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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542593/lack-of-the-pga-exopolysaccharide-in-salmonella-as-an-adaptive-trait-for-survival-in-the-host
#1
Maite Echeverz, Begoña García, Amaia Sabalza, Jaione Valle, Toni Gabaldón, Cristina Solano, Iñigo Lasa
Many bacteria build biofilm matrices using a conserved exopolysaccharide named PGA or PNAG (poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine). Interestingly, while E. coli and other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae encode the pgaABCD operon responsible for PGA synthesis, Salmonella lacks it. The evolutionary force driving this difference remains to be determined. Here, we report that Salmonella lost the pgaABCD operon after the divergence of Salmonella and Citrobacter clades, and previous to the diversification of the currently sequenced Salmonella strains...
May 24, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522607/nleb-ssek-effectors-from-citrobacter-rodentium-escherichia-coli-and-salmonella-enterica-display-distinct-differences-in-host-substrate-specificity
#2
Samir El Qaidi, Kangming Chen, Adnan Halim, Lina Siukstaite, Christian Rueter, Ramon Hurtado-Guerrero, Henrik Clausen, Philip R Hardwidge
Many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens use a syringe-like apparatus called a type III secretion system to inject virulence factors into host cells. Some of these effectors are enzymes that modify host proteins to subvert their normal functions. NleB is a glycosyltransferase that modifies host proteins with N-acetyl-D-glucosamine to inhibit antibacterial and inflammatory host responses. NleB is conserved among the attaching/effacing pathogens enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and Citrobacter rodentium...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494866/epithelial-histone-deacetylase-3-instructs-intestinal-immunity-by-coordinating-local-lymphocyte-activation
#3
Nazanin Navabi, Jordan Whitt, Shu-En Wu, Vivienne Woo, Jessica Moncivaiz, Michael B Jordan, Bruce A Vallance, Sing Sing Way, Theresa Alenghat
Mucosal tissues are constantly in direct contact with diverse beneficial and pathogenic microbes, highlighting the need for orchestrating complex microbial signals to sustain effective host defense. Here, we show an essential role for intestinal epithelial cell expression of histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in responding to pathogenic microbes and activating protective innate immunity. Mice lacking HDAC3 in intestinal epithelial cells were more susceptible to Citrobacter rodentium when under tonic stimulation by the commensal microbiota...
May 9, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486169/characterization-of-oxa-48-like-producing-enterobacteriaceae-isolated-from-river-water-in-algeria
#4
Rima Tafoukt, Abdelaziz Touati, Thongpan Leangapichart, Sofiane Bakour, Jean-Marc Rolain
The spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is a significant problem for healthcare worldwide. The prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in water environments in Algeria are unknown. The aim of this study was to screen for the presence of CPE isolates in the Soummam River in Bejaia, Algeria. Isolates of Enterobacteriaceae recovered from twelve samples of river water and showing reduced susceptibility to carbapenems were included in this study. The isolates were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)...
April 30, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476351/evidence-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-enterobacteriales-isolated-from-green-sea-turtles-chelonia-mydas-on-the-great-barrier-reef
#5
Md Shamim Ahasan, Jacqueline Picard, Lisa Elliott, Robert Kinobe, Leigh Owens, Ellen Ariel
This study investigated Enterobacteriales and their antimicrobial resistance in green sea turtles captured adjacent to the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and proximate to urban development. Cloacal swabs were taken from 73 green turtles between 2015 and 2016. A total of 154 out of 341 Gram-negative bacterial isolates were identified as Enterobacteriales that represent 16 different species from 9 different genera. The dominant isolates were Citrobacter (30.52%), Edwardsiella (21.43%) and Escherichia (12.34%)...
May 2, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474503/innate-cd8%C3%AE-%C3%AE-lymphocytes-enhance-anti-cd40-antibody-mediated-colitis-in-mice
#6
Aaram A Kumar, Alberto G Delgado, M Blanca Piazuelo, Luc Van Kaer, Danyvid Olivares-Villagómez
INTRODUCTION: Immune responses in the intestines require tight regulation to avoid uncontrolled inflammation. We previously described an innate lymphocyte population in the intestinal epithelium (referred to as innate CD8αα(+) , or iCD8α cells) that can protect against gastrointestinal infections such as those mediated by Citrobacter rodentium. METHODS: Here, we have evaluated the potential contribution of these cells to intestinal inflammation by analyzing inflammation development in mice with decreased numbers of iCD8α cells...
