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Jerusalem artichokes

Xiaolin Liu, Xiangyue Li, Yan Li, Runzhi Li, Zhihong Xie
The Jerusalem artichoke (JA; <i>Helianthus tuberosus</i>), known to be tolerant to salt-alkaline soil conditions, has been cultivated for many years in the Yellow River delta, Shandong Province coastal zone, in China. The aim of our study was to isolate nitrogen-fixing bacteria colonizing the rhizosphere of JA and characterize other plant growth promotion properties. The ultimate goal was to identify isolates that could be used as inoculant benefiting an economic crop, in particular for improving wheat growth production in the Yellow River delta...
November 14, 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Xiaoyan Yuan, Qianxu Yang
A method of ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed for the simultaneous quantification of 11 sesquiterpene lactones in 11 Jerusalem artichoke leaf samples harvested in a number of areas at different periods. The optimal chromatographic conditions were achieved on a ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18 column (3.0×150 mm, 1.8 microns) with linear gradient elution of methanol and water in 8 min. Quantitative analysis was carried out under selective ion monitoring mode...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
Xingang Zhou, Jianhui Zhang, Danmei Gao, Huan Gao, Meiyu Guo, Li Li, Mengliang Zhao, Fengzhi Wu
Understanding soil microbial communities in agroecosystems has the potential to contribute to the improvement of agricultural productivity and sustainability. Effects of conversion from long-term wheat plantation to Jerusalem artichoke (JA) plantation on soil fungal communities were determined by amplicon sequencing of total fungal ITS regions. Quantitative PCR and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were also used to analyze total fungal and Trichoderma spp. ITS regions and Fusarium spp. Ef1α genes...
January 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
M Mahfuza Khatun, Chen-Guang Liu, Xin-Qing Zhao, Wen-Jie Yuan, Feng-Wu Bai
Ethanol fermentation from Jerusalem artichoke tubers was performed at elevated temperatures by the consolidated bioprocessing strategy using Saccharomyces cerevisiae MK01 expressing inulinase through cell surface display. No significant difference was observed in yeast growth when temperature was controlled at 38 and 40 °C, respectively, but inulinase activity with yeast cells was substantially enhanced at 40 °C. As a result, enzymatic hydrolysis of inulin was facilitated and ethanol production was improved with 89...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Yun Joo Jung, Byung Oh Kim, Jong Hwan Kwak, Suhkneung Pyo
The interaction between macrophages and adipocytes is known to aggravate inflammation of the adipose tissue, leading to decreased insulin sensitivity. Hence, attenuation of the inflammatory paracrine loop between macrophages and adipocytes is deemed essential to ameliorate insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus type 2. Methyl 2-(4'-methoxy-4'-oxobutanamide) benzoate (compound 1), a newly isolated compound from Jerusalem srtichoke (JA), has not been biologically characterized yet. Here, we investigated whether JA-derived compound 1 attenuates the inflammatory cycle between RAW 264...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Can Cao, Li Zhang, Jian Gao, Hong Xu, Feng Xue, Weiwei Huang, Yan Li
R,R-2,3-butanediol (R,R-2,3-BD) was produced by Paenibacillus polymyxa ZJ-9, which was capable of utilizing inulin without previous hydrolysis. The Jerusalem artichoke pomace (JAP) derived from the conversion of Jerusalem artichoke powder into inulin extract, which was usually used for biorefinery by submerged fermentation (SMF), was utilized in solid state fermentation (SSF) to produce R,R-2,3-BD. In this study, the fermentation parameters of SSF were optimized and determined in flasks. A novel bioreactor was designed and assembled for the laboratory scale-up of SSF, with a maximum yield of R,R-2,3-BD (67...
December 10, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
T Mornkham, P P Wangsomnuk, X C Mo, F O Francisco, L Z Gao, H Kurzweil
Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is a perennial tuberous plant and a traditional inulin-rich crop in Thailand. It has become the most important source of inulin and has great potential for use in chemical and food industries. In this study, expressed sequence tag (EST)-based simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed from 40,362 Jerusalem artichoke ESTs retrieved from the NCBI database. Among 23,691 non-redundant identified ESTs, 1949 SSR motifs harboring 2 to 6 nucleotides with varied repeat motifs were discovered from 1676 assembled sequences...
