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Jerusalem artichokes

Kai Li, Jin-Cheng Qin, Chen-Guang Liu, Feng-Wu Bai
Jerusalem artichoke (JA) is a potential energy crop for biorefinery due to its unique agronomic traits such as resistance to environmental stresses and high biomass yield in marginal lands. Although JA tubers have been explored for inulin extraction and biofuels production, there is little concern on its stalk (JAS). In this article, the pretreatment of JAS by alkaline hydrogen peroxide was optimized using the response surface methodology to improve sugars yield and reduce chemicals usage. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis were applied to characterize the structures of the pretreated JAS to evaluate the effectiveness of the pretreatment...
December 2016: Bioresource Technology
Chokchai Kittiwongwattana, Chitti Thawai
A bacterium designated as strain roo10T was isolated from roots of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus). Cells are Gram-stain-negative and non-flagellated rods. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that it was a member of the genus Pseudoxanthomonas, and its close relatives included Pseudoxanthomonas kalamensis JA40T (97.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Pseudoxanthomonas sangjuensis 5GH38-5T (97.7 %) and Pseudoxanthomonas daejeonensis TR6-08T (97.1 %). Growth of strain roo10T occurred at pH ranging from 7 to 9...
August 30, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Lingling Li, Tianyun Shao, Hui Yang, Manxia Chen, Xiumei Gao, Xiaohua Long, Hongbo Shao, Zhaopu Liu, Zed Rengel
The changes in content of endogenous hormones in stolons and tubers of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) regulate tuber growth, but the specific knowledge about the importance of balance among the endogenous hormones is lacking. Two varieties of Jerusalem artichoke (NY-1 and QY-2) were tested for the endogenous zeatin (ZT), auxins (IAA), gibberellins (GA3) and abscisic acid (ABA) in regulating sugar and dry matter accumulation in tubers. The dry matter content and sugar accumulation in tubers were correlated positively with endogenous ZT and negatively with GA3 content and GA3/ABA and IAA/ABA content ratios...
July 18, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Tianyun Shao, Lingling Li, Yawen Wu, Manxia Chen, Xiaohua Long, Hongbo Shao, Zhaopu Liu, Zed Rengel
Salinity is one of the most serious environmental stresses limiting agricultural production. Production of Jerusalem artichoke on saline land is strategically important for using saline land resources. The interaction between plant hormones and salinity stress in governing Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) growth is unclear. Jerusalem artichoke (variety Nanyu-1) was grown under variable salinity stress in the field, and a role of endogenous hormones [zeatin (ZT), auxins (IAA), gibberellins (GA3) and abscisic acid (ABA)] in regulating sugar and dry matter accumulation in tubers was characterized...
October 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Li Niu, Chen Manxia, Gao Xiumei, Long Xiaohua, Shao Hongbo, Liu Zhaopu, Rengel Zed
Agriculture is an important source of greenhouse gases, but can also be a significant sink. Nitrogen fertilization is effective in increasing agricultural production and carbon storage. We explored the effects of different rates of nitrogen fertilization on biomass, carbon density, and carbon sequestration in fields under the cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke as well as in soil in a coastal saline zone for two years. Five nitrogen fertilization rates were tested (in guream(-2)): 4 (N1), 8 (N2), 12 (N3), 16 (N4), and 0 (control, CK)...
October 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
L I Prokudina, A A Osmolovskii, M A Egorova, D V Malakhova, A I Netrusov, E A Tsavkelova
The ability of micromycetes Trichoderma viride and Aspergillus terreus to decompose the cellulose-containing substrates was studied. Office paper and cardboard, as well as a paper mixture, were found to be the most hydrolyzable. The cellulolytic activity of T. viride was 2-3 times higher than that of A. terreus; the highest values of 0.80 and 0.73 U/mLwere obtained from office paper and the paper mixture, respectively. The micromycete cultivation conditions (composition of culture medium, sucrose cosubstrate addition, seeding method) and the conditions of the fungus biomass treatment for its subsequent bioconversion into biogas by anaerobic microbial communities were optimized...
