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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530336/-noninvasive-brain-stimulation-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Doron Todder, Nimrod Grisaru, Zeev Kaplan
Noninvasive brain stimulation is a growing field of treatment for many neuropsychiatric problems. In this review, several of the more common brain stimulation devices are presented. Specifically, we will review Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), Alternating Current Stimulation (ACS), Infrared Stimulation, Electroencephalography Neurofeedback (EEG-NF) and functional Magnetic Resonance Imagining Neurofeedback (fMRI-NF). We will outline some of the properties of these devices including the mechanism, side effect profile, using sham for research and major future developments...
December 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530228/generic-decoding-of-seen-and-imagined-objects-using-hierarchical-visual-features
#2
Tomoyasu Horikawa, Yukiyasu Kamitani
Object recognition is a key function in both human and machine vision. While brain decoding of seen and imagined objects has been achieved, the prediction is limited to training examples. We present a decoding approach for arbitrary objects using the machine vision principle that an object category is represented by a set of features rendered invariant through hierarchical processing. We show that visual features, including those derived from a deep convolutional neural network, can be predicted from fMRI patterns, and that greater accuracy is achieved for low-/high-level features with lower-/higher-level visual areas, respectively...
May 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529877/the-dynamics-of-functional-connectivity-in-neocortical-focal-epilepsy
#3
Mangor Pedersen, Amir Omidvarnia, Evan K Curwood, Jennifer M Walz, Genevieve Rayner, Graeme D Jackson
Focal epilepsy is characterised by paroxysmal events, reflecting changes in underlying local brain networks. To capture brain network activity at the maximal temporal resolution of the acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, we have previously developed a novel analysis framework called Dynamic Regional Phase Synchrony (DRePS). DRePS measures instantaneous mean phase coherence within neighbourhoods of brain voxels. We use it here to examine how the dynamics of the functional connections of regional brain networks are altered in neocortical focal epilepsy...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529874/shared-and-disorder-specific-task-positive-and-default-mode-network-dysfunctions-during-sustained-attention-in-paediatric-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#4
Luke J Norman, Christina O Carlisi, Anastasia Christakou, Ana Cubillo, Clodagh M Murphy, Kaylita Chantiluke, Andrew Simmons, Vincent Giampietro, Michael Brammer, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia
Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and obsessive/compulsive disorder (OCD) share problems with sustained attention, and are proposed to share deficits in switching between default mode and task positive networks. The aim of this study was to investigate shared and disorder-specific brain activation abnormalities during sustained attention in the two disorders. Twenty boys with ADHD, 20 boys with OCD and 20 age-matched healthy controls aged between 12 and 18 years completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) version of a parametrically modulated sustained attention task with a progressively increasing sustained attention load...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529472/a-comparative-study-of-average-linked-mastoid-and-rest-references-for-erp-components-acquired-during-fmri
#5
Ping Yang, Chenggui Fan, Min Wang, Ling Li
In simultaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, average reference (AR), and digitally linked mastoid (LM) are popular re-referencing techniques in event-related potential (ERP) analyses. However, they may introduce their own physiological signals and alter the EEG/ERP outcome. A reference electrode standardization technique (REST) that calculated a reference point at infinity was proposed to solve this problem. To confirm the advantage of REST in ERP analyses of synchronous EEG-fMRI studies, we compared the reference effect of AR, LM, and REST on task-related ERP results of a working memory task during an fMRI scan...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528847/independent-contributions-of-fmri-familiarity-and-novelty-effects-to-recognition-memory-and-their-stability-across-the-adult-lifespan
#6
Marianne de Chastelaine, Julia T Mattson, Tracy H Wang, Brian E Donley, Michael D Rugg
The impact of age on the neural correlates of familiarity-driven recognition memory has received relatively little attention. Here, the relationships between age, the neural correlates of familiarity, and memory performance were investigated using an associative recognition test in young, middle-aged and older participants. Test items comprised studied, rearranged (items studied on different trials) and new word pairs. fMRI 'familiarity effects' were operationalized as greater activity for studied test pairs incorrectly identified as 'rearranged' than for correctly rejected new pairs...
May 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528846/the-multi-level-impact-of-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-on-central-auditory-processing
#7
Eddie Wong, Bin Yang, Lida Du, Wai Hong Ho, Condon Lau, Ya Ke, Ying Shing Chan, Wing Ho Yung, Ed X Wu
During hypoxia, the tissues do not obtain adequate oxygen. Chronic hypoxia can lead to many health problems. A relatively common cause of chronic hypoxia is sleep apnea. Sleep apnea is a sleep breathing disorder that affects 3 to 7% of the population. During sleep, the patient's breathing starts and stops. This can lead to hypertension, attention deficits, and hearing disorders. In this study, we apply an established chronic intermittent hypoxemia (CIH) model of sleep apnea to study its impact on auditory processing...
