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Steve Geoffrion, Jane Goncalves, André Marchand, Richard Boyer, Alain Marchand, Marc Corbière, Stéphane Guay
Background: Serious violent acts (e.g. physical violence, robbery, sexual aggression and death threats) are among the most visible and notable examples of workplace violence. Although women are commonly found to be at higher risk for post-traumatic reactions following workplace violence, little is known as regards sex differences concerning the types of post-traumatic reactions and their predictors. Objective: This study aimed to describe sex differences in the post-traumatic reactions of serious violent acts and the predictors of such reactions...
March 14, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Steve Peigneur, Jan Tytgat
Venoms from marine and terrestrial animals (cone snails, scorpions, spiders, snakes, centipedes, cnidarian, etc.) can be seen as an untapped cocktail of biologically active compounds, being increasingly recognized as a new emerging source of peptide-based therapeutics.
March 16, 2018: Toxins
David Williams, Joanne L Fothergill, Benjamin Evans, Jessica Caples, Sam Haldenby, Martin J Walshaw, Michael A Brockhurst, Craig Winstanley, Steve Paterson
Pseudomonas aeruginosa chronic infections of cystic fibrosis (CF) airways are a paradigm for within-host evolution with abundant evidence for rapid evolutionary adaptation and diversification. Recently emerged transmissible strains have spread globally, with the Liverpool Epidemic Strain (LES) the most common strain infecting the UK CF population. Previously we have shown that highly divergent lineages of LES can be found within a single infection, consistent with super-infection among a cross-sectional cohort of patients...
March 16, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Antony T Vincent, Steve J Charette, Jean Barbeau
The Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is found in several habitats, both natural and human-made, and is particularly known for its recurrent presence as a pathogen in the lungs of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis, a genetic disease. Given its clinical importance, several major studies have investigated the genomic adaptation of P. aeruginosa in lungs and its transition as acute infections become chronic. However, our knowledge about the diversity and adaptation of the P. aeruginosa genome to non-clinical environments is still fragmentary, in part due to the lack of accurate reference genomes of strains from the numerous environments colonized by the bacterium...
March 16, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Steve Taylor, Kimberly Eisenstein, Vanessa Gildenstern, Harper Price, Pooja Hingorani, Apurvi Patel, Nathan Page, Smita Bailey, David Carpentieri
Infantile choriocarcinoma (ICC) is a rare, highly malignant form of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Rapid diagnosis and initiation of treatment are paramount in reaching a successful outcome. Patients with these tumors typically present with a triad of anemia, hepatomegaly, and precocious puberty. Cutaneous manifestations of ICC are extraordinarily rare with few documented cases. Here, we describe a male neonate who presented to our Dermatology clinic with a rapidly growing, markedly vascular glabellar mass associated with abnormal laboratory values suggestive of Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon...
January 1, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Brent D Weinberg, Lauren Boreta, Steve Braunstein, Soonmee Cha
Glioblastomas are aggressive brain tumors that frequently recur in the subventricular zone (SVZ) despite maximal treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate imaging patterns of subventricular progression and impact of recurrent subventricular tumor involvement and radiation dose to patient outcome. Retrospective review of 50 patients diagnosed with glioblastoma and treated with surgery, radiation, and concurrent temozolomide from January 2012 to June 2013 was performed. Tumors were classified based on location, size, and cortical and subventricular zone involvement...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Daniel Stow, Fiona E Matthews, Stephen Barclay, Steve Iliffe, Andrew Clegg, Sarah De Biase, Louise Robinson, Barbara Hanratty
Background: recognising that a patient is nearing the end of life is essential, to enable professional carers to discuss prognosis and preferences for end of life care. Objective: investigate whether an electronic frailty index (eFI) generated from routinely collected data, can be used to predict mortality at an individual level. Design: historical prospective case control study. Setting: UK primary care electronic health records...
March 13, 2018: Age and Ageing
Elizabeth A MacDonald, Eric Donovan, Yukitoshi Nishimura, Nathan A Case, D Megan Gillies, Bea Gallardo-Lacourt, William E Archer, Emma L Spanswick, Notanee Bourassa, Martin Connors, Matthew Heavner, Brian Jackel, Burcu Kosar, David J Knudsen, Chris Ratzlaff, Ian Schofield
A glowing ribbon of purple light running east-west in the night sky has recently been observed by citizen scientists. This narrow, subauroral, visible structure, distinct from the traditional auroral oval, was largely undocumented in the scientific literature and little was known about its formation. Amateur photo sequences showed colors distinctly different from common types of aurora and occasionally indicated magnetic field-aligned substructures. Observations from the Swarm satellite as it crossed the arc have revealed an unusual level of electron temperature enhancement and density depletion, along with a strong westward ion flow, indicating that a pronounced subauroral ion drift (SAID) is associated with this structure...
