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salience network, brain region, fMRI

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908591/an-fmri-investigation-of-the-relationship-between-future-imagination-and-cognitive-flexibility
#1
R P Roberts, K Wiebels, R L Sumner, V van Mulukom, C L Grady, D L Schacter, D R Addis
While future imagination is largely considered to be a cognitive process grounded in default mode network activity, studies have shown that future imagination recruits regions in both default mode and frontoparietal control networks. In addition, it has recently been shown that the ability to imagine the future is associated with cognitive flexibility, and that tasks requiring cognitive flexibility result in increased coupling of the default mode network with frontoparietal control and salience networks. In the current study, we investigated the neural correlates underlying the association between cognitive flexibility and future imagination in two ways...
November 28, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887704/aberrant-modulation-of-brain-activation-by-emotional-valence-during-self-referential-processing-among-patients-with-delusions-of-reference
#2
Todd A Girard, Louis Lakatos, Mahesh Menon
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Delusions of reference are thought to reflect abnormally heightened attributions of salience to mundane events or stimuli that lead to convictions that they are personally significant or directed at the observer. Recent findings highlight abnormal recruitment of brain regions associated with self-referential processes among patients with referential delusions. Given the inherent overlap of emotion, incentive salience, and self-relevance, as well as with aberrant thought processes in psychosis, this study investigated the implicit relations between participants' perception of the emotional valence of stimuli on neural correlates of self-referent judgments among schizophrenia-spectrum patients with referential delusions...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859936/mortality-salience-reduces-the-discrimination-between-in-group-and-out-group-interactions-a-functional-mri-investigation-using-multi-voxel-pattern-analysis
#3
Chunliang Feng, Bobby Azarian, Yina Ma, Xue Feng, Lili Wang, Yue-Jia Luo, Frank Krueger
As a fundamental concern of human beings, mortality salience impacts various human social behaviors including intergroup interactions; however, the underlying neural signature remains obscure. Here, we examined the neural signatures underlying the impact of mortality reminders on in-group bias in costly punishment combining a second-party punishment task with multivariate pattern analysis of fMRI data. After mortality salience (MS) priming or general negative affect priming, participants received offers from racial in-group and out-group proposers and decided how to punish proposers by reducing their payoffs...
November 10, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834117/reward-salience-and-attentional-networks-are-activated-by-religious-experience-in-devout-mormons
#4
Michael A Ferguson, Jared A Nielsen, Jace B King, Li Dai, Danielle M Giangrasso, Rachel Holman, Julie R Korenberg, Jeffrey S Anderson
High-level cognitive and emotional experience arises from brain activity, but the specific brain substrates for religious and spiritual euphoria remain unclear. We demonstrate using fMRI scans in 19 devout Mormons that a recognizable feeling central to their devotional practice was reproducibly associated with activation in nucleus accumbens, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and frontal attentional regions. Nucleus accumbens activation preceded peak spiritual feelings by 1-3 seconds and was replicated in 4 separate tasks...
November 11, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818941/functional-connectivity-in-cortico-subcortical-brain-networks-underlying-reward-processing-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#5
Marianne Oldehinkel, Christian F Beckmann, Barbara Franke, Catharina A Hartman, Pieter J Hoekstra, Jaap Oosterlaan, Dirk Heslenfeld, Jan K Buitelaar, Maarten Mennes
BACKGROUND: Many patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display aberrant reward-related behavior. Task-based fMRI studies have related atypical reward processing in ADHD to altered BOLD activity in regions underlying reward processing such as ventral striatum and orbitofrontal cortex. However, it remains unclear whether the observed effects are region-specific or related to changes in functional connectivity of networks supporting reward processing. Here we use resting-state fMRI to comprehensively delineate the functional connectivity architecture underlying aberrant reward processing in ADHD...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662284/a-longitudinal-study-on-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Anne Hafkemeijer, Christiane Möller, Elise G P Dopper, Lize C Jiskoot, Annette A van den Berg-Huysmans, John C van Swieten, Wiesje M van der Flier, Hugo Vrenken, Yolande A L Pijnenburg, Frederik Barkhof, Philip Scheltens, Jeroen van der Grond, Serge A R B Rombouts
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) are the most common types of early-onset dementia. We applied longitudinal resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to delineate functional brain connections relevant for disease progression and diagnostic accuracy. METHODS: We used two-center resting state fMRI data of 20 AD patients (65.1±8.0 years), 12 bvFTD patients (64.7±5.4 years), and 22 control subjects (63...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627760/default-mode-and-executive-networks-areas-association-with-the-serial-order-in-divergent-thinking
#7
Jarmo Heinonen, Jussi Numminen, Yevhen Hlushchuk, Henrik Antell, Vesa Taatila, Jyrki Suomala
Scientific findings have suggested a two-fold structure of the cognitive process. By using the heuristic thinking mode, people automatically process information that tends to be invariant across days, whereas by using the explicit thinking mode people explicitly process information that tends to be variant compared to typical previously learned information patterns. Previous studies on creativity found an association between creativity and the brain regions in the prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, the default mode network and the executive network...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592812/dynamic-changes-of-resting-state-connectivity-related-to-the-acquisition-of-a-lexico-semantic-skill
#8
L Schlaffke, L Schweizer, N N Rüther, R Luerding, M Tegenthoff, C Bellebaum, T Schmidt-Wilcke
The brain undergoes adaptive changes during learning. Spontaneous neural activity has been proposed to play an important role in acquiring new information and/or improve the interaction of task related brain regions. A promising approach is the investigation of resting state functional connectivity (rs-fc) and resting state networks, which rely on the detection of interregional correlations of spontaneous BOLD fluctuations. Using Morse Code (MC) as a model to investigate neural correlates of lexico-semantic learning we sought to identify patterns in rs-fc that predict learning success and/or undergo dynamic changes during a 10-day training period...