June 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451037/colonisation-of-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria-in-a-cohort-of-hiv-infected-children-in-ghana
#7
Eric Sampane-Donkor, Ebenezer Vincent Badoe, Jennifer Adoley Annan, Nicholas Nii-Trebi
Antibiotic use not only selects for resistance in pathogenic bacteria, but also in commensal flora of exposed individuals. Little is known epidemiologically about antibiotic resistance in relation to people with HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. This study investigated the carriage of antibiotic resistant bacteria among HIV infected children at a tertiary hospital in Ghana. One hundred and eighteen HIV positive children were recruited at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Ghana and nasopharyngeal specimens were collected from them...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445009/evaluation-of-six-phenotypic-methods-for-the-detection-of-carbapenemases-in-gram-negative-bacteria-with-characterized-resistance-mechanisms
#8
Kunling Sun, Xiuyu Xu, Jinrong Yan, Liping Zhang
BACKGROUND: We compared the performance of the modified Hodge test (MHT), Triton Hodge test (THT), Carba NP test (CNPt), simplified Carba NP test (CNPt-direct), blue-Carba NP test (BCT), and carbapenem inactivation method (CIM) for rapid and accurate carbapenemase detection. METHODS: The methods were evaluated by using 256 gram-negative isolates, including 197 Enterobacteriaceae (79 Enterobacter spp., 74 Klebsiella spp., 33 Escherichia coli, 10 Citrobacter spp., and 1 Serratia marcescens), 51 Acinetobacter baumannii, and 8 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains...
July 2017: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439298/multi-drug-resistant-pathogenic-bacteria-in-the-gut-of-young-children-in-bangladesh
#9
Shirajum Monira, Syeda Antara Shabnam, Sk Imran Ali, Abdus Sadique, Fatema-Tuz Johura, Kazi Zillur Rahman, Nur Haque Alam, Haruo Watanabe, Munirul Alam
BACKGROUND: The gut of human harbors diverse commensal microbiota performing an array of beneficial role for the hosts. In the present study, the major commensal gut bacteria isolated by culturing methods from 15 children of moderate income families, aged between 10 and 24 months, were studied for their response to different antibiotics, and the molecular basis of drug resistance. RESULTS: Of 122 bacterial colonies primarily selected from Luria-Bertani agar, bacterial genera confirmed by analytical profile index (API) 20E(®) system included Escherichia as the predominant (52%) organism, followed by Enterobacter (16%), Pseudomonas (12%), Klebsiella (6%), Pantoea (6%), Vibrio (3%), and Citrobacter (3%); while Aeromonas and Raoultella were identified as the infrequently occurring genera...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431310/characterization-of-bacterial-communities-of-donkey-milk-by-high-throughput-sequencing
#10
Maria de Los Dolores Soto Del Rio, Alessandra Dalmasso, Tiziana Civera, Maria Teresa Bottero
The interest in donkey milk (DM) is growing because of its functional properties and nutritional value, especially for children with allergies and food intolerances. However, most of the available reports of DM microbiota are based on culture-dependent methods to investigate food safety issues and the presence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The aim of this study was to determine the composition of DM bacterial communities using a high-throughput sequencing (HTS) approach. Bulk milk samples from Italian donkey dairy farms from two consecutive years were analysed using the MiSeq Illumina platform...
