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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241047/hippocampal-ca3-activation-alleviates-fmri-bold-responses-in-the-rat-prefrontal-cortex-induced-by-electrical-vta-stimulation
#1
Thomas Scherf, Frank Angenstein
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to identify brain- wide networks that are activated by electrical stimulation of either the ventral tegmental area (VTA) or hippocampal CA3 region. Stimulation of either one of these regions caused significant BOLD responses in common structures, such as the septum and left and right hippocampus, but also in unique structures, such as the medial prefrontal cortex region/anterior cingulum region (mPFC/ACC) and striatum, which were only activated during VTA stimulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240295/measuring-speaker-listener-neural-coupling-with-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#2
Yichuan Liu, Elise A Piazza, Erez Simony, Patricia A Shewokis, Banu Onaral, Uri Hasson, Hasan Ayaz
The present study investigates brain-to-brain coupling, defined as inter-subject correlations in the hemodynamic response, during natural verbal communication. We used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to record brain activity of 3 speakers telling stories and 15 listeners comprehending audio recordings of these stories. Listeners' brain activity was significantly correlated with speakers' with a delay. This between-brain correlation disappeared when verbal communication failed. We further compared the fNIRS and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) recordings of listeners comprehending the same story and found a significant relationship between the fNIRS oxygenated-hemoglobin concentration changes and the fMRI BOLD in brain areas associated with speech comprehension...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239676/intact-ventral-striatal-prediction-error-signaling-in-medicated-schizophrenia-patients
#3
Adam J Culbreth, Andrew Westbrook, Ziye Xu, Deanna M Barch, James A Waltz
BACKGROUND: Midbrain dopaminergic neurons code a computational quantity, reward prediction error (RPE), which has been causally related to learning. Recently, this insight has been leveraged to link phenomenological and biological levels of understanding in psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. However, results have been mixed, possibly due to small sample sizes. Here we present results from two studies with relatively large Ns to assess VS RPE in schizophrenia. METHODS: In the current study we analyzed data from two independent studies, involving a total of 87 chronic medicated schizophrenia patients and 61 controls...
September 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239522/disrupted-neural-activity-patterns-to-novelty-and-effort-in-young-adult-apoe-e4-carriers-performing-a-subsequent-memory-task
#4
Simon Evans, Nicholas G Dowell, Naji Tabet, Sarah L King, Samuel B Hutton, Jennifer M Rusted
INTRODUCTION: The APOE e4 allele has been linked to poorer cognitive aging and enhanced dementia risk. Previous imaging studies have used subsequent memory paradigms to probe hippocampal function in e4 carriers across the age range, and evidence suggests a pattern of hippocampal overactivation in young adult e4 carriers. METHODS: In this study, we employed a word-based subsequent memory task under fMRI; pupillometry data were also acquired as an index of cognitive effort...
February 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239517/cortical-interactions-during-the-resolution-of-information-processing-demands-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#5
Kristina Denisova, Guihu Zhao, Zhishun Wang, Suzanne Goh, Yuankai Huo, Bradley S Peterson
INTRODUCTION: Our flexible and adaptive interactions with the environment are guided by our individual representation of the physical world, estimated through sensation and evaluation of available information against prior knowledge. When linking sensory evidence with higher-level expectations for action, the central nervous system (CNS) in typically developing (TD) individuals relies in part on distributed and interacting cortical regions to communicate neuronal signals flexibly across the brain...
February 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239498/cognitive-pragmatic-rehabilitation-program-in-schizophrenia-a-single-case-fmri-study
#6
Ilaria Gabbatore, Francesca M Bosco, Elisabetta Geda, Luigi Gastaldo, Sergio Duca, Tommaso Costa, Bruno G Bara, Katiuscia Sacco
Introduction. The present study was intended to evaluate the effects of a rehabilitative training, the Cognitive Pragmatic Treatment (CPT), aimed at improving communicative-pragmatic abilities and the related cognitive components, on the cerebral modifications of a single case patient diagnosed with schizophrenia. Methods. The patient underwent two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions, before and after the treatment. In order to assess brain changes, we calculated the Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuation (ALFF) index of the resting-state fMRI signal, which is interpreted as reflecting the intensity of the spontaneous regional activity of the brain...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238938/estimating-direction-in-brain-behavior-interactions-proactive-and-reactive-brain-states-in-driving
#7
Javier O Garcia, Justin Brooks, Scott Kerick, Tony Johnson, Tim R Mullen, Jean M Vettel
Conventional neuroimaging analyses have ascribed function to particular brain regions, exploiting the power of the subtraction technique in fMRI and event-related potential analyses in EEG. Moving beyond this convention, many researchers have begun exploring network-based neurodynamics and coordination between brain regions as a function of behavioral parameters or environmental statistics; however, most approaches average evoked activity across the experimental session to study task-dependent networks. Here, we examined on-going oscillatory activity as measured with EEG and use a methodology to estimate directionality in brain-behavior interactions...
