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Thermal Imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430667/investigating-point-to-point-emissivity-variation-of-wounded-tissue
#1
Ellen Keenan, Georgina Gethin, Louisa Flynn, David Watterson, Gerard O'Connor
Infrared cameras are becoming increasingly popular in clinical applications as they allow fast, non-contact temperature measurements. As abnormal heat distribution can indicate illness, infrared cameras have been applied in the prediction, diagnosis and monitoring of conditions (Lahiri, Bagavathiappan, Jayakumar, & Philip, 2012). Current practices, however, often overlook the importance of emissivity when taking thermal measurements. The consensus is that human skin has an emissivity of 0.98 (Soerensen et al...
April 21, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430535/transcranial-focused-ultrasound-a-new-tool-for-non-invasive-neuromodulation
#2
Maria Fini, William J Tyler
Ultrasound (US) is widely known for its utility as a biomedical imaging modality. An abundance of evidence has recently accumulated showing that US is also useful for non-invasively modulating brain circuit activity. Through a series of studies discussed in this short review, it has recently become recognized that transcranial focused ultrasound can exert mechanical (non-thermal) bioeffects on neurons and cells to produce focal changes in the activity of brain circuits. In addition to highlighting scientific breakthroughs and observations that have driven the development of the field of ultrasonic neuromodulation, this study also provides a discussion of mechanisms of action underlying the ability of ultrasound to physically stimulate and modulate brain circuit activity...
April 21, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430477/spatiotemporal-patterns-in-ultraslow-domain-wall-creep-dynamics
#3
Ezequiel E Ferrero, Laura Foini, Thierry Giamarchi, Alejandro B Kolton, Alberto Rosso
In the presence of impurities, ferromagnetic and ferroelectric domain walls slide only above a finite external field. Close to this depinning threshold, they proceed by large and abrupt jumps called avalanches, while, at much smaller fields, these interfaces creep by thermal activation. In this Letter, we develop a novel numerical technique that captures the ultraslow creep regime over huge time scales. We point out the existence of activated events that involve collective reorganizations similar to avalanches, but, at variance with them, display correlated spatiotemporal patterns that resemble the complex sequence of aftershocks observed after a large earthquake...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430215/relationship-of-the-drying-process-of-a-corn-grain-with-the-thermal-emissivity-and-optical-interference-in-the-mid-infrared-range
#4
Carlos Villaseñor-Mora, Francisco J Gantes-Nunez, Arturo Gonzalez-Vega, Victor H Hernandez-Gonzalez
A study of the effect of the thin layer of free water in corn kernels on the emissivity and interference in the mid infrared range was performed. The emissivity was measured through thermal infrared images by direct method for 8 days, allowing observance that the thickness of free water modifies the quantity of emitted energy and emissivity; however, in the first days when the layer of free water is not optically thick the interference caused by the thin film of superficial water averts a correct measurement of the emissivity...
April 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429190/study-on-environmental-indices-and-heat-tolerance-tests-in-hair-sheep
#5
L Seixas, C B de Melo, A M Menezes, A F Ramos, G R Paludo, V Peripolli, C B Tanure, J B G Costa Junior, C McManus
The ability to predict the effects of climatic factors on animals and their adaptability is important for livestock production. The aim of the present study was to analyze whether existing indices are suitable for evaluating heat stress in Santa Ines and Morada Nova sheep, which are locally adapted hair sheep breeds from northeastern Brazil, and if the limits used to classify thermal stress are suitable for these breeds. Therefore, climatic, physiological, and physical parameters, as well as thermographic images, were collected in 26 sheep, 1 1/2 years old, from two genetic groups (Santa Ines 12 males and 4 females; Morada Nov...
April 20, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428638/dynamic-behaviors-of-condensing-clusters-based-on-rayleigh-scattering-experiment
#6
Zhong Lan, Di Wang, Kejian Cao, Quan Xue, Xuehu Ma
Condensation is a common physical process which widely exists in natural phenomena and thermal energy systems. In a condensation process, cluster is considered as the important bridge between vapor body and condensates. However, limited by the minimum imaging dimension of traditional measurements, early experimental studies about initial stages of condensation process are not sufficient. This paper provides a powerful optical platform for the study of dynamic clusters process. Based on the Rayleigh law, optical experiments were firstly introduced to investigate the clusters spatial distribution close to and far from condensation surface...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427665/combined-ultrasonic-and-gamma-irradiation-to-prepare-tio2-pet-g-paac-fabric-composite-for-self-cleaning-application
#7
Mohamed Mohamady Ghobashy
The grafting of polyacrylic acid (PAAc) onto the fabric of Poly(ethyleneterephthalate) (PET) was loaded with TiO2 by a mixture sonication of TiO2 dispersed in AAc dissolved in acetone solvent. Ultrasonic irradiation was utilized as a tool for a good dispersion of TiO2 onto the PET fabric. The grafted PET fabrics with acrylic acid AAc monomer were successfully obtained using gamma-ray induced graft polymerization, the degree of grafting PET-g-PAAc fiber was 105%. The chemical compositions and crystal structure of grafted TiO2@PET-g-PAAc fabrics were characterized by ATR-FTIR and XRD...
