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salience network, brain region, fMRI

Anne Hafkemeijer, Christiane Möller, Elise G P Dopper, Lize C Jiskoot, Annette A van den Berg-Huysmans, John C van Swieten, Wiesje M van der Flier, Hugo Vrenken, Yolande A L Pijnenburg, Frederik Barkhof, Philip Scheltens, Jeroen van der Grond, Serge A R B Rombouts
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) are the most common types of early-onset dementia. We applied longitudinal resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to delineate functional brain connections relevant for disease progression and diagnostic accuracy. METHODS: We used two-center resting state fMRI data of 20 AD patients (65.1±8.0 years), 12 bvFTD patients (64.7±5.4 years), and 22 control subjects (63...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Jarmo Heinonen, Jussi Numminen, Yevhen Hlushchuk, Henrik Antell, Vesa Taatila, Jyrki Suomala
Scientific findings have suggested a two-fold structure of the cognitive process. By using the heuristic thinking mode, people automatically process information that tends to be invariant across days, whereas by using the explicit thinking mode people explicitly process information that tends to be variant compared to typical previously learned information patterns. Previous studies on creativity found an association between creativity and the brain regions in the prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, the default mode network and the executive network...
2016: PloS One
L Schlaffke, L Schweizer, N N Rüther, R Luerding, M Tegenthoff, C Bellebaum, T Schmidt-Wilcke
The brain undergoes adaptive changes during learning. Spontaneous neural activity has been proposed to play an important role in acquiring new information and/or improve the interaction of task related brain regions. A promising approach is the investigation of resting state functional connectivity (rs-fc) and resting state networks, which rely on the detection of interregional correlations of spontaneous BOLD fluctuations. Using Morse Code (MC) as a model to investigate neural correlates of lexico-semantic learning we sought to identify patterns in rs-fc that predict learning success and/or undergo dynamic changes during a 10-day training period...
September 1, 2016: NeuroImage
Joanna Su Xian Chong, Gavin Jun Peng Ng, Sze Chi Lee, Juan Zhou
The insula and the anterior cingulate cortex are core brain regions that anchor the salience network, one of several large-scale intrinsic functional connectivity networks that have been derived consistently using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). While several studies have shown that the insula and anterior cingulate cortex play important roles in interoceptive awareness, no study to date has examined the association between intrinsic salience network connectivity and interoceptive awareness...
August 29, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Michael G Hart, Stephen J Price, John Suckling
OBJECTIVE Resection of focal brain lesions involves maximizing the resection while preserving brain function. Mapping brain function has entered a new era focusing on distributed connectivity networks at "rest," that is, in the absence of a specific task or stimulus, requiring minimal participant engagement. Central to this frame shift has been the development of methods for the rapid assessment of whole-brain connectivity with functional MRI (fMRI) involving blood oxygenation level-dependent imaging. The authors appraised the feasibility of fMRI-based mapping of a repertoire of functional connectivity networks in neurosurgical patients with focal lesions and the potential benefits of resting-state connectivity mapping for surgical planning...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Ernest Mas-Herrero, Josep Marco-Pallarés
Reinforcement learning requires the dynamic interplay of several specialized networks distributed across the brain. A potential mechanism to establish accurate temporal coordination among these paths is through the synchronization of neuronal activity to a common rhythm of neuronal firing. Previous EEG studies have suggested that theta oscillatory activity might be crucial in the integration of information from motivational and attentional paths that converge into the medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC) during reward-guided learning...
August 15, 2016: NeuroImage
Siyang Yin, Yuelu Liu, Mingzhou Ding
The mu rhythm is a field oscillation in the ∼10Hz range over the sensorimotor cortex. For decades, the suppression of mu (event-related desynchronization) has been used to index movement planning, execution, and imagery. Recent work reports that non-motor processes, such as spatial attention and movement observation, also desynchronize mu, raising the possibility that the mu rhythm is associated with the activity of multiple brain regions and systems. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by recording simultaneous resting-state EEG-fMRI from healthy subjects...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Davide Nardo, Paola Console, Carlo Reverberi, Emiliano Macaluso
In daily life the brain is exposed to a large amount of external signals that compete for processing resources. The attentional system can select relevant information based on many possible combinations of goal-directed and stimulus-driven control signals. Here, we investigate the behavioral and physiological effects of competition between distinctive visual events during free-viewing of naturalistic videos. Nineteen healthy subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while viewing short video-clips of everyday life situations, without any explicit goal-directed task...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Jamie D Feusner, Andreas Lidström, Teena D Moody, Cecilia Dhejne, Susan Y Bookheimer, Ivanka Savic
Gender dysphoria (GD) is characterized by incongruence between one's identity and gender assigned at birth. The biological mechanisms of GD are unclear. We investigated brain network connectivity patterns involved in own body perception in the context of self in GD. Twenty-seven female-to-male (FtM) individuals with GD, 27 male controls, and 27 female controls underwent resting state fMRI. We compared functional connections within intrinsic connectivity networks involved in self-referential processes and own body perception -default mode network (DMN) and salience network - and visual networks, using independent components analyses...
July 21, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Anton Rogachov, Joshua C Cheng, Nathalie Erpelding, Kasey S Hemington, Adrian P Crawley, Karen D Davis
Variability in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals reflects the moment-by-moment fluctuations in resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) activity within specific areas of the brain. Regional BOLD signal variability was recently proposed to serve an important functional role in the efficacy of neural systems because of its relationship to behavioural performance in aging and cognition studies. We previously showed that individuals who better cope with pain have greater fluctuations in interregional functional connectivity, but it is not known whether regional brain signal variability is a mechanism underlying pain coping...
