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Laurent Kamel, Michelle Keller-Pearson, Christophe Roux, Jean-Michel Ané
I. II. III. IV. V. References SUMMARY: Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi associate with the vast majority of land plants, providing mutual nutritional benefits and protecting hosts against biotic and abiotic stresses. Significant progress was made recently in our understanding of the genomic organization, the obligate requirements, and the sexual nature of these fungi through the release and subsequent mining of genome sequences. Genomic and genetic approaches also improved our understanding of the signal repertoire used by AM fungi and their plant hosts to recognize each other for the initiation and maintenance of this association...
October 25, 2016: New Phytologist
Wenying Liao, Duncan N L Menge
Symbiotic nitrogen (N) fixation is the major N input to many ecosystems. Although temperate forests are commonly N limited, symbiotic N-fixing trees ("N fixers") are rare and decline in abundance as succession proceeds-a challenging paradox that remains unexplained. Understanding demographic processes that underlie N fixers' rarity and successional decline would provide a proximate answer to the paradox. Do N fixers grow slower, die more frequently, or recruit less in temperate forests? We quantified demographic rates of N-fixing and non-fixing trees across succession using U...
2016: PloS One
Wenjun Shang, Yuefeng Shen, Shilin Gao, Guiwen Feng, Yonghua Feng, Zhigang Wang, Xiaobai Zhang
Chronic kidney disease is becoming a global public health problem, which will usually cause uremia at the end stage of chronic kidney failure. So far, kidney transplant is the most effective and proper therapy for uremia, however, the short supply of matched donor kidney has been a persistent bottleneck for transplantation. HLA matching of HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 loci is very important for the allocation of kidney transplants. In this study, we investigated genotypes of HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 loci based on 1,464 uremia patients and 10,000 unrelated healthy individuals in Henan province of China, and compared the frequency distribution of these HLA alleles and corresponding haplotypes between patient and healthy groups...
2016: PloS One
Maxim Ziatdinov, Artem Maksov, Li Li, Athena S Sefat, Petro Maksymovych, Sergei V Kalinin
Electronic interactions present in material compositions close to the superconducting dome play a key role in the manifestation of high-T c superconductivity. In many correlated electron systems, however, the parent or underdoped states exhibit strongly inhomogeneous electronic landscape at the nanoscale that may be associated with competing, coexisting, or intertwined chemical disorder, strain, magnetic, and structural order parameters. Here we demonstrate an approach based on a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and advanced statistical learning for an automatic separation and extraction of statistically significant electronic behaviors in the spin density wave regime of a lightly (∼1%) gold-doped BaFe2As2...
November 25, 2016: Nanotechnology
Joice Sophia Ponraj, Zai-Quan Xu, Sathish Chander Dhanabalan, Haoran Mu, Yusheng Wang, Jian Yuan, Pengfei Li, Siddharatha Thakur, Mursal Ashrafi, Kenneth Mccoubrey, Yupeng Zhang, Shaojuan Li, Han Zhang, Qiaoliang Bao
Apart from conventional materials, the study of two-dimensional (2D) materials has emerged as a significant field of study for a variety of applications. Graphene-like 2D materials are important elements of potential optoelectronics applications due to their exceptional electronic and optical properties. The processing of these materials towards the realization of devices has been one of the main motivations for the recent development of photonics and optoelectronics. The recent progress in photonic devices based on graphene-like 2D materials, especially topological insulators (TIs) and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) with the methodology level discussions from the viewpoint of state-of-the-art designs in device geometry and materials are detailed in this review...
November 18, 2016: Nanotechnology
Nouha Souayed, Malek Chennoufi, Nadia Ben Frej, Amel Chaabane, Mossadok Ben-Attia, Karim Aouam, Alain Reinberg, Naceur A Boughattas
INTRODUCTION: This study is designed to investigate whether the pharmacokinetics of the antituberculous agent isoniazid (INH) varied according to the circadian dosing-time. METHODS: A total of 168 male mice aged 10 weeks and synchronized for 3 weeks to 12h light and 12h dark were used. A single INH (100mg/kg) dose was administered by intraperitonal (i.p.) route at either of the four different circadian stages (1, 7, 13 and 19h after light onset, HALO). At each circadian stage, blood samples were withdrawn at 0, 0...
October 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Neena Prasad, Karthikeyan Balasubramanian
We report, the enhanced photocatalytic behaviour of Cu doped ZnS micro crystals. ZnS and different concentrations of Cu doped ZnS microcrystals were prepared. X-ray diffraction confirms the crystalline and phase of the particles. Morphology and sizes were studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Recorded optical absorption spectra show a band for around 365nm for pure ZnS, but there is a broad band in the near infrared regime for the Cu-doped ZnS microcrystals which are attributed to the d-d transitions of Cu(2+) ions...