September 1, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573028/salience-network-connectivity-in-the-insula-is-associated-with-individual-differences-in-interoceptive-accuracy
#9
Joanna Su Xian Chong, Gavin Jun Peng Ng, Sze Chi Lee, Juan Zhou
The insula and the anterior cingulate cortex are core brain regions that anchor the salience network, one of several large-scale intrinsic functional connectivity networks that have been derived consistently using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). While several studies have shown that the insula and anterior cingulate cortex play important roles in interoceptive awareness, no study to date has examined the association between intrinsic salience network connectivity and interoceptive awareness...
August 29, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27564466/functional-connectivity-networks-for-preoperative-brain-mapping-in-neurosurgery
#10
Michael G Hart, Stephen J Price, John Suckling
OBJECTIVE Resection of focal brain lesions involves maximizing the resection while preserving brain function. Mapping brain function has entered a new era focusing on distributed connectivity networks at "rest," that is, in the absence of a specific task or stimulus, requiring minimal participant engagement. Central to this frame shift has been the development of methods for the rapid assessment of whole-brain connectivity with functional MRI (fMRI) involving blood oxygenation level-dependent imaging. The authors appraised the feasibility of fMRI-based mapping of a repertoire of functional connectivity networks in neurosurgical patients with focal lesions and the potential benefits of resting-state connectivity mapping for surgical planning...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539808/theta-oscillations-integrate-functionally-segregated-sub-regions-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#11
Ernest Mas-Herrero, Josep Marco-Pallarés
Reinforcement learning requires the dynamic interplay of several specialized networks distributed across the brain. A potential mechanism to establish accurate temporal coordination among these paths is through the synchronization of neuronal activity to a common rhythm of neuronal firing. Previous EEG studies have suggested that theta oscillatory activity might be crucial in the integration of information from motivational and attentional paths that converge into the medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC) during reward-guided learning...
December 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499736/amplitude-of-sensorimotor-mu-rhythm-is-correlated-with-bold-from-multiple-brain-regions-a-simultaneous-eeg-fmri-study
#12
Siyang Yin, Yuelu Liu, Mingzhou Ding
The mu rhythm is a field oscillation in the ∼10Hz range over the sensorimotor cortex. For decades, the suppression of mu (event-related desynchronization) has been used to index movement planning, execution, and imagery. Recent work reports that non-motor processes, such as spatial attention and movement observation, also desynchronize mu, raising the possibility that the mu rhythm is associated with the activity of multiple brain regions and systems. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by recording simultaneous resting-state EEG-fMRI from healthy subjects...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445760/competition-between-visual-events-modulates-the-influence-of-salience-during-free-viewing-of-naturalistic-videos
#13
Davide Nardo, Paola Console, Carlo Reverberi, Emiliano Macaluso
In daily life the brain is exposed to a large amount of external signals that compete for processing resources. The attentional system can select relevant information based on many possible combinations of goal-directed and stimulus-driven control signals. Here, we investigate the behavioral and physiological effects of competition between distinctive visual events during free-viewing of naturalistic videos. Nineteen healthy subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while viewing short video-clips of everyday life situations, without any explicit goal-directed task...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27444730/intrinsic-network-connectivity-and-own-body-perception-in-gender-dysphoria
#14
Jamie D Feusner, Andreas Lidström, Teena D Moody, Cecilia Dhejne, Susan Y Bookheimer, Ivanka Savic
Gender dysphoria (GD) is characterized by incongruence between one's identity and gender assigned at birth. The biological mechanisms of GD are unclear. We investigated brain network connectivity patterns involved in own body perception in the context of self in GD. Twenty-seven female-to-male (FtM) individuals with GD, 27 male controls, and 27 female controls underwent resting state fMRI. We compared functional connections within intrinsic connectivity networks involved in self-referential processes and own body perception -default mode network (DMN) and salience network - and visual networks, using independent components analyses...