May 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528773/apoe-moderates-compensatory-recruitment-of-neuronal-resources-during-working-memory-processing-in-healthy-older-adults
#8
Elisa Scheller, Jessica Peter, Lena V Schumacher, Jacob Lahr, Irina Mader, Christoph P Kaller, Stefan Klöppel
The APOE ε4 allele increases the risk for sporadic Alzheimer's disease and modifies brain activation patterns of numerous cognitive domains. We assessed cognitively intact older adults with a letter n-back task to determine if previously observed increases in ε4 carriers' working-memory-related brain activation are compensatory such that they serve to maintain working memory function. Using multiple regression models, we identified interactions of APOE variant and age in bilateral hippocampus independently from task performance: ε4 carriers only showed a decrease in activation with increasing age, suggesting high sensitivity of fMRI data for detecting changes in Alzheimer's disease-relevant brain areas before cognitive decline...
April 26, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528203/changes-in-resting-state-functional-brain-connectivity-and-withdrawal-symptoms-are-associated-with-acute-electronic-cigarette-use
#9
Andréa L Hobkirk, Travis T Nichols, Jonathan Foulds, Jessica M Yingst, Susan Veldheer, Shari Hrabovsky, John Richie, Thomas Eissenberg, Stephen J Wilson
Resting state functional brain connectivity (rsFC) may be an important neuromarker of smoking behavior. Prior research has shown, among cigarette smokers, that nicotine administration alters rsFC within frontal and parietal cortices involved in executive control, as well as striatal regions that drive reward processing. These changes in rsFC have been associated with reductions in withdrawal symptom severity. We currently have a limited understanding of how rsFC is affected by the use of electronic cigarettes (ecigs), an increasingly popular class of products, the members of which deliver nicotine with varying effectiveness...
May 17, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527789/neural-processes-underlying-cultural-differences-in-cognitive-persistence
#10
Eva H Telzer, Yang Qu, Lynda C Lin
Self-improvement motivation, which occurs when individuals seek to improve upon their competence by gaining new knowledge and improving upon their skills, is critical for cognitive, social, and educational adjustment. While many studies have delineated the neural mechanisms supporting extrinsic motivation induced by monetary rewards, less work has examined the neural processes that support intrinsically motivated behaviors, such as self-improvement motivation. Because cultural groups traditionally vary in terms of their self-improvement motivation, we examined cultural differences in the behavioral and neural processes underlying motivated behaviors during cognitive persistence in the absence of extrinsic rewards...
May 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527694/voluntary-wheel-running-ameliorates-depression-like-behaviors-and-brain-blood-oxygen-level-dependent-signals-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-mice
#11
Peng Huang, Zhaoyang Dong, Weiliang Huang, Chuying Zhou, Weichao Zhong, Peiqian Hu, Ge Wen, Xuegang Sun, Heyu Hua, Huihui Cao, Lei Gao, Zhiping Lv
BACKGROUND: Physical exercise has been long recognized for its therapeutic effects on depressive disorders, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the study, we investigated whether the physical exercise by voluntary wheel running (VWR) alters depression-like behaviors and its impact on brain blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in mice. METHODS: Adult male C57BL/6 mice were assigned to one of the following groups; (1) no exercise control (noEx), housed in a standard cage; (2) exercise (Ex), 2hours/day in a running wheel apparatus; (3) chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), which was imitating adult stress; and (4) CUMS+Ex...
May 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527316/effects-of-contextual-relevance-on-pragmatic-inference-during-conversation-an-fmri-study
#12
Wangshu Feng, Yue Wu, Catherine Jan, Hongbo Yu, Xiaoming Jiang, Xiaolin Zhou
Contextual relevance, which is vital for understanding conversational implicatures (CI), engages both the frontal-temporal language and theory-of-mind networks. Here we investigate how contextual relevance affects CI processing and regulates the connectivity between CI-processing-related brain regions. Participants listened to dialogues in which the level of contextual relevance to dialogue-final utterance (reply) was manipulated. This utterance was either direct, indirect but relevant, irrelevant with contextual hint, or irrelevant with no contextual hint...
May 17, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526931/reduced-amygdala-reactivity-and-impaired-working-memory-during-dissociation-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#13
Annegret Krause-Utz, Dorina Winter, Friederike Schriner, Chui-De Chiu, Stefanie Lis, Philip Spinhoven, Martin Bohus, Christian Schmahl, Bernet M Elzinga
Affective hyper-reactivity and impaired cognitive control of emotional material are core features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). A high percentage of individuals with BPD experience stress-related dissociation, including emotional numbing and memory disruptions. So far little is known about how dissociation influences the neural processing of emotional material in the context of a working memory task in BPD. We aimed to investigate whole-brain activity and amygdala functional connectivity (FC) during an Emotional Working Memory Task (EWMT) after dissociation induction in un-medicated BPD patients compared to healthy controls (HC)...