March 2016: Prikladnaia Biokhimiia i Mikrobiologiia
Zhiqiang Wang, Seung Hwan Hwang, Sun Youb Lee, Soon Sung Lim
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Jerusalem artichoke has inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase and decreases fasting serum glucose levels, which may be related to its fructan content. The biological activity of fructan can be influenced by the degree of polymerization. Thus, in this study, the inhibitory effects of original and fermented purple Jerusalem artichoke (PJA) on α-glucosidase were compared in vitro. Additionally, the anti-diabetes effect of Lactobacillus plantarum-fermented PJA (LJA) was studied in a non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus animal model (C57BIKsJ db/db)...
June 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
Nabil Mohie Abdel-Hamid, Ahmed Wahid, Maiiada Hassan Nazmy, Marwa Abdel-Moniem Eisa
BACKGROUND: Complementary and alternative medicine has been highly appreciated as a supportive regimen for classical treatment strategies. Here we offer a nutrition-based adjuvant therapy for liver fibrosis, a major risk factor for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the possible hepatoprotective effects of Jerusalem artichoke tubers (JAT) in combination with interferon and ribavirin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve groups of rats were administered JAT, interferon and ribavirin either separately or in combination from day one of CCL4 administration until the end of the study...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Marcin Barszcz, Marcin Taciak, Jacek Skomiał
The study aimed at determining the effect of two types of prebiotics and a multispecies probiotic on microbiota activity and composition, as well as mucosal immunity in the large intestine of young pigs. In total 48 piglets were divided into 6 groups (n = 8), which received from day 10 of life probiotic-unsupplemented (PU) or probiotic-supplemented (PS) diets. Probiotics were added at 0.5 g/kg diet and contained: Lactococcus lactis, Carnobacterium divergens, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
August 2016: Archives of Animal Nutrition
Da Wang, Fu-Li Li, Shi-An Wang
BACKGROUND: The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important eukaryotic workhorse in traditional and modern biotechnology. At present, only a few S. cerevisiae strains have been extensively used as engineering hosts. Recently, an astonishing genotypic and phenotypic diversity of S. cerevisiae was disclosed in natural populations. We suppose that some natural strains can be recruited as superior host candidates in bioengineering. This study engineered a natural S. cerevisiae strain with advantages in inulin utilization to produce ethanol from inulin resources by consolidated bioprocess...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Younho Song, Seung Gon Wi, Ho Myeong Kim, Hyeun-Jong Bae
Jerusalem artichoke (JA) is recognized as a suitable candidate biomass crop for bioethanol production because it has a rapid growth rate and high biomass productivity. In this study, hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid (HPAC) pretreatment was used to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis and to effectively remove the lignin of JA. With optimized enzyme doses, synergy was observed from the combination of three different enzymes (RUT-C30, pectinase, and xylanase) which provided a conversion rate was approximately 30% higher than the rate with from treatment with RUT-C30 alone...
August 2016: Bioresource Technology
Zhihua Yao, Jiqiang Guo, Wenzhu Tang, Zhen Sun, Yingmin Hou, Xianzhen Li
A novel inulin-degrading bacterium was isolated from a soil sample collected on Jerusalem artichoke roots. It is a Gram-positive, aerobic, motile and central endospore-forming straight rod, and exhibits phenotypic properties being consistent with its classification in the genus Paenibacillus. The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, C16:0 and anteiso-C17:0. This strain represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus on the basis of phenotypic data together with phylogenetic analysis, and it is here designated as LX16 and deposited in China centre for type collection, China (= CCTCC 2015256)...
May 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Qing Wang, Jingwen Qiu, Yang Li, Fei Shen
In order to explore the possibility of Jerusalem artichoke stalk for bioenergy conversion, we analyzed the main composition of whole stalk, pitch, and core of the stalk. Meanwhile, these parts were pretreated with different NaOH concentrations at 121 degrees C. Afterwards, enzymatic hydrolysis was performed to evaluate the pretreatment efficiency. Jerusalem artichoke stalk was characterized by relatively high lignin content (32.0%) compared with traditional crop stalks. The total carbohydrate content was close to that of crop stalks, but with higher cellulose content (40...
