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Ligia J Dominguez, Mario Barbagallo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Physical and cognitive frailty are interrelated and synergistic syndromes more frequently seen in old age, which represent intermediate stages between aging successfully and disability. Poor nutrition is a fundamental determinant for both conditions, while various dietary components are proposed to prevent and/or improve them. This updated review discusses the possible influence of nutritional factors on cognitive frailty and its potential mediators. RECENT FINDINGS: Oxidative stress, low-grade systemic inflammation, neuroinflammation, and altered autophagy, all associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, are proposed mechanisms to explain the influence of nutrition on cognitive health...
September 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Santosh Kumar Sinha, Shalini Garg, Ramesh Thakur, Vinay Krishna, Karandeep Singh, Mohit Sachan, Amit Goel, Mahamdula Razi, Umeshwar Pandey, Chandra Mohan Varma
BACKGROUND: The optimal timing of surgery in patients with chronic organic severe mitral regurgitation (MR) continues to be debated, especially for those who are asymptomatic. The aim of the study was to determine independent and additive prognostic value of exercise brain natriuretic peptide (eBNP) in patients with severe asymptomatic MR and normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). METHODS: Two hundred twenty-three consecutive patients with severe MR defined by effective regurgitant orifice (ERO) area ≥ 40 mm(2) and/or residual volume ≥ 60 mL, LVEF > 60%, and normal LV end-systolic diameter < 40 mm underwent symptom limited exercise treadmill test (TMT)...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
G Wang, P-P Wang, P-P Meng, C Han, S-W Yue
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion is the major pathophysiological process in stroke and can cause severe and lasting sequel. However, an intensive exercise training can potentially effect a quick and efficient recovery. We used swimming training on rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (CIR) and explore the underlying neuroprotective mechanism(s), including the effects of intensive training on the expression of semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) and its receptor Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) model was established by inserting a thread into the middle cerebral artery of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, and randomly dividing into the control group and training groups for different training intensities...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Holly Blake, Natalia Stanulewicz, Francesca McGill
AIMS: To investigate physical activity levels of nursing and medicine students; examine predictors of physical activity level; and examine the most influential benefits and barriers to exercise. BACKGROUND: Healthcare professionals have low levels of physical activity, which increases their health risk and may influence their health promotion practices with patients. DESIGN: We surveyed 361 nursing (n=193) and medicine (n=168) students studying at a UK medical school...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Mariarosa Rottoli, Sara La Gioia, Barbara Frigeni, Valeria Barcella
Fatigue is one of the most common symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis, affecting almost 80% of patients with 55% of them reporting it as one of the worst symptoms experienced, often independently of the level of disability. Areas covered: We review the main pathophysiological hypothesis, fatigue assessment scales, and its management. Expert commentary: Fatigue pathophysiology is complex and is often influenced by other secondary but relevant factors (e.g. psychological disturbances, musculoskeletal problems, sleep disorders and medication side effects) which may vary over time...
October 11, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
T Mori, C J Crandall, D A Ganz
: We developed a Markov microsimulation model among hypothetical cohorts of community-dwelling US white women without prior major osteoporotic fractures over a lifetime horizon. At ages 75 and 80, adding 1 year of exercise to 5 years of oral bisphosphonate therapy is cost-effective at a conventionally accepted threshold compared with bisphosphonates alone. INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine the cost-effectiveness of the combined strategy of oral bisphosphonate therapy for 5 years and falls prevention exercise for 1 year compared with either strategy in isolation...