July 21, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429176/regional-brain-signal-variability-a-novel-indicator-of-pain-sensitivity-and-coping
#15
Anton Rogachov, Joshua C Cheng, Nathalie Erpelding, Kasey S Hemington, Adrian P Crawley, Karen D Davis
Variability in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals reflects the moment-by-moment fluctuations in resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) activity within specific areas of the brain. Regional BOLD signal variability was recently proposed to serve an important functional role in the efficacy of neural systems because of its relationship to behavioural performance in aging and cognition studies. We previously showed that individuals who better cope with pain have greater fluctuations in interregional functional connectivity, but it is not known whether regional brain signal variability is a mechanism underlying pain coping...
July 15, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27425430/reduced-spontaneous-neuronal-activity-in-the-insular-cortex-and-thalamus-in-healthy-adults-with-insomnia-symptoms
#16
Chun-Hong Liu, Cun-Zhi Liu, Jihui Zhang, Zhen Yuan, Li-Rong Tang, Chang-Le Tie, Jin Fan, Qing-Quan Liu
Poor sleep and insomnia have been recognized to be strongly correlated with the development of depression. The exploration of the basic mechanism of sleep disturbance could provide the basis for improved understanding and treatment of insomnia and prevention of depression. In this study, 31 subjects with insomnia symptoms as measured by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17) and 71 age- and gender-matched subjects without insomnia symptoms were recruited to participate in a clinical trial. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), we examined the alterations in spontaneous brain activity between the two groups...
October 1, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27346546/conventional-metaphors-in-longer-passages-evoke-affective-brain-response
#17
Francesca M M Citron, Jeremie Güsten, Nora Michaelis, Adele E Goldberg
: Conventional metaphorical sentences such as She's asweetchild have been found to elicit greater amygdala activation than matched literal sentences (e.g., Shes akindchild). In the present fMRI study, this finding is strengthened and extended with naturalistic stimuli involving longer passages and a range of conventional metaphors. In particular, a greater number of activation peaks (four) were found in the bilateral amygdala when passages containing conventional metaphors were read than when their matched literal versions were read (a single peak); while the direct contrast between metaphorical and literal passages did not show significant amygdala activation, parametric analysis revealed that BOLD signal changes in the left amygdala correlated with an increase in metaphoricity ratings across all stories...
June 21, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27298763/increased-frontal-functional-networks-in-adult-survivors-of-childhood-brain-tumors
#18
Hongbo Chen, Liya Wang, Tricia Z King, Hui Mao
Childhood brain tumors and associated treatment have been shown to affect brain development and cognitive outcomes. Understanding the functional connectivity of brain many years after diagnosis and treatment may inform the development of interventions to improve the long-term outcomes of adult survivors of childhood brain tumors. This work investigated the frontal region functional connectivity of 16 adult survivors of childhood cerebellar tumors after an average of 14.9 years from diagnosis and 16 demographically-matched controls using resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI)...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27291493/spontaneous-pupil-dilations-during-the-resting-state-are-associated-with-activation-of-the-salience-network
#19
Max Schneider, Pamela Hathway, Laura Leuchs, Philipp G Sämann, Michael Czisch, Victor I Spoormaker
Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is increasingly applied for the development of functional biomarkers in brain disorders. Recent studies have revealed spontaneous vigilance drifts during the resting state, involving changes in brain activity and connectivity that challenge the validity of uncontrolled rs-fMRI findings. In a combined rs-fMRI/eye tracking study, the pupil size of 32 healthy subjects after 2h of sleep restriction was recorded as an indirect index for activity of the locus coeruleus, the brainstem's noradrenergic arousal center...
June 9, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27280452/auditory-hallucinations-and-the-brain-s-resting-state-networks-findings-and-methodological-observations
#20
Ben Alderson-Day, Kelly Diederen, Charles Fernyhough, Judith M Ford, Guillermo Horga, Daniel S Margulies, Simon McCarthy-Jones, Georg Northoff, James M Shine, Jessica Turner, Vincent van de Ven, Remko van Lutterveld, Flavie Waters, Renaud Jardri
In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the potential for alterations to the brain's resting-state networks (RSNs) to explain various kinds of psychopathology. RSNs provide an intriguing new explanatory framework for hallucinations, which can occur in different modalities and population groups, but which remain poorly understood. This collaboration from the International Consortium on Hallucination Research (ICHR) reports on the evidence linking resting-state alterations to auditory hallucinations (AH) and provides a critical appraisal of the methodological approaches used in this area...
September 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
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