October 24, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Kai Li, Jin-Cheng Qin, Chen-Guang Liu, Feng-Wu Bai
Jerusalem artichoke (JA) is a potential energy crop for biorefinery due to its unique agronomic traits such as resistance to environmental stresses and high biomass yield in marginal lands. Although JA tubers have been explored for inulin extraction and biofuels production, there is little concern on its stalk (JAS). In this article, the pretreatment of JAS by alkaline hydrogen peroxide was optimized using the response surface methodology to improve sugars yield and reduce chemicals usage. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis were applied to characterize the structures of the pretreated JAS to evaluate the effectiveness of the pretreatment...
December 2016: Bioresource Technology
Chokchai Kittiwongwattana, Chitti Thawai
A bacterium designated as strain roo10T was isolated from roots of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus). Cells were Gram-stain-negative and non-motile rods. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that it represented a member of the genus Pseudoxanthomonas, and its close relatives included Pseudoxanthomonas kalamensis JA40T (97.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Pseudoxanthomonas sangjuensis 5GH38-5T (97.7 %) and Pseudoxanthomonas daejeonensis TR6-08T (97.1 %). Growth of roo10T occurred at pH 7-9...
December 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Lingling Li, Tianyun Shao, Hui Yang, Manxia Chen, Xiumei Gao, Xiaohua Long, Hongbo Shao, Zhaopu Liu, Zed Rengel
The changes in content of endogenous hormones in stolons and tubers of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) regulate tuber growth, but the specific knowledge about the importance of balance among the endogenous hormones is lacking. Two varieties of Jerusalem artichoke (NY-1 and QY-2) were tested for the endogenous zeatin (ZT), auxins (IAA), gibberellins (GA3) and abscisic acid (ABA) in regulating sugar and dry matter accumulation in tubers. The dry matter content and sugar accumulation in tubers were correlated positively with endogenous ZT and negatively with GA3 content and GA3/ABA and IAA/ABA content ratios...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Tianyun Shao, Lingling Li, Yawen Wu, Manxia Chen, Xiaohua Long, Hongbo Shao, Zhaopu Liu, Zed Rengel
Salinity is one of the most serious environmental stresses limiting agricultural production. Production of Jerusalem artichoke on saline land is strategically important for using saline land resources. The interaction between plant hormones and salinity stress in governing Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) growth is unclear. Jerusalem artichoke (variety Nanyu-1) was grown under variable salinity stress in the field, and a role of endogenous hormones [zeatin (ZT), auxins (IAA), gibberellins (GA3) and abscisic acid (ABA)] in regulating sugar and dry matter accumulation in tubers was characterized...
October 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Li Niu, Chen Manxia, Gao Xiumei, Long Xiaohua, Shao Hongbo, Liu Zhaopu, Rengel Zed
Agriculture is an important source of greenhouse gases, but can also be a significant sink. Nitrogen fertilization is effective in increasing agricultural production and carbon storage. We explored the effects of different rates of nitrogen fertilization on biomass, carbon density, and carbon sequestration in fields under the cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke as well as in soil in a coastal saline zone for two years. Five nitrogen fertilization rates were tested (in guream(-2)): 4 (N1), 8 (N2), 12 (N3), 16 (N4), and 0 (control, CK)...
October 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
L I Prokudina, A A Osmolovskii, M A Egorova, D V Malakhova, A I Netrusov, E A Tsavkelova
The ability of micromycetes Trichoderma viride and Aspergillus terreus to decompose the cellulose-containing substrates was studied. Office paper and cardboard, as well as a paper mixture, were found to be the most hydrolyzable. The cellulolytic activity of T. viride was 2-3 times higher than that of A. terreus; the highest values of 0.80 and 0.73 U/mLwere obtained from office paper and the paper mixture, respectively. The micromycete cultivation conditions (composition of culture medium, sucrose cosubstrate addition, seeding method) and the conditions of the fungus biomass treatment for its subsequent bioconversion into biogas by anaerobic microbial communities were optimized...