March 30, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424761/sequencing-of-blaimp-carrying-incn2-plasmids-and-comparative-genomics-of-incn2-plasmids-harboring-class-1-integrons
#11
Xiaoyuan Jiang, Zhe Yin, Xiuyun Yin, Haihong Fang, Qiang Sun, Yigang Tong, Yuanhong Xu, Defu Zhang, Jiao Feng, Weijun Chen, Yajun Song, Jinglin Wang, Shuiping Chen, Dongsheng Zhou
This work presents the complete nucleotide sequences of p0801-IMP from Klebsiella pneumoniae, p7121-IMP from K. oxytoca, and p17285-IMP from Citrobacter freundii, which are recovered from three different cases of nosocomial infection. These three plasmids represent the first fully sequenced blaIMP-carrying IncN2 plasmids. Further comparative genomics analysis of all the five integron-carrying IncN2 plasmids p0801-IMP, p7121-IMP, p17285-IMP, pJIE137, and p34983-59.134kb indicates that they possess conserved IncN2 backbones with limited genetic variations with respect to gene content and organization...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418397/bap180-baf180-is-required-to-maintain-homeostasis-of-intestinal-innate-immune-response-in-drosophila-and-mice
#12
Xiaomeng He, Junjing Yu, Min Wang, Yang Cheng, Yanan Han, Shuo Yang, Guizhi Shi, Lei Sun, Ying Fang, Si-Tang Gong, Zhong Wang, Yang-Xin Fu, Lei Pan, Hong Tang
Immune homeostasis is a prerequisite to protective immunity against gastrointestinal infections. In Drosophila, immune deficiency (IMD) signalling (tumour necrosis factor receptor/interleukin-1 receptor, TNFR/IL-1R in mammals) is indispensable for intestinal immunity against invading bacteria. However, how this local antimicrobial immune response contributes to inflammatory regulation remains poorly defined. Here, we show that flies lacking intestinal Bap180 (a subunit of the chromatin-remodelling switch/sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF) complex) are susceptible to infection as a result of hyper-inflammation rather than bacterial overload...
April 18, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390961/sequencing-and-comparative-genomics-analysis-of-the-inchi2-plasmids-pt5282-mpha-and-p112298-cata-and-the-inchi5-plasmid-pynkp001-dfra
#13
Quanhui Liang, Zhe Yin, Yachao Zhao, Liqi Liang, Jiao Feng, Zhe Zhan, Hui Wang, Yajun Song, Yigang Tong, Weili Wu, Weijun Chen, Jinglin Wang, Lingxiao Jiang, Dongsheng Zhou
Incompatibility group IncHI plasmids are important vectors of antibiotic resistance in Enterobacteriaceae. In this study, a scheme for typing IncHI into five separately clustering subgroups, including previously designated IncHI1-3 as well as IncHI4-5, was proposed based on sequenced IncHI plasmids. The complete nucleotide sequences of the IncHI2 plasmids pT5282-mphA and p112298-catA and the IncHI5 plasmid pYNKP001-dfrA from clinical Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii and Raoultella ornithinolytica isolates, respectively, were determined and were compared with IncHI2 and IncHI5 reference plasmids...
June 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385287/mice-with-infectious-colitis-exhibit-linear-growth-failure-and-subsequent-catch-up-growth-related-to-systemic-inflammation-and-igf-1
#14
Mark D DeBoer, Vidhya Vijayakumar, Meiqing Gong, John L Fowlkes, Rachel M Smith, Fernando Ruiz-Perez, James P Nataro
In developing communities, intestinal infection is associated with poor weight gain and linear-growth failure. Prior translational animal models have focused on weight gain investigations into key contributors to linear growth failure have been lacking. We hypothesized that murine intestinal infection with Citrobacter rodentium would induce linear-growth failure associated with systemic inflammation and suppressed serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). We evaluated 4 groups of mice infected or sham-infected on day-of-life 28: uninfected-controls, wild-type C rodentium-infected, partially-attenuated C rodentium-infected (with deletion of 3 serine protease genes involved in colonization), and pair-fed (given the amount of daily food consumed by the wild-type C rodentium group)...