March 2018: Science Advances
Adelaide Tawiah, Steve Cornick, France Moreau, Hayley Gorman, Manish Kumar, Sameer Tiwari, Kris Chadee
MUC2 mucin is a large glycoprotein produced by goblet cells that forms the protective mucus blanket overlying the intestinal epithelium as the first line of innate host defense. High MUC2 production in inflammatory bowel disease and infectious colitis depletes goblet cells and the mucus layer by an unknown mechanism. Here, we analyzed the effect of high MUC2 biosynthesis on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis in goblet cells using a high MUC2-producing human goblet cell line (HT29-H) and a HT29-H clone (HT29-L) silenced for MUC2 expression by lentivirus-mediated shRNA...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Neill J Liptrott, Marco Giardiello, Tom O McDonald, Steve P Rannard, Andrew Owen
BACKGROUND: Recent work has developed solid drug nanoparticles (SDNs) of efavirenz that have been demonstrated, preclinically, improved oral bioavailability and the potential to enable up to a 50% dose reduction, and is currently being studied in a healthy volunteer clinical trial. Other SDN formulations are being studied for parenteral administration, either as intramuscular long-acting formulations, or for direct administration intravenously. The interaction of nanoparticles with the immunological and haematological systems can be a major barrier to successful translation but has been understudied for SDN formulations...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Toby Wise, Matthew J Taylor, Andres Herane-Vives, Antonella Marino Gammazza, Francesco Cappello, David J Lythgoe, Steve Cr Williams, Allan H Young, Anthony J Cleare, Danilo Arnone
BACKGROUND: There is uncertainty as to whether alterations in glutamatergic function in affective disorders differ between unipolar and bipolar disorders and between depressive and euthymic states. Additionally, there are currently no available blood-based markers of central glutamatergic function to support clinical diagnosis and aid brain based investigations. METHODS: In this study, we measured levels of glutamate in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in-vivo using 1H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in medication free unipolar and bipolar patients (n = 29, 20 unipolar and 9 bipolar) experiencing a major depressive episode, in comparison with a group of matched healthy controls (n = 20)...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Qingzhong Li, Hui-Li Xu, Steve Scheiner
HOX (X = Cl, Br, I, and At) can engage in either a H-bond (HB) or halogen bond (XB) with a base like HCN, NH3, and imidazole. While the former is energetically preferred for X=Cl and Br, it is the XB that is more stable for At, with I showing little preference. MgY2 forms a Mg-bond with the O atom of HOX, which grows stronger in the order X= Cl < Br < I < At and Y= F< Cl < Br. When all three molecules are combined together, both the Mg and the H/X bonds are cooperatively strengthened to a large degree...
March 15, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Cho-Rong Lee, Wongeun Lee, Steve K Cho, Sung-Gyoo Park
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) regulate T cell immunity, and this population is a new therapeutic target for immune regulation. A previous study showed that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is involved in controlling MDSC differentiation and immunoregulatory function in vivo. However, the direct effect of TGF-β on MDSCs with various cytokines has not previously been tested. Thus, we examined the effect of various cytokine combinations with TGF-β on MDSCs derived from bone marrow cells. The data show that different cytokine combinations affect the differentiation and immunosuppressive functions of MDSCs in different ways...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Steve Alan Hyman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Wiktor Zierkiewicz, Mariusz Michalczyk, Steve Scheiner
A series of TF4 and ZF5 molecules (T = Si, Ge, Sn and Z = P, As, Sb) were allowed to engage in tetrel and pnicogen bonds, respectively, with NH3 , pyrazine, and HCN. The interaction energies are quite large, approaching 50 kcal mol-1 in some cases. The formation of each complex is accompanied by substantial geometrical deformation of the Lewis acid to accommodate the approaching base. The energy associated with this monomer rearrangement is the largest for the smaller central atoms Si and P, where it exceeds 20 kcal mol-1 ...
March 15, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Hei Ming Lai, Alan King Lun Liu, Harry Ho Man Ng, Marc H Goldfinger, Tsz Wing Chau, John DeFelice, Bension S Tilley, Wai Man Wong, Wutian Wu, Steve M Gentleman
Modern clearing techniques for the three-dimensional (3D) visualisation of neural tissue microstructure have been very effective when used on rodent brain but very few studies have utilised them on human brain material, mainly due to the inherent difficulties in processing post-mortem tissue. Here we develop a tissue clearing solution, OPTIClear, optimised for fresh and archival human brain tissue, including formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material. In light of practical challenges with immunostaining in tissue clearing, we adapt the use of cresyl violet for visualisation of neurons in cleared tissue, with the potential for 3D quantification in regions of interest...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
(no author information available yet)
Andrew McAinsh received his PhD from the University of Cambridge, UK, working in the laboratory of Steve Jackson on DNA damage and repair mechanisms in yeast. He then joined the laboratory of Peter Sorger as a Jane Coffin Childs Fellow to work as a post-doc on kinetochore biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, USA. In 2005, he returned to the UK to establish his independent laboratory at the Marie Curie Research Institute, Surrey, before moving to the University of Warwick in 2009 to co-found the Centre for Mechanochemical Cell Biology (CMCB)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Kathryn Knight
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Steve M M de Castro, Thijs H Geerdink, Sven Macco, Ruben N van Veen, Sebastiaan Jensch, Bart C Vrouenraets
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Irene Tung, Amanda N Noroña, Julia E Morgan, Barbara Caplan, Steve S Lee, Bruce L Baker
Although parenting behavior and friendship quality predict adolescent externalizing behaviors (EBs), individual differences in temperament may differentially affect susceptibility to these factors over time. In a multi-method and multi-informant study of 141 children followed prospectively from toddlerhood to adolescence, we tested the independent and interactive associations of age 3 reactive temperament (e.g., negative emotionality) and age 13 observed parenting (i.e., positive and negative behavior) and friendship (i...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
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