March 2016: Prikladnaia Biokhimiia i Mikrobiologiia
Zhiqiang Wang, Seung Hwan Hwang, Sun Youb Lee, Soon Sung Lim
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Jerusalem artichoke has inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase and decreases fasting serum glucose levels, which may be related to its fructan content. The biological activity of fructan can be influenced by the degree of polymerization. Thus, in this study, the inhibitory effects of original and fermented purple Jerusalem artichoke (PJA) on α-glucosidase were compared in vitro. Additionally, the anti-diabetes effect of Lactobacillus plantarum-fermented PJA (LJA) was studied in a non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus animal model (C57BIKsJ db/db)...
June 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
Nabil Mohie Abdel-Hamid, Ahmed Wahid, Maiiada Hassan Nazmy, Marwa Abdel-Moniem Eisa
BACKGROUND: Complementary and alternative medicine has been highly appreciated as a supportive regimen for classical treatment strategies. Here we offer a nutrition-based adjuvant therapy for liver fibrosis, a major risk factor for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the possible hepatoprotective effects of Jerusalem artichoke tubers (JAT) in combination with interferon and ribavirin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve groups of rats were administered JAT, interferon and ribavirin either separately or in combination from day one of CCL4 administration until the end of the study...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Marcin Barszcz, Marcin Taciak, Jacek Skomiał
The study aimed at determining the effect of two types of prebiotics and a multispecies probiotic on microbiota activity and composition, as well as mucosal immunity in the large intestine of young pigs. In total 48 piglets were divided into 6 groups (n = 8), which received from day 10 of life probiotic-unsupplemented (PU) or probiotic-supplemented (PS) diets. Probiotics were added at 0.5 g/kg diet and contained: Lactococcus lactis, Carnobacterium divergens, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
August 2016: Archives of Animal Nutrition
Da Wang, Fu-Li Li, Shi-An Wang
BACKGROUND: The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important eukaryotic workhorse in traditional and modern biotechnology. At present, only a few S. cerevisiae strains have been extensively used as engineering hosts. Recently, an astonishing genotypic and phenotypic diversity of S. cerevisiae was disclosed in natural populations. We suppose that some natural strains can be recruited as superior host candidates in bioengineering. This study engineered a natural S. cerevisiae strain with advantages in inulin utilization to produce ethanol from inulin resources by consolidated bioprocess...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Younho Song, Seung Gon Wi, Ho Myeong Kim, Hyeun-Jong Bae
Jerusalem artichoke (JA) is recognized as a suitable candidate biomass crop for bioethanol production because it has a rapid growth rate and high biomass productivity. In this study, hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid (HPAC) pretreatment was used to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis and to effectively remove the lignin of JA. With optimized enzyme doses, synergy was observed from the combination of three different enzymes (RUT-C30, pectinase, and xylanase) which provided a conversion rate was approximately 30% higher than the rate with from treatment with RUT-C30 alone...
August 2016: Bioresource Technology
Zhihua Yao, Jiqiang Guo, Wenzhu Tang, Zhen Sun, Yingmin Hou, Xianzhen Li
A novel inulin-degrading bacterium was isolated from a soil sample collected on Jerusalem artichoke roots. It is a Gram-positive, aerobic, motile and central endospore-forming straight rod, and exhibits phenotypic properties being consistent with its classification in the genus Paenibacillus. The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, C16:0 and anteiso-C17:0. This strain represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus on the basis of phenotypic data together with phylogenetic analysis, and it is here designated as LX16 and deposited in China centre for type collection, China (= CCTCC 2015256)...
May 2016: Microbial Biotechnology
Qing Wang, Jingwen Qiu, Yang Li, Fei Shen
In order to explore the possibility of Jerusalem artichoke stalk for bioenergy conversion, we analyzed the main composition of whole stalk, pitch, and core of the stalk. Meanwhile, these parts were pretreated with different NaOH concentrations at 121 degrees C. Afterwards, enzymatic hydrolysis was performed to evaluate the pretreatment efficiency. Jerusalem artichoke stalk was characterized by relatively high lignin content (32.0%) compared with traditional crop stalks. The total carbohydrate content was close to that of crop stalks, but with higher cellulose content (40...
October 2015: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
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