October 11, 2016: Osteoporosis International
Ludovico Pedullà, Giampaolo Brichetto, Andrea Tacchino, Claudio Vassallo, Paola Zaratin, Mario Alberto Battaglia, Laura Bonzano, Marco Bove
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), but the definition of the best cognitive rehabilitation tools and features is still an open issue among researchers. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effectiveness of COGNI-TRAcK (a customized application software delivering personalized working memory-based exercises) on cognitively impaired people with MS and to investigate the effects of an adaptive vs. a non-adaptive cognitive training administered by means of COGNI-TRAcK...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Martin Fiala, Veronika Bulková, Libor Škňouřil, Renáta Nevřalová, Ondřej Toman, Jaroslav Januška, Jindřich Špinar, Dan Wichterle
AIMS: Identifying patients who benefit from restored sinus rhythm (SR) would optimize the selection of candidates for ablation of long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation (LSPAF). This prospective study sought to identify the hitherto unknown factors associated with global functional improvement after successful radiofrequency catheter ablation of LSPAF. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 171 LSPAF patients (84% of the total consecutive 203 patients) who were examined in SR 12 months after ablation, the individual per cent change from baseline value in maximum oxygen consumption at exercise test (VO2 max), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and five-dimensional descriptive system (EQ-5D) of quality-of-life questionnaire were classified in quartiles by 0 (worse) to 3 (best) grades...
October 5, 2016: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Rhys Beaudry, Mark J Haykowsky, Aaron Baggish, André La Gerche
Exercise training can have a profound effect on cardiac structure. Recent evidence suggests that the greatest determinants of exercise-induced cardiac remodeling are the intensity, duration, and frequency of training. This also has overlap with athlete fitness. There are many additional factors that are important in determining cardiac remodeling, but while further refinements evolve, the authors argue that the best means of predicting the degree of expected physiologic remodeling is to either quantify training (intensity times total training time) or its by-product (exercise capacity)...
November 2016: Cardiology Clinics
Nick W Bray, Rowan R Smart, Jennifer M Jakobi, Gareth R Jones
Frailty is a clinical geriatric syndrome caused by physiological deficits across multiple systems. These deficits make it challenging to sustain homeostasis required for the demands of everyday life. Exercise is likely the best therapy to reverse frailty status. Literature to date suggests that pre-frail older adults, those with 1-2 deficits on the Cardiovascular Health Study-Frailty Phenotype (CHS-frailty phenotype), should exercise 2-3 times a week, for 45-60 min. Aerobic, resistance, flexibility, and balance training components should be incorporated but resistance and balance activities should be emphasized...
October 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Jann Arends, Patrick Bachmann, Vickie Baracos, Nicole Barthelemy, Hartmut Bertz, Federico Bozzetti, Ken Fearon, Elisabeth Hütterer, Elizabeth Isenring, Stein Kaasa, Zeljko Krznaric, Barry Laird, Maria Larsson, Alessandro Laviano, Stefan Mühlebach, Maurizio Muscaritoli, Line Oldervoll, Paula Ravasco, Tora Solheim, Florian Strasser, Marian de van der Schueren, Jean-Charles Preiser
Cancers are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and the number of new cases is expected to rise significantly over the next decades. At the same time, all types of cancer treatment, such as surgery, radiation therapy, and pharmacological therapies are improving in sophistication, precision and in the power to target specific characteristics of individual cancers. Thus, while many cancers may still not be cured they may be converted to chronic diseases. All of these treatments, however, are impeded or precluded by the frequent development of malnutrition and metabolic derangements in cancer patients, induced by the tumor or by its treatment...
August 6, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Panagiotis Meletakos, Ioannis Tasiopoulos, Ioannis Kostoulas, Panagiotis Ganavias
BACKGROUND: The repeated sprint ability (RSA) has been studied with protocols using distances longer than 20 m per sprint, whereas basketball players cover on average less than 20-meter distance per sprint during match. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to examine the physiological impact of 10 × 15 m RSA test in straight-line (RSASL) or with change of direction (RSACOD), i.e. 10 × (7.5 + 7.5 m)) in young national level basketball players. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Young basketball players (n = 11, age 17...
June 2016: Asian Journal of Sports Medicine
Wai-Yan Liu, Kenneth Meijer, Jeannet M Delbressine, Paul J Willems, Frits M E Franssen, Emiel F M Wouters, Martijn A Spruit
BACKGROUND: The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) in a regular hallway is commonly used to assess functional exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, treadmill walking might provide additional advantages over overground walking, especially if virtual reality and self-paced treadmill walking are combined. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the reproducibility and validity of the 6MWT using the Gait Real-time Analysis Interactive Lab (GRAIL) in patients with COPD and healthy elderly...
