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Paediatric malignancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025447/enough-is-not-enough-medical-students-knowledge-of-early-warning-signs-of-childhood-cancer
#1
Jennifer Ann Geel, Brent T Stevenson, Rebecca B Jennings, Lisa E Krook, Sinead J Winnan, Bracha T Katz, T J Fox, Lukhanyo Nyati
BACKGROUND: The reported incidence of childhood cancer in upper-middle-income South Africa (SA) is much lower than in high-income countries, partly due to under-diagnosis and under-reporting. Documented survival rates are disturbingly low, prompting an analysis of potential factors that may be responsible. OBJECTIVES: To determine final-year medical students' level of knowledge of early warning signs of childhood cancer and whether a correlation existed between test scores and participants' age, gender and previous exposure to a person with cancer...
June 30, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992218/long-term-consequences-of-renal-insufficiency-in-children-lessons-learned-from-the-dutch-leric-study
#2
Jaap W Groothoff, Martin Offringa, Martha Grootenhuis, Kitty J Jager
Few data exist on the prospects in adulthood for children on chronic renal replacement therapy (RRT). This article summarizes the results of a comprehensive Dutch long-term follow-up study performed in 2000 and 2010 of patients with RRT onset at age <15 years between 1972 and 1992. After a median of 25.5 RRT years, patients had stayed 23% of RRT time on dialysis. We observed a 30 times greater mortality risk compared with age-matched peers with cardiovascular disease (CVD) as the main cause of death during 1972-2000 and infections during 2000-10...
July 7, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981557/increasing-incidence-and-recurrence-rate-of-venous-thromboembolism-in-paediatric-oncology-patients-in-one-single-centre-over-25-years
#3
C Heleen Van Ommen, Irene L M Klaassen, Anne L van Els, Marianne D van de Wetering, C Heleen Van Ommen
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious complication in paediatric oncology patients. To identify the incidence, risk factors and recurrence rate of VTE in paediatric oncology patients, an observational, retrospective cohort study of all consecutive children (≦18 years) with malignancies, treated at the Emma Children's Hospital Academic Medical Centre between January 1989 and December 2013, was done. A matched case-control study in children with lymphomas was performed, to identify thrombotic risk factors...
October 4, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974986/managing-sarcoma-where-have-we-come-from-and-where-are-we-going
#4
REVIEW
Jenna S Bleloch, Reyna D Ballim, Serah Kimani, Jeannette Parkes, Eugenio Panieri, Tarryn Willmer, Sharon Prince
Sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms of mesenchymal origin. Approximately 80% arise from soft tissue and 20% originate from bone. To date more than 100 sarcoma subtypes have been identified and they vary in molecular characteristics, pathology, clinical presentation and response to treatment. While sarcomas represent <1% of adult cancers, they account for approximately 21% of paediatric malignancies and thus pose some of the greatest risks of mortality and morbidity in children and young adults...
October 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969188/primary-intestinal-lymphangiectasia-waldmann-s-disease-presenting-with-chylous-effusions-in-a-15-year-old
#5
Vijay Surampalli, Srinath Ramaswamy, Deepanjali Surendran, Chanaveerappa Bammigatti, Rathinam Palamalai Swaminathan
Primary Intestinal Lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare disease of unknown aetiology which presents in the paediatric age group with anasarca, diarrhoea, hypoproteinaemia, lymphoedema and chylous effusions. Tuberculosis, filariasis, chest trauma, malignancies and haematological disorders usually contribute to most cases of secondary lymphangiectasia and chylous effusions. We hereby describe a case of PIL presenting with chylous effusions which remained undiagnosed for eight years.