July 15, 2016: Pain
Chun-Hong Liu, Cun-Zhi Liu, Jihui Zhang, Zhen Yuan, Li-Rong Tang, Chang-Le Tie, Jin Fan, Qing-Quan Liu
Poor sleep and insomnia have been recognized to be strongly correlated with the development of depression. The exploration of the basic mechanism of sleep disturbance could provide the basis for improved understanding and treatment of insomnia and prevention of depression. In this study, 31 subjects with insomnia symptoms as measured by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17) and 71 age- and gender-matched subjects without insomnia symptoms were recruited to participate in a clinical trial. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), we examined the alterations in spontaneous brain activity between the two groups...
October 1, 2016: Brain Research
Francesca M M Citron, Jeremie Güsten, Nora Michaelis, Adele E Goldberg
: Conventional metaphorical sentences such as She's asweetchild have been found to elicit greater amygdala activation than matched literal sentences (e.g., Shes akindchild). In the present fMRI study, this finding is strengthened and extended with naturalistic stimuli involving longer passages and a range of conventional metaphors. In particular, a greater number of activation peaks (four) were found in the bilateral amygdala when passages containing conventional metaphors were read than when their matched literal versions were read (a single peak); while the direct contrast between metaphorical and literal passages did not show significant amygdala activation, parametric analysis revealed that BOLD signal changes in the left amygdala correlated with an increase in metaphoricity ratings across all stories...
June 21, 2016: NeuroImage
Hongbo Chen, Liya Wang, Tricia Z King, Hui Mao
Childhood brain tumors and associated treatment have been shown to affect brain development and cognitive outcomes. Understanding the functional connectivity of brain many years after diagnosis and treatment may inform the development of interventions to improve the long-term outcomes of adult survivors of childhood brain tumors. This work investigated the frontal region functional connectivity of 16 adult survivors of childhood cerebellar tumors after an average of 14.9 years from diagnosis and 16 demographically-matched controls using resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI)...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Max Schneider, Pamela Hathway, Laura Leuchs, Philipp G Sämann, Michael Czisch, Victor I Spoormaker
Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is increasingly applied for the development of functional biomarkers in brain disorders. Recent studies have revealed spontaneous vigilance drifts during the resting state, involving changes in brain activity and connectivity that challenge the validity of uncontrolled rs-fMRI findings. In a combined rs-fMRI/eye tracking study, the pupil size of 32 healthy subjects after 2h of sleep restriction was recorded as an indirect index for activity of the locus coeruleus, the brainstem's noradrenergic arousal center...
June 9, 2016: NeuroImage
Ben Alderson-Day, Kelly Diederen, Charles Fernyhough, Judith M Ford, Guillermo Horga, Daniel S Margulies, Simon McCarthy-Jones, Georg Northoff, James M Shine, Jessica Turner, Vincent van de Ven, Remko van Lutterveld, Flavie Waters, Renaud Jardri
In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the potential for alterations to the brain's resting-state networks (RSNs) to explain various kinds of psychopathology. RSNs provide an intriguing new explanatory framework for hallucinations, which can occur in different modalities and population groups, but which remain poorly understood. This collaboration from the International Consortium on Hallucination Research (ICHR) reports on the evidence linking resting-state alterations to auditory hallucinations (AH) and provides a critical appraisal of the methodological approaches used in this area...
September 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Feng Bai, Yonggui Yuan, Hui Yu, Zhijun Zhang
Social-cognitive processing has been posited to underlie general functions such as episodic memory. Episodic memory impairment is a recognized hallmark of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) who is at a high risk for dementia. Three canonical networks, self-referential processing, executive control processing and salience processing, have distinct roles in episodic memory retrieval processing. It remains unclear whether and how these sub-networks of the episodic memory retrieval system would be affected in aMCI...
July 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Zhen Yang, Clare Kelly, Francisco X Castellanos, Terry Leon, Michael P Milham, Lenard A Adler
OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were to examine the impact of 3 weeks of amphetamine administration on intrinsic connectome-wide connectivity patterns in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and explore the association between stimulant-induced symptom improvement and functional connectivity alteration. METHODS: Participants included 19 adults (age 20-55 years) diagnosed with ADHD using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed...
August 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Amy M Jimenez, Junghee Lee, Jonathan K Wynn, Mark S Cohen, Stephen A Engel, David C Glahn, Keith H Nuechterlein, Eric A Reavis, Michael F Green
Early visual perception and attention are impaired in schizophrenia, and these deficits can be observed on target detection tasks. These tasks activate distinct ventral and dorsal brain networks which support stimulus-driven and goal-directed attention, respectively. We used single and dual target rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) tasks during fMRI with an ROI approach to examine regions within these networks associated with target detection and the attentional blink (AB) in 21 schizophrenia outpatients and 25 healthy controls...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Ryan Smith, Anna Alkozei, William D S Killgore
Adaptive social behavior appears to require flexible interaction between multiple large-scale brain networks, including the executive control network (ECN), the default mode network (DMN), and the salience network (SN), as well as interactions with the perceptual processing systems these networks function to modulate. Highly connected cortical "hub" regions are also thought to facilitate interactions between these networks, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and anterior insula (AI)...
March 23, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
J Richard Jennings, Lei K Sheu, Dora C-H Kuan, Stephen B Manuck, Peter J Gianaros
Resting high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) relates to cardiac vagal control and predicts individual differences in health and longevity, but its functional neural correlates are not well defined. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) encompasses visceral control regions that are components of intrinsic networks of the brain, particularly the default mode network (DMN) and the salience network (SN). Might individual differences in resting HF-HRV covary with resting state neural activity in the DMN and SN, particularly within the mPFC? This question was addressed using fMRI data from an eyes-open, 5-min rest period during which echoplanar brain imaging yielded BOLD time series...
April 2016: Psychophysiology
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