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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925064/improving-realism-in-clinical-trial-simulations-via-real-world-data
#1
EDITORIAL
Holly Kimko, Kwan Lee
Simulation validity depends on how well sampling distributions used reflect real-patient characteristics, such as drug adherence, disease progression, and pharmacologic handling in the body. We challenge the current use of growth charts from nondisease-specific pediatrics in simulations for drug development. Complementary use of data from clinical trials and the real-world is expected to achieve a more realistic representation of clinical outcomes for decisions in drug development, regulatory approval, and health technology assessment...
September 19, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922348/stem-cell-biology-and-regenerative-medicine-for-neonatal-lung-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Martin Kang, Bernard Thébaud
Lung diseases remain one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Cell therapy and regenerative medicine have the potential to revolutionize the management of life-threatening and debilitating lung diseases that currently lack effective treatments. Over the past decade, the repair capabilities of stem/progenitor cells has been harnessed to prevent/rescue lung damage in experimental neonatal lung diseases. Mesenchymal stromal cells and amnion epithelial cells exert pleiotropic effects and represent ideal therapeutic cells for bronchopulmonary dysplasia, a multifactorial disease...
September 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920060/midkine-s-role-in-cardiac-pathology
#3
Kathleen C Woulfe, Carmen C Sucharov
Midkine (MDK) is a heparin-binding growth factor that is normally expressed in mid-gestational development mediating mesenchymal and epithelial interactions. As organisms age, expression of MDK diminishes; however, in adults, MDK expression is associated with acute and chronic pathologic conditions such as myocardial infarction and heart failure (HF). The role of MDK is not clear in cardiovascular disease and currently there is no consensus if it plays a beneficial or detrimental role in HF. The lack of clarity in the literature is exacerbated by differing roles that circulating and myocardial MDK play in signaling pathways in cardiomyocytes (some of which have yet to be elucidated)...
September 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917392/description-of-a-multi-university-education-and-collaborative-care-child-psychiatry-access-program-new-york-state-s-cap-pc
#4
D L Kaye, V Fornari, M Scharf, W Fremont, R Zuckerbrot, C Foley, T Hargrave, B A Smith, J Wallace, G Blakeslee, J Petras, S Sengupta, J Singarayer, A Cogswell, I Bhatia, P Jensen
OBJECTIVE: Although, child mental health problems are widespread, few get adequate treatment, and there is a severe shortage of child psychiatrists. To address this public health need many states have adopted collaborative care programs to assist primary care to better assess and manage pediatric mental health concerns. This report adds to the small literature on collaborative care programs and describes one large program that covers most of New York state. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: CAP PC, a component program of New York State's Office of Mental Health (OMH) Project TEACH, has provided education and consultation support to primary care providers covering most of New York state since 2010...
September 2017: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917084/evaluation-of-neurodevelopment-of-children-with-congenital-hypothyroidism-by-the-denver-developmental-screening-test
#5
Ayşe Derya Buluş, Esra Tiftik
BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones are essential for growth and brain development in childhood. Although congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most common reason for mental retardation, normal neurological development can be achieved through early and effective treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the neurological development of CH patients aged 24-56 months. METHODS: The study included a total of 116 healthy control subjects and 112 patients aged 24-56 months who were diagnosed with CH during the neonatal period and were being followed up at the Pediatric Endocrinology Department, Keçiören Training and Research Hospital, between 2012 and 2015...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915232/effects-of-early-nutrition-and-growth-on-brain-volumes-white-matter-microstructure-and-neurodevelopmental-outcome-in-preterm-newborns
#6
Caterina Coviello, Kristin Keunen, Karina J Kersbergen, Floris Groenendaal, Alexander Leemans, Barbara Peels, Ivana Isgum, Max A Viergever, Linda S de Vries, Giuseppe Buonocore, Virgilio P Carnielli, Manon J N L Benders
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the effect of nutrition and growth during the first 4 weeks after birth on cerebral volumes and white matter maturation at term equivalent age(TEA) and on neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years corrected age(CA), in preterm infants. METHODS: 131 infants born at a gestational age(GA)<31weeks with MRI at TEA were studied. Cortical gray matter volumes(CGM), basal ganglia and thalami(BGT) volumes, cerebellar volumes and total brain volume(TBV) were computed...
September 15, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912516/choroidal-thickness-measurements-in-children-with-isolated-growth-hormone-deficiency
#7
N G Yalcin, Z Aktas, O Yuce, G D G Ikiz, M Hasanreisoglu, A Bideci
PurposeThe aim of this study was to determine the choroidal thickness measurement values in cases with isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD), to compare them with the healthy control group by using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), and to evaluate the effect of growth hormone (GH) treatment on choroid.Patients and methodsIn this study, 23 cases who were diagnosed with IGHD as a study group and 46 healthy subjects as a control group were included. All patients and controls underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including an examination with EDI-OCT...