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969145/wilms-tumour-in-an-adult-a-case-report-of-an-unusual-lesion
#6
Goutam Bera, Zeenat Ara, Moumita Sengupta, Uttara Chatterjee, Madhumita Mukhopadhyay
Wilms' tumour, a renal malignancy, primarily occurs in children with a peak incidence between 2 to 5 years age group and accounts for approximately 95% of childhood renal malignancies. Though rarely, it may also occur in adults with an incidence rate of less than 0.2 per million per year. Microscopically, there is no difference between Wilms' tumour of paediatric and adult age groups. But the prognosis for adults with Wilms' tumour is thought to be worse than that for children possibly due to more aggressive clinical course in case of adult Wilms' tumour...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910997/paediatric-nuclear-medicine-imaging
#7
Lorenzo Biassoni, Marina Easty
Background: Nuclear medicine imaging explores tissue viability and function by using radiotracers that are taken up at cellular level with different mechanism. This imaging technique can also be used to assess blood flow and transit through tubular organs. Nuclear medicine imaging has been used in paediatrics for decades and this field is continuously evolving. Sources of data: The data presented comes from clinical experience and some milestone papers on the subject...
September 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901936/advances-in-paediatric-urology
#8
REVIEW
David A Diamond, Ivy H Y Chan, Andrew J A Holland, Michael P Kurtz, Caleb Nelson, Carlos R Estrada, Stuart Bauer, Paul K H Tam
Paediatric urological surgery is often required for managing congenital and acquired disorders of the genitourinary system. In this Series paper, we highlight advances in the surgical management of six paediatric urological disorders. The management of vesicoureteral reflux is evolving, with advocacy ranging from a less interventional assessment and antimicrobial prophylaxis to surgery including endoscopic injection of a bulking agent and minimally invasive ureteric reimplantation. Evidence supports early orchidopexy to improve fertility and reduce malignancy in boys with undescended testes...
September 9, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900474/malignant-extra-adrenal-pelvic-paraganglioma-in-a-paediatric-patient
#9
Gabriel Cao, Julian Mendez, Daniel Navacchia
The extra-adrenal paraganglioma is a neoplasm originating in regional structures, uncommon in paediatrics. We report on a case of a 13-year-old patient who began with severe arterial hypertension, tachycardia, dilated cardiomyopathy and elevated levels of catecholamines in the blood and urine. The presence of a retrovesical pelvic mass in contact with the right vaginal dome was determined by imaging studies. A diagnosis of malignant extra-adrenal pelvic paraganglioma with lymph node metastases was reached through biopsy and the surgical resection of subsequent local recurrences...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900469/necrotic-ulcerated-and-bleeding-striae-distensae-following-bevacizumab-in-a-palliative-setting-for-gliobastomatosis-cerebri
#10
Olivia Laugier, Laetitia Padovani, Arnauld Verschuur, Caroline Gaudy-Marqueste, Nicolas André
Glioblastoma cerebri is a rare paediatric malignancy with dismal prognosis [Chappé C, Riffaud L, and Tréguier C et al (2013) Primary gliomatosis cerebri involving gray matter in pediatrics: a distinct entity? A multicenter study of 14 casesChilds Nerv Syst29 565-571 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00381-012-2016-1 PMID: 23306961] and no established standard of care. Here, we report a case of ulcerated and bleeding striae distensae in a teenage girl following palliative treatment with bevacizumab and steroids.
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890157/the-cumulative-burden-of-surviving-childhood-cancer-an-initial-report-from-the-st-jude-lifetime-cohort-study-sjlife
#11
Nickhill Bhakta, Qi Liu, Kirsten K Ness, Malek Baassiri, Hesham Eissa, Frederick Yeo, Wassim Chemaitilly, Matthew J Ehrhardt, Johnnie Bass, Michael W Bishop, Kyla Shelton, Lu Lu, Sujuan Huang, Zhenghong Li, Eric Caron, Jennifer Lanctot, Carrie Howell, Timothy Folse, Vijaya Joshi, Daniel M Green, Daniel A Mulrooney, Gregory T Armstrong, Kevin R Krull, Tara M Brinkman, Raja B Khan, Deo K Srivastava, Melissa M Hudson, Yutaka Yasui, Leslie L Robison
BACKGROUND: Survivors of childhood cancer develop early and severe chronic health conditions (CHCs). A quantitative landscape of morbidity of survivors, however, has not been described. We aimed to describe the cumulative burden of curative cancer therapy in a clinically assessed ageing population of long-term survivors of childhood cancer. METHODS: The St Jude Lifetime Cohort Study (SJLIFE) retrospectively collected data on CHCs in all patients treated for childhood cancer at the St Jude Children's Research Hospital who survived 10 years or longer from initial diagnosis and were 18 years or older as of June 30, 2015...