October 2015: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Meng Li, Jun Wang, Yuezhou Yang, Guanghui Xie
Jerusalem artichoke (JA) has been known as a potential nonfood feedstock for biofuels. Based on systems analysis of total 59 accessions, both soluble sugar and ash could positively affect biomass digestibility after dilute sodium hydroxide pretreatment (A). In this study, one representative accession (HEN-3) was used to illustrate its enzymatic digestibility with pretreatments of ultrasonic-assisted dilute sodium hydroxide (B), alkaline peroxide (C), and ultrasonic-assisted alkaline peroxide (D). Pretreatment D exhibited the highest hexose release rate (79...
May 2016: Bioresource Technology
Chunquan Ma, Dong Zhou, Haitao Wang, Dongming Han, Yang Wang, Xiufeng Yan
BACKGROUND: Plant cell suspension cultures have emerged as apotential source of secondary metabolites for food additives and pharmaceuticals. In this study inulin accumulation and degree of polymerization (DP) of the treated cells in the same medium were investigated after treatment with six types of elicitors. RESULTS: An in vitro cell suspension culture of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) was optimized through adding extra nitrogen source. According to the growth kinetics, a maximum biomass of 5...
February 25, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Ning Zhu, Jiawen Liu, Jinshui Yang, Yujian Lin, Yi Yang, Lei Ji, Meng Li, Hongli Yuan
BACKGROUND: The genome of Schizophyllum commune encodes a diverse repertoire of degradative enzymes for plant cell wall breakdown. Recent comparative genomics study suggests that this wood decayer likely has a mode of biodegradation distinct from the well-established white-rot/brown-rot models. However, much about the extracellular enzyme system secreted by S. commune during lignocellulose deconstruction remains unknown and the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, extracellular proteins of S...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Hui Yang, Jinxiang Hu, Xiaohua Long, Zhaopu Liu, Zed Rengel
The interaction between roots and bacterial communities in halophytic species is poorly understood. Here, we used Jerusalem artichoke cultivar Nanyu 1 (NY-1) to characterise root distribution patterns and determine diversity and abundance of bacteria in the rhizosphere soil under variable salinity. Root growth was not inhibited within the salinity range 1.2 to 1.9 g salt/kg, but roots were mainly confined to 0-20 cm soil layer vertically and 0-30 cm horizontally from the plant centre. Root concentrations of K(+), Na(+), Mg(2+) and particularly Ca(2+) were relatively high under salinity stress...
2016: Scientific Reports
Darko Dimitrovski, Elena Velickova, Maja Dimitrovska, Tomaz Langerholc, Eleonora Winkelhausen
A probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum PCS26 was used to ferment Jerusalem artichoke juice. Growth kinetics of the bacterial strain was followed during juice fermentation both in flask and in laboratory fermentor. Jerusalem artichoke showed to be an excellent source of nutrients for L. plantarum PCS26 growth. The culture grew very well reaching more than 10(10) cfu/ml in just 12 h. The pH changed from the initial 6.5 to 4.6 at the end of fermentation. The culture hydrolyzed fructooligosaccharides present in the Jerusalem artichoke juice, yielding fructose which was presumably consumed along with the malic acid as energy and carbon source...
January 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Giselle M A Martínez-Noël, Guillermo A A Dosio, Andrea F Puebla, Ester M Insani, Jorge A Tognetti
Grain filling in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) mainly depends on actual photosynthesis, being the contribution of stored reserves in stems (sucrose, hexoses, and starch) rather low. Drought periods during grain filling often reduce yield. Increasing the capacity of stem to store reserves could help to increase grain filling and yield stability in dry years. Fructans improve water uptake in soils at low water potential, and allow the storage of large amount of assimilates per unit tissue volume that can be readily remobilized to grains...
2015: Frontiers in Plant Science
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