September 15, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906436/development-and-evaluation-of-a-manganese-and-iron-food-frequency-questionnaire-for-pediatrics
#8
Frida B Zipkin, Grace A Falciglia, Pierce Kuhnell, Erin N Haynes
Manganese (Mn) is an essential nutrient, but overexposure can lead to neurotoxicity. Given the essentiality of Mn in the diet, particularly during children's growth and development, it is imperative to quantify dietary Mn intake in populations that may be exposed to industrial sources of Mn. Dietary absorption of Mn is inversely associated with iron (Fe) stores, yet there is currently no food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess dietary Mn and Fe intake. The study objective was to develop and evaluate the validity of a FFQ to measure dietary Mn and Fe intake in pediatrics by comparing the estimated intakes of Mn and Fe with biomarkers: Mn in blood and hair and Fe in serum...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903840/burr-hole-aspiration-of-brain-abscess-in-children-with-cyanotic-heart-disease
#9
Muhammad Ashraf, Shakeel Ahmed, Shafiq Ahmad, Mukhtar Hussain
OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of burr hole aspiration of brain abscess in children with cyanotic heart disease in terms of number of aspirations and residual abscess. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery at The Children's Hospital and The Institute of Child Health, Multan, from July 2010 to June 2014. METHODOLOGY: Pediatric patients of cyanotic heart disease with brain abscess were admitted...
August 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898878/development-of-laboratory-investigations-in-disorders-of-sex-development
#10
Laura Audí, Núria Camats, Mónica Fernández-Cancio, María L Granada
Scientific knowledge to understand the biological basis of sex development was prompted by the observation of variants different from the 2 most frequent body types, and this became one of the fields first studied by modern pediatric endocrinology. The clinical observation was supported by professionals working in different areas of laboratory sciences which led to the description of adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis, the enzymes involved, and the different deficiencies. Steroid hormone measurements evolved from colorimetry to radioimmunoassay (RIA) and automated immunoassays, although gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry are now the gold standard techniques for steroid measurements...
September 13, 2017: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898497/a-pediatric-structural-mri-analysis-of-healthy-brain-development-from-newborns-to-young-adults
#11
Jacob Levman, Patrick MacDonald, Ashley Ruyan Lim, Cynthia Forgeron, Emi Takahashi
Assessment of healthy brain maturation can be useful toward better understanding natural patterns of brain growth and toward the characterization of a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders as deviations from normal growth trajectories. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides excellent soft-tissue contrast, which allows for the assessment of gray and white matter in the developing brain. We performed a large-scale retrospective analysis of 993 pediatric structural brain MRI examinations of healthy subjects (n = 988, aged 0-32 years) imaged clinically at 3 T, and extracted a wide variety of measurements such as white matter volumes, cortical thickness, and gyral curvature localized to subregions of the brain...
September 12, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891139/helicobacter-pylori-infection-in-children
#12
REVIEW
Nicolas Kalach, Patrick Bontems, Josette Raymond
Helicobacter pylori infection in children differs from that in adults, from the point of view of epidemiology, host response, clinical features, related diseases, and diagnosis, as well as treatment strategies. The prevalence of H. pylori infection, in both children and adults, is decreasing in the Western World as well as in some developing countries, which contrasts with the increase in childhood asthma and allergic diseases. Recurrent abdominal pain is not specific during H. pylori infection in children...
September 2017: Helicobacter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889961/analysis-of-the-reversibility-of-biliary-cirrhosis-in-young-rats-submitted-to-biliary-obstruction
#13
Maria Julia de Aro Braz, Leonardo Ervolino Corbi, Ana Cristina Aoun Tannuri, Maria Cecília Mendonça Coelho, Josiane Oliveira Gonçalves, Suellen Serafini, Uenis Tannuri
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Biliary atresia and other liver biliary obstructions are relevant conditions in pediatric surgery due to their progression to biliary cirrhosis and indication for liver transplantation. It is known that the period during which biliary obstruction persists determines the development of cirrhosis and its reversibility after a biliary drainage procedure. However, no time or histological markers of biliary cirrhosis reversibility have been established. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and twenty-nine young Wistar rats underwent surgery for ligation of the common bile duct and were maintained until 8weeks...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887681/pediatric-spine-imaging-post-scoliosis-surgery
#14
Alaa N Alsharief, Ron El-Hawary, Pierre Schmit
Many orthopedic articles describe advances in surgical techniques and implants used in pediatric scoliosis surgery. However, even though postoperative spine imaging constitutes a large portion of outpatient musculoskeletal pediatric radiology, few, if any, radiology articles discuss this topic. There has been interval advancement over the last decades of the orthopedic procedures used in the treatment of spinal scoliosis in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. The goal of treatment in these patients is to stop the progression of the curve by blocking the spinal growth and correcting the deformity as much as possible...
