structures surrounding the TMJ can affect its development as well. The normal adult anatomy of the TMJ is described as well as common malformations. The clinical ramifications of a malformed TMJ are also discussed in order to understand future necessary consultants involved in the care of these patients.
February 2018: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147770/-infantile-hemangioma-of-the-eyelid
#3
F Lang, U P Press
Hemangiomas are one of the most common vascular tumors in infancy. In most cases no therapy is necessary and spontaneous regression is observed; however, if they arise in the periocular region, immediate action is required as rapid growth frequently leads to obstruction of the visual field with the risk of developing amblyopia and orbital suppression up to permanent disfigurement and stigmatization of those affected. Novel pharmaceutical treatment options led to a significant paradigm shift in the treatment of pediatric hemangiomas...
November 16, 2017: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128319/a-proteomic-investigation-into-mechanisms-underpinning-corticosteroid-effects-on-neural-stem-cells
#4
Rawaa S Al-Mayyahi, Luke D Sterio, Joanne B Connolly, Christopher F Adams, Wa'il A Al-Tumah, Jon Sen, Richard D Emes, Sarah R Hart, Divya M Chari
Corticosteroids (CSs) are widely used clinically, for example in pediatric respiratory distress syndrome, and immunosuppression to prevent rejection of stem cell transplant populations in neural cell therapy. However, such treatment can be associated with adverse effects such as impaired neurogenesis and myelination, and increased risk of cerebral palsy. There is increasing evidence that CSs can adversely influence key biological properties of neural stem cells (NSCs) but the molecular mechanisms underpinning such effects are largely unknown...
November 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121259/exercise-ameliorates-neurocognitive-impairments-in-a-translational-model-of-pediatric-radiotherapy
#5
Iman Sahnoune, Taeko Inoue, Shelli R Kesler, Shaefali P Rodgers, Omaima M Sabek, Steen E Pedersen, Janice A Zawaski, Katharine H Nelson, M Douglas Ris, J Leigh Leasure, M Waleed Gaber
Background: While CRT is an effective treatment, healthy areas surrounding irradiation sites are negatively affected. Frontal lobe functions involving attention, processing speed and inhibition control are impaired. These deficits appear months to years after CRT and impair quality-of-life. Exercise has been shown to rejuvenate the brain and aid in recovery post-injury through its effects on neurogenesis and cognition. Methods: We developed a juvenile rodent CRT model that reproduces neurocognitive deficits...
November 7, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114245/the-selective-interaction-of-pistacia-lentiscus-oil-vs-human-streptococci-an-old-functional-food-revisited-with-new-tools
#6
Germano Orrù, Cristina Demontis, Antonello Mameli, Enrica Tuveri, Pierpaolo Coni, Giuseppina Pichiri, Ferdinando Coghe, Antonella Rosa, Paola Rossi, Guy D'hallewin
Pistacia lentiscus berry oil (LBO) represents a typical vegetal product of the Mediterranean basin that has been formally used in traditional cuisine for 100s of years. In addition to its interesting alimentary properties, this product could represent an interesting candidate in the field of research on the study of new anti-infective agents. In fact, in Mediterranean countries, lentisk oil still continues to be widely used in folk medicine for oral and skin affections, in particular, acute gingivitis, pediatric skin infections such as impetigo and foot plaques, and biofilm related infections often associated with Streptococcus spp...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113094/pediatric-chronic-intestinal-failure-in-italy-report-from-the-2016-survey-on-behalf-of-italian-society-for-gastroenterology-hepatology-and-nutrition-sigenp
#7
Antonella Diamanti, Teresa Capriati, Paolo Gandullia, Grazia Di Leo, Antonella Lezo, Laura Lacitignola, Maria Immacolata Spagnuolo, Simona Gatti, Lorenzo D'Antiga, Giovanna Verlato, Paola Roggero, Sergio Amarri, Maria Elisabetta Baldassarre, Francesco Cirillo, Domenica Elia, Renata Boldrini, Angelo Campanozzi, Carlo Catassi, Marina Aloi, Claudio Romano, Manila Candusso, Nicola Cecchi, Tommaso Bellini, Elaine Tyndall, Fabio Fusaro, Tamara Caldaro, Daniele Alberti, Piergiorgio Gamba, Mario Lima, Pietro Bagolan, Jean De Ville de Goyet, Luigi Dall'Oglio, Marco Spada, Francesca Grandi
BACKGROUND: Intestinal failure (IF) is the reduction in functioning gut mass below the minimal level necessary for adequate digestion and absorption of nutrients and fluids for weight maintenance in adults or for growth in children. There is a paucity of epidemiologic data on pediatric IF. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, incidence, regional distribution and underlying diagnosis of pediatric chronic IF (CIF) requiring home parenteral nutrition (HPN) in Italy...