July 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427632/ultrasonic-treatment-of-cofe2o4-b2o3-sio2-as-a-new-hybrid-magnetic-composite-nanostructure-and-catalytic-application-in-the-synthesis-of-dihydroquinazolinones
#8
Ali Maleki, Morteza Aghaei, Hamid Reza Hafizi-Atabak, Mohammad Ferdowsi
New hybrid magnetic composite nanostructure are prepared via ultrasonic treatment by glass-ceramic method, characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), element distribution image (EDX mapping), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA)/differential thermal analysis (DTA) and N2 adsorption-desorption by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analyses. Then, the catalytic activity of the prepared CoFe2O4@B2O3-SiO2 nanoparticles was tested in the synthesis of 2-substituted-3-(phenylamino)-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-ones in deep eutectic solvent (DES) based on choline chloride as an eco-friendly and recyclable media...
July 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426071/ca-and-sr-tetrafluoroisophthalates-mechanochemical-synthesis-characterization-and-ab-initio-structure-determination
#9
Abdal-Azim Al-Terkawi, Gudrun Scholz, Ana Guilherme Buzanich, Stefan Reinsch, Franziska Emmerling, Erhard Kemnitz
New fluorinated coordination polymers were prepared mechanochemically by milling the alkaline earth metal hydroxides M(II)(OH)2·xH2O (M(II): Ca, Sr) with tetrafluoroisophthalic acid (H2mBDC-F4). The structures of [{Ca(mBDC-F4)(H2O)2}·H2O] (1) and [{Sr(mBDC-F4)(H2O)2}·H2O] (2) were determined based on ab initio calculations and their powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) data. The compounds are isomorphous and crystallize in the orthorhombic space group P212121. The determined structures were validated by using extended X-ray absorption (EXAFS) data...
April 20, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423951/preparation-characterization-and-dynamical-mechanical-properties-of-dextran-coated-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-dionps
#10
Hatice Kaplan Can, Serap Kavlak, Shahed ParviziKhosroshahi, Ali Güner
Dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (DIONPs) with appropriate surface chemistry exhibit many interesting properties that can be exploited in a variety of biomedical applications such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast enhancement, tissue repair, hyperthermia, drug delivery and in cell separation. This paper reports the experimental detail for preparation, characterization and investigation of thermal and dynamical mechanical characteristics of the dextran-coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles. In our work, DIONPs were prepared in a 1:2 ratio of Fe(II) and Fe(III) salt in the HCl solution with NaOH at given temperature...
April 20, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423891/effective-thermal-inactivation-of-the-spores-of-bacillus-cereus-biofilms-using-microwave
#11
Hyong Seok Park, Jungwoo Yang, Hee Jung Choi, Kyoung Heon Kim
Microwave sterilization was performed to inactivate the spores of biofilms of Bacillus cereus involved in foodborne illness. The sterilization conditions, such as the amount of water biofilms were immersed in, temperature, and treatment time, were optimized after 15 runs based on the Box-Behnken design. The sterilization conditions, such as the amount of water and the operating temperature and treatment time were optimized using statistical analysis based on 15 runs experimental results designed by the Box- Behnken method...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421213/nearest-neighbour-nanocrystal-bonding-dictates-framework-stability-or-collapse-in-colloidal-nanocrystal-frameworks
#12
Teresa E Williams, Daniela Ushizima, Chenhui Zhu, André Anders, Delia J Milliron, Brett A Helms
Block copolymers serve as architecture-directing agents for the assembly of colloidal nanocrystals into a variety of mesoporous solids. Here we report the fundamental order-disorder transition in such assemblies, which yield, on one hand, ordered colloidal nanocrystals frameworks or, alternatively, disordered mesoporous nanocrystal films. Our determination of the order-disorder transition is based on extensive image analysis of films after thermal processing. The number of nearest-nanocrystal neighbours emerges as a critical parameter dictating assembly outcomes, which is in turn determined by the nanocrystal volume fraction (fNC)...
April 19, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420258/lace-up-for-healthy-feet-the-impact-of-shoe-closure-on-plantar-stress-response
#13
Hadi Rahemi, David G Armstrong, Ana Enriquez, Joshua Owl, Talal K Talal, Bijan Najafi
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the impact of shoe closure on plantar thermal stress response (TSR), which is known to be a surrogate of shear stress and skin perfusion. It is aimed to explore potential impact of shoe closure on increasing risk factors associated with plantar ulcers in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). METHODS: Fifteen eligible subjects were enrolled. The left foot was used as a reference and fitted to a self-adjusted and habitual lace-tightening method by each subject...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419327/epilepsy-surgeries-requiring-an-operculoinsular-cortectomy-operative-technique-and-results
#14
Alain Bouthillier, Dang Khoa Nguyen
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy surgeries requiring an operculoinsulectomy pose significant difficulties because the perisylvian area is highly vascular, deep, and functional. OBJECTIVE: To report the operative technique and results of epilepsy surgeries requiring an operculoinsular cortectomy at our institution. METHODS: The data of all consecutive patients who had undergone an epilepsy surgery requiring an operculoinsular cortectomy with a minimum follow-up of 1 yr were reviewed...