February 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238294/within-subject-neural-reactivity-to-reward-and-threat-is-inverted-in-young-adolescents
#8
M E Thomason, H A Marusak
BACKGROUND: As children mature, they become increasingly independent and less reliant on caregiver support. Changes in brain systems are likely to stimulate and guide this process. One mechanistic hypothesis suggests that changes in neural systems that process reward and threat support the increase in exploratory behavior observed in the transition to adolescence. This study examines the basic tenets of this hypothesis by performing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during well-established reward and threat processing tasks in 40 children and adolescents, aged 9-15 years...
February 27, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237612/effects-of-chondroitin-sulfate-on-brain-response-to-painful-stimulation-in-knee-osteoarthritis-patients-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#9
Jordi Monfort, Jesús Pujol, Oren Contreras-Rodríguez, Jone Llorente-Onaindia, Marina López-Solà, Laura Blanco-Hinojo, Josep Vergés, Marta Herrero, Laura Sánchez, Hector Ortiz, Francisco Montañés, Joan Deus, Pere Benito
INTRODUCTION: Knee osteoarthritis is causing pain and functional disability. One of the inherent problems with efficacy assessment of pain medication was the lack of objective pain measurements, but functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has emerged as a useful means to objectify brain response to painful stimulation. We have investigated the effect of chondroitin sulfate (CS) on brain response to knee painful stimulation in patients with knee osteoarthritis using fMRI. METHODS: Twenty-two patients received CS (800mg/day) and 27 patients placebo, and were assessed at baseline and after 4 months of treatment...
February 22, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237426/the-role-of-the-human-visual-cortex-in-assessment-of-the-long-term-durability-of-retinal-gene-therapy-in-follow-on-rpe65-clinical-trial-patients
#10
Manzar Ashtari, Elena S Nikonova, Kathleen A Marshall, Gloria J Young, Puya Aravand, Wei Pan, Gui-Shuang Ying, Aimee E Willett, Mani Mahmoudian, Albert M Maguire, Jean Bennett
PURPOSE: Gene therapy (GT) has offered immense hope to individuals who are visually impaired because of RPE65 mutations. Although GT has shown great success in clinical trials enrolling these individuals, evidence for stability and durability of this treatment over time is still unknown. Herein we explored the value of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as an objective measure to assess independently the longevity of retinal GT. DESIGN: Individuals with RPE65 mutations who underwent GT in their worse-seeing eye in a phase 1 clinical trial received a second subretinal injection in their contralateral eye in a follow-on clinical trial...
February 22, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237296/frontal-subcortical-circuitry-in-social-attachment-and-relationships-a-cross-sectional-fmri-ale-meta-analysis
#11
Shu-Hui Lee, Zachary M Walker, James B Hale, S H Annabel Chen
Researchers have explored the concept of attachment in multiple ways, from animal studies examining imprinting to abnormal attachment in psychopathology. However, until recently, few have considered how neural circuitry develops the effective social bonds that are subsequently replicated in relationships across the lifespan. This current cross-sectional study undertook a fMRI Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analyses to examine the neurocircuitry that governs emotional and behavioural functions critical for building effective social relationships in children and adults...
February 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236751/perirhinal-cortex-tracks-degree-of-recent-as-well-as-cumulative-lifetime-experience-with-object-concepts
#12
Devin Duke, Chris B Martin, Ben Bowles, Ken McRae, Stefan Köhler
Evidence from numerous sources indicates that recognition of the prior occurrence of objects requires computations of perirhinal cortex (PrC) in the medial temporal lobe. Extant research has primarily probed recognition memory based on item exposure in a recent experimental study episode. Outside the laboratory, however, familiarity for objects typically accrues gradually with learning across many different episodic contexts, which can be distributed over a lifetime of experience. It is currently unknown whether PrC also tracks this cumulative lifetime experience with object concepts...
January 31, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236714/neural-correlates-of-graphic-cigarette-warning-labels-predict-smoking-cessation-relapse
#13
Max M Owens, James MacKillop, Joshua C Gray, Brittany E Hawkshead, Cara M Murphy, Lawrence H Sweet
Exposure to graphic warning labels (GWLs) on cigarette packaging has been found to produce heightened activity in brain regions central to emotional processing and higher-order cognitive processes. The current study extends this literature by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate neural activation in response to GWLs and use it to predict relapse in an evidence-based smoking cessation treatment program. Participants were 48 treatment-seeking nicotine-dependent smokers who completed an fMRI paradigm in which they were exposed to GWLs, text-only warning labels (TOLs), and matched control stimuli...