May 19, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523232/male-to-female-gender-dysphoria-gender-specific-differences-in-resting-state-networks
#14
Benjamin Clemens, Jessica Junger, Katharina Pauly, Josef Neulen, Christiane Neuschaefer-Rube, Dirk Frölich, Gianluca Mingoia, Birgit Derntl, Ute Habel
INTRODUCTION: Recent research found gender-related differences in resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies examining the differences in rs-FC between men, women, and individuals who report a discrepancy between their anatomical sex and their gender identity, i.e. gender dysphoria (GD). METHODS: To address this important issue, we present the first fMRI study systematically investigating the differences in typical resting-state networks (RSNs) and hormonal treatment effects in 26 male-to-female GD individuals (MtFs) compared with 19 men and 20 women...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523217/relation-between-patterns-of-intrinsic-network-connectivity-cognitive-functioning-and-symptom-presentation-in-trauma-exposed-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#15
Melissa Parlar, Maria Densmore, Geoffrey B Hall, Paul A Frewen, Ruth A Lanius, Margaret C McKinnon
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated resting fMRI connectivity within the default mode (DMN), salience (SN), and central executive (CEN) networks in relation to neurocognitive performance and symptom severity in trauma-exposed patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). METHOD: Group independent component analysis was conducted among patients with MDD (n = 21), examining DMN, SN, and CEN connectivity in relation to neurocognitive performance and symptom severity...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522971/altered-functional-connectivity-of-the-basal-nucleus-of-meynert-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#16
Hui Li, Xiuqin Jia, Zhigang Qi, Xiang Fan, Tian Ma, Hong Ni, Chiang-Shan R Li, Kuncheng Li
Background: Cholinergic dysfunction plays an important role in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The basal nucleus of Meynert (BNM) provides the main source of cortical cholinergic innervation. Previous studies have characterized structural changes of the cholinergic basal forebrain in individuals at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, whether and how functional connectivity of the BNM (BNM-FC) is altered in MCI remains unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify alterations in BNM-FC in individuals with MCI as compared to healthy controls (HCs), and to examine the relationship between these alterations with neuropsychological measures in individuals with MCI...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521241/cognitive-avoidance-and-aversive-cues-related-to-tobacco-in-male-smokers
#17
Ji Sun Hong, Sun Mi Kim, Hye Yeon Jung, Kyoung Doo Kang, Kyung Joon Min, Doug Hyun Han
BACKGROUND: Treatment using aversive conditioning has been suggested for smoking cessation. The efficacy of this method is thought to be associated with cognitive avoidance. We compare differences in avoidance traits and patterns of associated brain activation in response to cues that induce cravings versus aversion between smokers and non-smokers. METHODS: Fifteen smokers and fifteen non-smokers completed cue reactivity tasks while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine brain responses to craving-inducing cues (Cr) and aversion-inducing cues (Av)...
May 11, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521147/a-pilot-study-of-differential-brain-activation-to-suicidal-means-and-dna-methylation-of-cacna1c-gene-in-suicidal-attempt-patients
#18
Young Jong Kim, Hae Jeong Park, Geon-Ho Jahng, Sang Min Lee, Won Sub Kang, Su Kang Kim, Tae Kim, Ah Rang Cho, Jin Kyung Park
Suicide is a serious public health problem. In this study, we investigated functional brain changes to novel visual stimuli of suicidal means, DNA methylation status, and the relationship between the two markers. 14 suicidal attempt patients (SAs) and 22 healthy controls were included. Pictures of facial expressions and suicidal means were shown to subjects during fMRI scanning. 11 CpG sites within transcription factor binding site of CACNA1C gene were selected. In knives (K) vs. natural landscape (NL) condition, left middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann's area, BA 6 and 46) and left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 9) were shown to be significantly higher brain activation in the SAs than the controls (p<0...
May 13, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516827/bold-activation-of-the-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-in-patients-with-late-life-depression-and-comparison-participants
#19
Akshya Vasudev, Michael J Firbank, Joseph S Gati, Emily Ionson, Alan J Thomas
The ventromedial prefrontal cortex's (vMPFC) role in regulating emotions in late life depression (LLD) remains unclarified. We assessed vMPFC activation in an emotional valence blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic neuroimaging (fMRI) task and related the findings to extent of white matter hyperintensities (WMH). Sixteen participants with mild to moderate LLD were compared to 14 similar aged comparison participants. Participants in the scanner viewed words matched for length and arousal, indicated the perceived valence by pressing one of the three buttons i...
May 18, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516336/changes-of-functional-connectivity-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-women-with-primary-dysmenorrhea
#20
Peng Liu, Yanfei Liu, Geliang Wang, Ru Li, Ying Wei, Yingying Fan, Yang Yu, Demao Deng, Wei Qin
Primary dysmenorrhea (PDM), a common gynecological disorder, is associated with structural and functional alterations in several subregions of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). However, systematic functional connectivity of the ACC subregions in PDM has not been clarified. In this study, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from forty-eight PDM patients and thirty-eight matched female healthy controls to investigate the functional connectivity of ACC subregions in PDM. Compared to healthy controls, PDM patients exhibited increased connectivity between the caudal ACC (cACC) and primary somatosensory cortex (SI), between the perigenual ACC (pACC) and caudate, and between the subgenual ACC (sACC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)...
May 17, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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