March 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377759/comparative-genomic-analysis-reveals-organization-function-and-evolution-of-ars-genes-in-pantoea-spp
#15
Liying Wang, Jin Wang, Chuanyong Jing
Numerous genes are involved in various strategies to resist toxic arsenic (As). However, the As resistance strategy in genus Pantoea is poorly understood. In this study, a comparative genome analysis of 23 Pantoea genomes was conducted. Two vertical genetic arsC-like genes without any contribution to As resistance were found to exist in the 23 Pantoea strains. Besides the two arsC-like genes, As resistance gene clusters arsRBC or arsRBCH were found in 15 Pantoea genomes. These ars clusters were found to be acquired by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from sources related to Franconibacter helveticus, Serratia marcescens, and Citrobacter freundii...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376885/citrobacter-braakii-bacteremia-induced-septic-shock-after-colonoscopy-preparation-with-polyethylene-glycol-in-a-critically-ill-patient-a-case-report
#16
Tetsuya Yumoto, Yoshiyasu Kono, Seiji Kawano, Chihiro Kamoi, Atsuyoshi Iida, Motoko Nose, Keiji Sato, Toyomu Ugawa, Hiroyuki Okada, Yoshihito Ujike, Atsunori Nakao
BACKGROUND: Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is widely used for bowel cleaning in preparation for colonoscopy because of its safety. Septic shock after PEG preparation is an extremely rare complication. Herein, we describe a case of septic shock that occurred immediately after colonoscopy preparation with PEG. CASE PRESENTATION: A 75-year-old Japanese male who had previously developed diabetes after total pancreatectomy received PEG in preparation for colonoscopy. He had been admitted to the emergency intensive care unit 4 days earlier due to hematochezia presenting with shock...
April 4, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367029/biofilm-colonization-in-chronic-treatment-refractory-infections-presenting-with-discharging-sinuses-a-study-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-eastern-india
#17
Asmita De, Hirak Jyoti Raj, Jayeeta Haldar, Poulami Mukherjee, Prasanta Kumar Maiti
INTRODUCTION: Treatment refractory chronic recurrent infections mean those chronic infections which recur by same causal agents with similar drug responsiveness after apparent relief following full course of recommended antimicrobial management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty different samples were collected from patients with chronic surgical site infections, laparoscopic port site infections, anal fistula, mesh hernioplasty, chronic dacryocystitis, chronic osteomyelitis, and chronic burn wounds...
April 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364327/assessment-of-chlorine-tolerance-profile-of-citrobacter-species-recovered-from-wastewater-treatment-plants-in-eastern-cape-south-africa
#18
Mojisola Owoseni, Anthony Okoh
This present study assessed the chlorine tolerance of some Citrobacter species recovered from secondary effluents from the clarifiers of two wastewater treatment plants in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. The bacterial survival, chlorine lethal dose and inactivation kinetics at lethal doses were examined. Inactivation of the test bacteria (n = 20) at the recommended dose of 0.5 mg/l for 30 min exposure showed a progressive reduction in bacterial population from 4 to 5 log reduction and residuals ranged between 0...
April 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360938/citrobacter-amalonaticus-y19-for-constitutive-expression-of-carbon-monoxide-dependent-hydrogen-production-machinery
#19
Satish Kumar Ainala, Eunhee Seol, Jung Rae Kim, Sunghoon Park
BACKGROUND: Citrobacter amalonaticus Y19 is a good biocatalyst for production of hydrogen (H2) from oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO) via the so-called water-gas-shift reaction (WGSR). It has a high H2-production activity (23.83 mmol H2 g(-1) cell h(-1)) from CO, and can grow well to a high density on various sugars. However, its H2-production activity is expressed only when CO is present as an inducer and in the absence of glucose. RESULTS: In order to avoid dependency on CO and glucose, in the present study, the native CO-inducible promoters of WGSR operons (CO dehydrogenase, CODH, and CODH-dependent hydrogenase, CO-hyd) in Y19 were carefully analyzed and replaced with strong and constitutive promoters screened from Y19...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356548/linking-pathogen-virulence-host-immunity-and-the-microbiota-at-the-intestinal-barrier
#20
Gabriel Nunez
The mechanisms that allow enteric pathogens to colonize the intestine and host immunity as well as the indigenous microbiota to inhibit pathogen colonization remain poorly understood. Our laboratory is using Citrobacter rodentium, a mouse pathogen that models human infections by enteropathogenic E. coli, to understand the mechanisms that regulate the colonization and clearance of the pathogen in the gut. These studies have revealed how the pathogen colonizes and replicates successfully early during infection and how host immunity and the indigenous microbiota cooperate to eradicate the pathogen in the later stage of the infection...
2017: Keio Journal of Medicine
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