February 17, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236051/functional-connectivity-of-motor-cortical-network-in-patients-with-brachial-plexus-avulsion-injury-after-contralateral-cervical-nerve-transfer-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#14
Aihong Yu, Shufeng Wang, Xiaoguang Cheng, Wei Liang, Rongjie Bai, Yunhao Xue, Wenjun Li
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to assess the functional connectivity of the motor cortical network in patients with brachial plexus avulsion injury (BPAI) after contralateral C7 nerve transfer, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI). METHODS: Twelve patients with total brachial plexus root avulsion underwent RS-fMRI after contralateral C7 nerve transfer. Seventeen healthy volunteers were also included in this fMRI study as controls...
February 24, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235692/abnormal-fear-circuitry-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-controlled-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#15
Andrea E Spencer, Marie-France Marin, Mohammed R Milad, Thomas J Spencer, Olivia E Bogucki, Amanda L Pope, Natalie Plasencia, Brittany Hughes, Edward F Pace-Schott, Maura Fitzgerald, Mai Uchida, Joseph Biederman
We examined whether non-traumatized subjects with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have dysfunctional activation in brain structures mediating fear extinction, possibly explaining the statistical association between ADHD and other disorders characterized by aberrant fear processing such as PTSD. Medication naïve, non-traumatized young adult subjects with (N=27) and without (N=20) ADHD underwent a 2-day fear conditioning and extinction protocol in a 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner...
February 10, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235422/crying-spells-triggered-by-thumb-index-rubbing-after-thalamic-stroke-a-case-report
#16
R Bassani, C Rosazza, L Ghirardin, V Caldiera, E Banco, C Casati, L Tesio
BACKGROUND: Pathologic crying, devoid of any emotional counterpart, is known to occur as a consequence of various brain stem, cortical hemispheric and cerebellar lesions or, quite exceptionally, of "dacrystic" epilepsy. The case reported here suggests that thalamic lesions may also cause crying spells, under the special circumstances described below. CASE PRESENTATION: After a mild left thalamic stroke a caucasian 77 years old man presented with crying spells with no emotional counterpart, triggered by thumb-index rubbing of his right hand...
February 24, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231395/functional-connectivity-in-amygdalar-sensory-pre-motor-networks-at-rest-new-evidence-from-the-human-connectome-project
#17
Nicola Toschi, Andrea Duggento, Luca Passamonti
The word "e-motion" derives from the Latin word "ex-moveo" which literally means "moving away from something / somebody". Emotions are thus fundamental to prime action and goal-directed behavior with obvious implications for individual's survival. However, the brain mechanisms underlying the interactions between emotional and motor cortical systems remain poorly understood. A recent diffusion tensor imaging study in humans has reported the existence of direct anatomical connections between the amygdala and sensory/(pre)motor cortices, corroborating an initial observation in animal research...
February 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230070/an-fmri-compatible-force-measurement-system-for-the-evaluation-of-the-neural-correlates-of-step-initiation
#18
Andrea Cristina de Lima-Pardini, Raymundo Machado de Azevedo Neto, Daniel Boari Coelho, Catarina Costa Boffino, Sukhwinder S Shergill, Carolina de Oliveira Souza, Rachael Brant, Egberto Reis Barbosa, Ellison Fernando Cardoso, Luis Augusto Teixeira, Rajal G Cohen, Fay Bahling Horak, Edson Amaro
Knowledge of brain correlates of postural control is limited by the technical difficulties in performing controlled experiments with currently available neuroimaging methods. Here we present a system that allows the measurement of anticipatory postural adjustment of human legs to be synchronized with the acquisition of functional magnetic resonance imaging data. The device is composed of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) compatible force sensors able to measure the level of force applied by both feet. We tested the device in a group of healthy young subjects and a group of elderly subjects with Parkinson's disease using an event-related functional MRI (fMRI) experiment design...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229931/modulation-of-the-sensorimotor-system-by-sustained-manual-pressure-stimulation
#19
Pavel Hok, Jaroslav Opavský, Miroslav Kutín, Zbyněk Tüdös, Petr Kaňovský, Petr Hluštík
In Vojta physiotherapy, also known as reflex locomotion therapy, prolonged peripheral pressure stimulation induces complex generalized involuntary motor responses and modifies subsequent behavior, but its neurobiological basis remains unknown. We hypothesized that the stimulation would induce sensorimotor activation changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during sequential finger opposition. Thirty healthy volunteers (mean age 24.2) underwent two randomized fMRI sessions involving manual pressure stimulation applied either at the right lateral heel according to Vojta, or at the right lateral ankle (control site)...
February 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229308/eeg-signatures-of-dynamic-functional-network-connectivity-states
#20
E A Allen, E Damaraju, T Eichele, L Wu, V D Calhoun
The human brain operates by dynamically modulating different neural populations to enable goal directed behavior. The synchrony or lack thereof between different brain regions is thought to correspond to observed functional connectivity dynamics in resting state brain imaging data. In a large sample of healthy human adult subjects and utilizing a sliding windowed correlation method on functional imaging data, earlier we demonstrated the presence of seven distinct functional connectivity states/patterns between different brain networks that reliably occur across time and subjects...
February 22, 2017: Brain Topography
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