September 7, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876692/paediatric-splenectomy-the-johannesburg-experience
#12
N Patel, A Nicola, P Bennett, E Mapunda, J Loveland, A Grieve
BACKGROUND: Splenectomy is uncommon in children and data on splenectomies in the South African paediatric population is sparse. A deeper understanding of the demographics, indications, techniques, and postoperative management of patients requiring splenectomy may improve care. METHOD: Patient records for all splenectomies performed in children aged 0 to 16 years at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic (CMJAH) and Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospitals (CHBAH) between 2000 and 2015 were reviewed...
June 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871588/primary-pleuropulmonary-synovial-sarcoma-with-brain-metastases-in-a-paediatric-patient-an-unusual-presentation
#13
Pushpak Chandrakant Chirmade, Sonia Parikh, Asha Anand, Harsha Panchal, Apurva Patel, Sandip Shah
Primary lung neoplasms are rare in children. The most common primary lung malignancies in children are pleuropulmonary blastoma and carcinoid tumour. Synovial sarcoma (SS) accounts for approximately 1% of all childhood malignancies. In absolute terms, the SS of the lungs and pleura are extremely rare and pose a diagnostic difficulty. Soft tissue sarcomas usually have a high potential for metastases, however, metastasis to the brain is rare, even in widely disseminated disease, and it has been described only in 3 case reports previously...
2017: Advances in Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845842/an-adolescent-with-an-asymptomatic-adnexal-cyst-to-worry-or-not-to-worry-medical-versus-surgical-management-options
#14
Vincenzo De Sanctis, Ashraf T Soliman, Heba Elsedfy, Nada A Soliman, Rania Elalaily, Salvatore Di Maio, Alaa Y Ahmed, Giuseppe Millimaggi
Paraovarian cysts or paratubal cysts (PTCs) arise from either the mesothelium or from paramesonephric remnants. These present as either adnexal mass or as an incidental finding. Diagnosis is usually established on ultrasound and it is important to differentiate these from ovarian cysts. Typically PCTs appear as simple cysts by ultrasound and are indistinguishable from ovarian cysts if one does not recognize the extraovarian location. Occasionally, PTCs have internal echoes due to hemorrhage. PTCs are usually asymptomatic and benign...
August 23, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845131/results-of-neuroblastoma-treatment-in-lithuania-a-single-centre-experience
#15
Austėja Juškaitė, Indrė Tamulienė, Jelena Rascon
BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumour in children. This is a very rare disease with heterogeneous biology varying from complete spontaneous regression to a highly aggressive tumour responsible for 15% of malignancy-related death in early childhood. Analyses of survival rates in Europe have shown a considerable difference between Northern/Western and Eastern European countries. Treatment results of NB in Lithuania have never been analyzed. AIM: To assess the survival rate of children with NB according to initial spread of the disease, age at diagnosis, the MYCN amplification, risk group, and treatment period...
2017: Acta medica Lituanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844056/fifteen-minute-consultation-assessment-surveillance-and-management-of-hemihypertrophy
#16
Catherine Mark, Caroline Hart, Anthony McCarthy, Andrew Thompson
This article aims to provide a structured and concise guide for the general paediatrician managing a child with hemihypertrophy. Hemihypertrophy is a relatively uncommon condition. The significance is that a proportion of those affected are at risk of developing malignancies in childhood. For these children regular surveillance is required. We have outlined how one might assess and investigate a child presenting with hemihypertrophy. We have also formulated a practicable surveillance strategy which is in line with the current Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (RCPCH) guideline 'Wilms' tumour surveillance in at-risk children'...