November 5, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111178/dose-dependent-neurocognitive-deficits-following-postnatal-day-10-hiv-1-viral-protein-exposure-relationship-to-hippocampal-anatomy-parameters
#8
Sylvia Fitting, Kristen A McLaurin, Rosemarie M Booze, Charles F Mactutus
Despite the availability of antiretroviral prophylactic treatment, pediatric human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) continues to be a significant risk factor in the post-cART era. The time of infection (i.e., during pregnancy, delivery or breastfeeding) may play a role in the development of neurocognitive deficits in pediatric HIV-1. HIV-1 viral protein exposure on postnatal day (P)1, preceding the postnatal brain growth spurt in rats, had deleterious effects on neurocognitive development and anatomical parameters of the hippocampus (Fitting et al...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110830/long-term-outcomes-of-pediatric-intestinal-failure
#9
Brenna S Fullerton, Charles R Hong, Tom Jaksic
Management of pediatric intestinal failure has evolved in recent decades, with improved survival since the advent of specialized multidisciplinary intestinal failure centers. Though sepsis and intestinal failure associated liver disease still contribute to mortality, we now have growing data on the long-term outcomes for this population. While intestinal adaptation and parenteral nutrition weaning is most rapid during the first year on parenteral support, achievement of enteral autonomy is possible even after many years as energy and protein requirements decline dramatically with age...
October 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103943/from-oral-facial-dysfunction-to-dysmorphism-and-the-onset-of-pediatric-osa
#10
REVIEW
Christian Guilleminault, Yu-Shu Huang
The upper airway is a collapsible tube, and its collapsibility increases during sleep. Extrinsic factors such as atypical craniofacial features may increase the risks of airway collapse. We review early development of oral-facial structures and the anatomical variants that may be present at birth and can impact nasal breathing. After birth, there is a continuous interaction between orofacial functions and growth of anatomic features. We review the dysfunctions identified to date that may impact orofacial development leading to sleep-disordered-breathing through changes in the orofacial growth...
July 6, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099871/the-role-of-h19-a-long-non-coding-rna-in-mouse-liver-postnatal-maturation
#11
Chad Pope, Stephanie C Piekos, Liming Chen, Shashank Mishra, Xiao-Bo Zhong
H19 RNA is highly expressed at early postnatal ages and precipitously decreases at a specific time corresponding with increases in expression of genes important for mature liver function, such as drug metabolizing enzymes. H19's role in the regulation of liver maturation is currently unknown. Using an H19 knockout mouse model to determine the role of H19 in liver development, we quantified gene expression for insulin growth factor signaling, Wnt signaling, key cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes known to change as the liver develops, and fetal and adult plasma protein produced in liver...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094880/disorders-of-puberty-an-approach-to-diagnosis-and-management
#12
David A Klein, Jill E Emerick, Jillian E Sylvester, Karen S Vogt
Disorders of puberty can profoundly impact physical and psychosocial well-being. Precocious puberty is pubertal onset before eight years of age in girls and before nine years of age in boys. Patients with early isolated pubertal changes, prepubertal linear growth, and no worrisome neurologic symptoms typically have a benign pattern of development and should be monitored in the appropriate clinical context. Among patients with true precocious puberty, or full activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, most girls have an idiopathic etiology, whereas it is commonly due to identifiable pathology on imaging in boys...
November 1, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093792/managing-the-pediatric-spine-growth-assessment
#13
REVIEW
Jason Pui Yin Cheung, Keith Dip-Kei Luk
Management of pediatric spinal deformities requires an accurate prediction of growth spurts to allow for timely initiation of treatment and prevention of curve progression. Determining remaining growth potential is also important for avoiding prolonged unnecessary treatment, e.g. bracing for patients nearing skeletal maturity. Many clinical and radiological growth parameters have been developed to aid clinicians in growth prediction. Of these, several commonly used measures such as height and arm span growth trends, timing of menarche, and the Risser sign are mostly retrospective and lack strong predictive utility...
October 2017: Asian Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089992/corticoreticular-tract-lesion-in-children-with-developmental-delay-presenting-with-gait-dysfunction-and-trunk-instability
#14
Yong Min Kwon, Jessica Rose, Ae Ryoung Kim, Su Min Son
The corticoreticular tract (CRT) is known to be involved in walking and postural control. Using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT), we investigated the relationship between the CRT and gait dysfunction, including trunk instability, in pediatric patients. Thirty patients with delayed development and 15 age-matched, typically-developed (TD) children were recruited. Fifteen patients with gait dysfunction (bilateral trunk instability) were included in the group A, and the other 15 patients with gait dysfunction (unilateral trunk instability) were included in the group B...