September 8, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873390/gastrointestinal-hormones-induced-the-birth-of-endocrinology
#15
Martin Wabitsch
The physiological studies by British physiologists William Maddock Bayliss and Ernest Henry Starling, at the beginning of the last century, demonstrated the existence of specific messenger molecules (hormones) circulating in the blood that regulate the organ function and physiological mechanisms. These findings led to the concept of endocrinology. The first 2 hormones were secretin, discovered in 1902, and gastrin, discovered in 1905. Both hormones that have been described are produced in the gut. This chapter summarizes the history around the discovery of these 2 hormones, which is perceived as the birth of endocrinology...
2017: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864710/principles-of-child-health-care-financing
#16
Mark L Hudak, Mark E Helm, Patience H White
After passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, more children and young adults have become insured and have benefited from health care coverage than at any time since the creation of the Medicaid program in 1965. From 2009 to 2015, the uninsurance rate for children younger than 19 years fell from 9.7% to 5.3%, whereas the uninsurance rate for young adults 19 to 25 years of age declined from 31.7% to 14.5%. Nonetheless, much work remains to be done. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) believes that the United States can and should ensure that all children, adolescents, and young adults from birth through the age of 26 years who reside within its borders have affordable access to high-quality and comprehensive health care, regardless of their or their families' incomes...
September 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830650/basics-of-bone-metabolism-and-osteoporosis-in-common-pediatric-neuromuscular-disabilities
#17
REVIEW
Evren Yaşar, Emre Adigüzel, Mutluay Arslan, Dennis J Matthews
Bone modeling is a process that starts with fetal life and continues during adolescence. Complex factors such as hormones, nutritional and environmental factors affect this process. In addition to these factors, physical conditioning and medications that have toxic effects on bony tissue should be carefully considered in patient follow-up. Osteoporosis is a significant problem in pediatric population because of ongoing growth and development of skeletal system. Two types of osteoporosis are primary and secondary types and children with neuromuscular disabilities constitute a major group with secondary osteoporosis...
August 10, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829158/a-positive-perspective-of-knowledge-attitude-and-practices-for-health-promoting-behaviors-of-adolescents-with-congenital-heart-disease
#18
Hui-Ru Huang, Chi-Wen Chen, Chin-Mi Chen, Hsiao-Ling Yang, Wen-Jen Su, Jou-Kou Wang, Pei-Kwei Tsai
BACKGROUND: Health-promoting behaviors could serve as a major strategy to optimize long-term outcomes for adolescents with congenital heart disease. The associations assessed from a positive perspective of knowledge, attitudes, and practice model would potentially cultivate health-promoting behaviors during adolescence. AIM: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between disease knowledge, resilience, family functioning, and health-promoting behaviors in adolescents with congenital heart disease...
August 1, 2017: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828169/comparison-of-renal-growth-proteinuria-and-graft-survival-between-recipients-of-pediatric-and-adult-cadaveric-kidney-transplants
#19
A Basiri, S Zare, N Simforoosh, A Tabibi, M H Shakibi
BACKGROUND: The shortage of cadaveric kidney donors has prompted transplant teams to expanding the donor selection criteria. The usage of pediatric cadaveric kidneys is one of those expanded criteria. But the main concern is the probability of hyperfiltration syndrome due to small renal mass of pediatric donors. OBJECTIVE: To compare the graft and patient survivals, post-transplantation complications, rate and severity of proteinuria secondary to hyperfiltration injury and the kidney growth of recipients who underwent transplantation from adult (group 1) and pediatric deceased donors (group 2)...
2017: International Journal of Organ Transplantation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828047/type-1-diabetes-and-thyroid-autoimmunity-in-children
#20
Anca Orzan, Carmen Novac, Mihaiela Mihu, Constantin Ionescu Tirgoviste, Mihaela Balgradean
INTRODUCTION: Autoimmune thyroid disease and type 1 diabetes (T1DM) are two autoimmune diseases frequently associated, especially in pediatric population. Aims: we wanted to determine and ilustrate the relationship between type 1 diabetes and autoimmune thyroiditis and also the factors than can influence it, like gender, age, diabetes duration. Glycemic control was also evaluated for all the patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: There were studied 256 patients, children and adolescents with T1DM (male/ female: 145/115; 55%/45%)...
December 2016: Mædica
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