2016: PloS One
Ning Wei, Marco Yc Pang, Shamay Sm Ng, Gabriel Yf Ng
AIM: To determine the optimal combination of frequency and exposure time of a whole-body vibration (WBV) training program for improving muscle performance of older people with age-related muscle loss. METHODS: A total of 80 community-dwelling older adults with age-related muscle loss were randomly divided into four equal groups, namely, low-frequency long duration (20 Hz × 720 s), medium-frequency medium duration (40 Hz × 360 s), high-frequency short duration (60 Hz × 240 s) and control (no training) for 12-week WBV training and 12-week follow up...
August 31, 2016: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
Yin Wu, Hayley V MacDonald, Linda S Pescatello
OBJECTIVES: To develop an evaluation instrument to determine to what extent Tai Chi interventions aimed at improving the balance of older adults disclosed their exercise prescription (Ex Rx ) and instructional methods and met best-practice exercise recommendations for balance improvement. DESIGN: Review. SETTING: PubMed, Scopus, and CINAHL databases were searched from their inception until August 22, 2014. PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged 60 and older without debilitating disease...
August 22, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Amit K Pandey, William F Penny, Valmik Bhargava, N Chin Lai, Ronghui Xu, H Kirk Hammond
Methods commonly used clinically to assess cardiac function in patients with heart failure include ejection fraction (EF), exercise treadmill testing (ETT), and symptom evaluation. Although these approaches are useful in evaluating patients with heart failure, there are at times substantial mismatches between individual assessments. For example, ETT results are often discordant with EF, and patients with minimal symptoms sometimes have surprisingly low EFs. To better define the relationship of these methods of assessment, we studied 56 patients with heart failure with reduced EF (HFrEF) who underwent measurement of ETT duration, EF by echocardiography, quantitative symptom evaluation, and LV peak dP/dt (rate of left ventricular pressure development and decline, measured invasively)...
2016: PloS One
Nancy Helou, Andrew Dwyer, Maya Shaha, Anne Zanchi
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of diabetes poses significant challenges to healthcare systems around the world. Diabetes is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is becoming a global health concern because it is a progressive disease associated with major health complications and increased health costs. The treatment goals for DKD are to slow the progression of the renal disease and prevent cardiovascular events. Accordingly, patients are expected to adhere to prescribed treatments and manage a wide range of daily self-care activities...
July 2016: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Paritosh Gogna, Sahil Gaba, Reetadyuti Mukhopadhyay, Rakesh Gupta, Rajesh Rohilla, Lakhpat Yadav
BACKGROUND: Plantar Fasciitis makes up about 15% of patients requiring professional care due to foot symptoms. The treatment methods are numerous with none proving to be clearly superior to others. We aimed to compare two common treatment methods in search of the best treatment. METHOD: All consecutive sportspersons presenting to our OPD with clinical diagnosis of plantar fasciitis underwent treatment consisting of stretching exercises, activity modification, and NSAID's for 6 months...
August 5, 2016: Foot
Nikolaas N Oosterhof, Andrew C Connolly, James V Haxby
Recent years have seen an increase in the popularity of multivariate pattern (MVP) analysis of functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) data, and, to a much lesser extent, magneto- and electro-encephalography (M/EEG) data. We present CoSMoMVPA, a lightweight MVPA (MVP analysis) toolbox implemented in the intersection of the Matlab and GNU Octave languages, that treats both fMRI and M/EEG data as first-class citizens. CoSMoMVPA supports all state-of-the-art MVP analysis techniques, including searchlight analyses, classification, correlations, representational similarity analysis, and the time generalization method...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
Andrea Lisabeth Hartzler, June BlueSpruce, Sheryl L Catz, Jennifer B McClure
BACKGROUND: Smoking remains the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. Therefore, researchers are constantly exploring new ways to promote smoking cessation. Mobile health (mHealth) technologies could be effective cessation tools. Despite the availability of commercial quit-smoking apps, little research to date has examined smokers' preferred treatment intervention components (ie, design features). Honoring these preferences is important for designing programs that are appealing to smokers and may be more likely to be adopted and used...
2016: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
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