August 26, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Education and Practice Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833375/clear-cell-sarcomas-of-kidney-are-characterized-by-bcor-gene-abnormalities-including-exon-15-internal-tandem-duplications-and-bcor-ccnb3-gene-fusion
#17
Meng Kang Wong, Cedric Chuan Young Ng, Chik Hong Kuick, Sze Jet Aw, Vikneswari Rajasegaran, Jing Quan Lim, Jain Sudhanshi, Eva Loh, Minzhi Yin, Jing Ma, Zhongde Zhang, Prasad Iyer, Amos Hong Pheng Loh, Derrick Wen Quan Lian, Shi Wang, Shaun Giap Hean Goh, Tse Hui Lim, Alvin Soon Tiong Lim, Tony Ng, Angela Goytain, Alwin Hwai Liang Loh, Puay Hoon Tan, Bin Tean Teh, Kenneth Tou En Chang
AIMS: Clear cell sarcoma of kidney (CCSK) is a rare paediatric renal malignant tumour. The majority of CCSKs have internal tandem duplications (ITD) of the BCOR gene while a minority has the YWHAE-NUTM2 gene fusion. A third 'double-negative' (DN) category comprises CCSKs with neither BCOR ITD nor YWHAE-NUTM2 fusion. The aim of this study was to characterize 11 histologically diagnosed CCSKs immunohistochemically (with CCND1, BCOR and CCNB3 stains), and genetically. METHODS AND RESULTS: By next-generation sequencing, 10 cases (90...
August 18, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830898/primary-gastric-burkitt-lymphoma-a-rare-cause-of-life-threatening-haematemesis
#18
Fares Ayoub, Justin J Forde, Niraj Patel, Merry Markham
Lymphomas are the second most common gastric malignancy following gastric adenocarcinoma. The majority of gastric lymphomas are either mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas or diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. Primary gastric Burkitt lymphoma is a subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and represents an aggressive and rare malignancy with only a small number of cases reported worldwide. Clinical and radiological presentation is non-specific and mimics other gastric lymphomas. Diagnosis is established with pathological evaluation...
August 22, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827272/radiation-dose-from-common-radiological-investigations-and-cumulative-exposure-in-children-with-cystic-fibrosis-an-observational-study-from-a-single-uk-centre
#19
Rebecca Ward, William D Carroll, Paula Cunningham, Sheng-Ang Ho, Mary Jones, Warren Lenney, David Thompson, Francis J Gilchrist
OBJECTIVES: Cumulative radiation exposure is associated with increased risk of malignancy. This is important in cystic fibrosis (CF) as frequent imaging is required to monitor disease progression and diagnose complications. Previous estimates of cumulative radiation are outdated as the imaging was performed on older equipment likely to deliver higher radiation. Our objectives were to determine the radiation dose delivered to children during common radiological investigations using modern equipment and to identify the number of such investigations performed in a cohort of children with CF to calculate their cumulative radiation exposure...
August 21, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821995/expression-of-the-pol-gene-of-human-endogenous-retroviruses-herv-k-and-w-in-leukemia-patients
#20
Massimiliano Bergallo, Paola Montanari, Katia Mareschi, Chiara Merlino, Massimo Berger, Ilaria Bini, Valentina Daprà, Ilaria Galliano, Franca Fagioli
The human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are a family of endogenous retroviruses that integrated into the germ cell DNA of primates over 30 million years ago. HERV expression seems impaired in several diseases, ranging from autoimmune to neoplastic disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the overall endogenous retroviral transcription profile in bone marrow (BM) samples. A total of 30 paediatric high-risk leukaemia patients (lymphoid and myeloid malignancies) were tested for HERVs virus gene expression...
August 18, 2017: Archives of Virology
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