September 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080385/evaluation-of-patritumab-with-or-without-erlotinib-in-combination-with-standard-cytotoxic-agents-against-pediatric-sarcoma-xenograft-models
#15
Abhik Bandyopadhyay, Edward Favours, Doris A Phelps, Vanessa Del Pozo, Samson Ghilu, Dias Kurmashev, Joel Michalek, Aron Trevino, Denis Guttridge, Cheryl London, Kenji Hirotani, Ling Zhang, Raushan T Kurmasheva, Peter J Houghton
BACKGROUND: Integrating molecularly targeted agents with cytotoxic drugs used in curative treatment of pediatric cancers is complex. An evaluation was undertaken with the ERBB3/Her3-specific antibody patritumab (P) either alone or with the ERBB1/epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor erlotinib (E) in combination with standard cytotoxic agents, cisplatin, vincristine, and cyclophosphamide, in pediatric sarcoma xenograft models that express receptors and ligands targeted by these agents...
October 28, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066844/treatment-of-necrotic-teeth-by-apical-revascularization-meta-analysis
#16
Ling He, Juan Zhong, Qimei Gong, Sahng G Kim, Samuel J Zeichner, Lusai Xiang, Ling Ye, Xuedong Zhou, Jinxuan Zheng, Yongxing Liu, Chenyu Guan, Bin Cheng, Junqi Ling, Jeremy J Mao
Each year ~5.4 million children and adolescents in the United States suffer from dental infections, leading to pulp necrosis, arrested tooth-root development and tooth loss. Apical revascularization, adopted by the American Dental Association for its perceived ability to enable postoperative tooth-root growth, is being accepted worldwide. The objective of the present study is to perform a meta-analysis on apical revascularization. Literature search yielded 22 studies following PRISMA with pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria...
October 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065027/reflective-practice-in-the-clinical-setting-a-multi-institutional-qualitative-study-of-pediatric-faculty-and-residents
#17
Jennifer Plant, Su-Ting T Li, Rebecca Blankenburg, Alyssa L Bogetz, Michele Long, Lavjay Butani
PURPOSE: To explore when and in what form pediatric faculty and residents practice reflection. METHOD: From February to June 2015, the authors conducted focus groups of pediatric faculty and residents at the University of California, Davis; Stanford University; and the University of California, San Francisco, until thematic saturation occurred. Transcripts were analyzed based on Mezirow's and Schon's models of reflection, using the constant comparative method associated with grounded theory...
November 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064871/best-practice-guidelines-for-surgical-site-infection-prevention-with-surgical-treatment-of-early-onset-scoliosis
#18
Michael P Glotzbecker, Tricia A St Hilaire, Jeff B Pawelek, George H Thompson, Michael G Vitale
BACKGROUND: Postoperative surgical site infection (SSI) is unfortunately a commonly encountered complication in the surgical treatment of children with Early Onset Scoliosis (EOS). There is documented variation in the treatment of this patient population. Previous work building consensus for the approach to high risk patients (eg, neuromuscular etiology) has been promising. The goal of the current study is to apply similar principles to develop consensus-based guidelines for the treatment of patients with EOS...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061558/commercially-available-smartphone-apps-to-support-postoperative-pain-self-management-scoping-review
#19
Chitra Lalloo, Ushma Shah, Kathryn A Birnie, Cleo Davies-Chalmers, Jordan Rivera, Jennifer Stinson, Fiona Campbell
BACKGROUND: Recently, the use of smartphones to deliver health-related content has experienced rapid growth, with more than 165,000 mobile health (mHealth) apps currently available in the digital marketplace. With 3 out of 4 Canadians currently owning a smartphone, mHealth apps offer opportunities to deliver accessible health-related knowledge and support. Many individuals experience pain after surgery, which can negatively impact their health-related quality of life, including sleep, emotional, and social functioning...
October 23, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050204/irreversible-growth-plate-fusions-in-children-with-medulloblastoma-treated-with-a-targeted-hedgehog-pathway-inhibitor
#20
Giles W Robinson, Sue C Kaste, Wassim Chemaitilly, Daniel C Bowers, Stephen Laughton, Amy Smith, Nicholas G Gottardo, Sonia Partap, Anne Bendel, Karen D Wright, Brent A Orr, William C Warner, Arzu Onar-Thomas, Amar Gajjar
The permanent defects in bone growth observed in preclinical studies of hedgehog (Hh) pathway inhibitors were not substantiated in early phase clinical studies of vismodegib in children. Consequently, vismodegib advanced into pediatric trials for malignancies suspected of being driven by aberrant activation of the Hh pathway. In one multicenter phase II trial, vismodegib was added to the therapy regimen for newly diagnosed Hh pathway activated medulloblastoma. Herein, we report on 3 children (2 on trial and one off trial) treated with vismodegib who developed widespread growth plate fusions that persist long after cessation of therapy...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
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