April 17, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419284/laser-thermal-ablation-for-metastases-failing-radiosurgery-a-multicentered-retrospective-study
#15
Tafadzwa L Chaunzwa, Di Deng, Eric C Leuthardt, Stephen B Tatter, Alireda M Mohammadi, Gene H Barnett, Veronica L Chiang
BACKGROUND: Radiosurgical failure following stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases can be attributed to tumor regrowth or radiation necrosis. MRI-guided laser thermal ablation (LTA) therapy has emerged as an option for treatment; however, previous literature demonstrates variable results across centers. OBJECTIVE: To assess the outcomes of LTA in the treatment of metastases failing radiosurgery across multiple centers and to determine if any treatment factors are predictive of outcome...
April 13, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417907/a-classification-method-for-seed-viability-assessment-with-infrared-thermography
#16
Sen Men, Lei Yan, Jiaxin Liu, Hua Qian, Qinjuan Luo
This paper presents a viability assessment method for Pisum sativum L. seeds based on the infrared thermography technique. In this work, different artificial treatments were conducted to prepare seeds samples with different viability. Thermal images and visible images were recorded every five minutes during the standard five day germination test. After the test, the root length of each sample was measured, which can be used as the viability index of that seed. Each individual seed area in the visible images was segmented with an edge detection method, and the average temperature of the corresponding area in the infrared images was calculated as the representative temperature for this seed at that time...
April 12, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415519/fabrication-of-thermal-sensitive-folic-acid-based-supramolecular-hybrid-gels-for-injectable-drug-release-gels
#17
Yahui Song, Jianping Gao, Xiaoyang Xu, Huilin Zhao, Ruinan Xue, Jingkuo Zhou, Wei Hong, Haixia Qiu
Thermal sensitive supramolecular hybrid gels for injectable drug release were prepared by adding different amounts of agar into folic acid (FA) gelator. The gelation temperature was modulated in order to form injectable gel with body temperature (37°C). Such kind of folic acid-agar (FAG) hybrid gel makes it possible to use supramolecular gel as injectable drug loaded gels for drug release. FT-IR and UV-vis spectra indicate that agar macromolecules involve in the self-assembly process through intermolecular H-bonding and π-π stacking interactions with FA molecules...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414233/furfural-the-unimolecular-dissociative-photoionization-mechanism-of-the-simplest-furanic-aldehyde
#18
Matthew Winfough, Krisztina Voronova, Giel Muller, Gabrielle Laguisma, Balint Sztaray, Andras Bodi, Giovanni Meloni
The unimolecular dissociation reactions of energy-selected furfural cations have been studied by imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy at the VUV beamline of the Swiss Light Source. In the photon energy range of 10.9 to 14.5 eV, furfural ions decay by numerous fragmentation channels. Modeling the breakdown diagram yielded the 0 K appearance energies of 10.95 ± 0.10 eV, 11.16 eV, and 12.03 eV for the c-C4H3O-CO+ (m/z = 95), c-C4H4O+ (m/z = 68), and c-C3H3+ (m/z = 39) fragment ions, respectively, formed by parallel dissociation channels...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413682/multi-focal-hifu-reduces-cavitation-in-mild-hyperthermia
#19
Vandiver Chaplin, Charles F Caskey
BACKGROUND: Mild-hyperthermia therapy (40-45 °C) with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a technique being considered in a number of different treatments such as thermally activated drug delivery, immune-stimulation, and as a chemotherapy adjuvant. Mechanical damage and loss of cell viability associated with HIFU-induced acoustic cavitation may pose a risk during these treatments or may hinder their success. Here we present a method that achieves mild heating and reduces cavitation by using a multi-focused HIFU beam...
2017: Journal of Therapeutic Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410541/the-influence-of-a-novel-two-dimensional-graphene-like-nanomaterial-on-thermal-stability-and-flammability-of-polystyrene
#20
Keqing Zhou, Rui Gao
Significant improvements in thermal stability and fire resistance properties of polymer materials with nanofillers at low loadings hold tremendous promise for fire safety materials. In this study, a novel two dimensional (2D) graphene-like nanomaterial (VOP) was synthesized by a simple refluxing method and then modified with typical organic surfactants. Subsequently, the novel graphene-like nanomaterials were incorporated into polystyrene (PS) matrix for reducing fire hazards. The SEM and TEM images indicated that the VOP nanosheets were well dispersed throughout the matrix without obvious aggregates, leading to remarkable improvements of thermal stability and fire safety properties...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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