October 17, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Sónia Puga, Patrícia Pereira, Filipa Pinto-Ribeiro, Nelson J O'Driscoll, Erin Mann, Marisa Barata, Pedro Pousão-Ferreira, João Canário, Armando Almeida, Mário Pacheco
The current study aims to shed light on the neurotoxicity of MeHg in fish (white seabream - Diplodus sargus) by the combined assessment of: (i) MeHg toxicokinetics in the brain, (ii) brain morphometry (volume and number of neurons plus glial cells in specific brain regions) and (iii) fish swimming behavior (endpoints associated with the motor performance and the fear/anxiety-like status). Fish were surveyed for all the components after 7 (E7) and 14 (E14) days of dietary exposure to MeHg (8.7μgg(-1)), as well as after a post-exposure period of 28days (PE28)...
October 17, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Zaiddodine Pashandi, Maryam Molakarimi, Reza H Sajedi, Majid Taghdir, Hossein Naderi-Manesh
Mnemiopsin, an EF-hand Ca(2+) binding photoprotein isolated from luminous ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, emits blue light from its chromophore, coelenterazine, which is non-covalently bond in its central hydrophobic core. Previous studies have revealed unique biochemical properties for ctenophore photoproteins such as inactivation by light, but only few have focused on photoinactivation process. To understand the nature of photoinactivation process we have investigated the impact of light alone and in the presence of Ca(2+) ion on the structure of this photoprotein...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Tânia F C V Silva, Petrick A Soares, Diego R Manenti, Amélia Fonseca, Isabel Saraiva, Rui A R Boaventura, Vítor J P Vilar
In this work, an innovative methodology for the treatment of landfill leachates, after aerobic lagooning, is proposed and adjusted at pilot-scale. This methodology involves an aerobic activated sludge biological pre-oxidation (ASBO), a coagulation/sedimentation step (240mgFe(3+)/L, at pH4.2) and a photo-oxidation through a photo-Fenton (PF) reaction (60mg Fe(2+), at pH2.8) combining solar and artificial light. The ASBO process applied to a leachate after aerobic lagooning, with high organic and nitrogen content (1...
October 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Sangil Kwon, Yonghee Park, Junhong Park, Jeongsoo Kim, Kwang-Ho Choi, Jun-Seok Cha
This paper presents the on-road nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions measurements from Euro 6 light-duty diesel vehicles using a portable emissions measurement system on the predesigned test routes in the metropolitan area of Seoul, Korea. Six diesel vehicles were tested and the NOx emissions results were analyzed according to the driving routes, driving conditions, data analysis methods, and ambient temperatures. Total NOx emissions for route 1, which has higher driving severity than route 2, differed by -4-60% from those for route 2...
October 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
D Bolton, M Mayer-Pinto, G F Clark, K A Dafforn, W A Brassil, A Becker, E L Johnston
Urban land and seascapes are increasingly exposed to artificial lighting at night (ALAN), which is a significant source of light pollution. A broad range of ecological effects are associated with ALAN, but the changes to ecological processes remain largely unstudied. Predation is a key ecological process that structures assemblages and responds to natural cycles of light and dark. We investigated the effect of ALAN on fish predatory behaviour, and sessile invertebrate prey assemblages. Over 21days fish and sessile assemblages were exposed to 3 light treatments (Day, Night and ALAN)...
October 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Kit D Longden
Color is famous for not existing in the external world: our brains create the perception of color from the spatial and temporal patterns of the wavelength and intensity of light. For an intangible quality, we have detailed knowledge of its origins and consequences. Much is known about the organization and evolution of the first phases of color processing, the filtering of light in the eye and processing in the retina, and about the final phases, the roles of color in behavior and natural selection. To understand how color processing in the central brain has evolved, we need well-defined pathways or circuitry where we can gauge how color contributes to the computations involved in specific behaviors...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Eric J Warrant
As animals move through their environments they are subjected to an endless barrage of sensory signals. Of these, some will be of utmost importance, such as the tell-tale aroma of a potential mate, the distinctive appearance of a vital food source or the unmistakable sound of an approaching predator. Others will be less important. Indeed some will not be important at all. There are, for instance, wide realms of the sensory world that remain entirely undetected, simply because an animal lacks the physiological capacity to detect and analyse the signals that characterise this realm...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Damon A Clark, Jonathan B Demb
Sensory systems use receptors to extract information from the environment and neural circuits to perform subsequent computations. These computations may be described as algorithms composed of sequential mathematical operations. Comparing these operations across taxa reveals how different neural circuits have evolved to solve the same problem, even when using different mechanisms to implement the underlying math. In this review, we compare how insect and mammalian neural circuits have solved the problem of motion estimation, focusing on the fruit fly Drosophila and the mouse retina...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Carissa P Jones, Troy M Apple, Bryce J Burton, Melinda E Sanders, Kelli L Boyd, Kenneth J Salleng
In humans, phyllodes tumors of the breast are rare fibroepithelial tumors that are further characterized as benign, borderline, or malignant according to their histomorphologic features. Phyllodes tumors are poorly responsive to treatment other than excision. NHP have a much lower frequency of mammary neoplasia than do humans, and none of the lesions reported previously in NHP are consistent with phyllodes tumors. Here we present the case of a mammary tumor in a northern greater galago (Otolemur garnettii) that was histologically characteristic of a malignant phyllodes tumor...
2016: Comparative Medicine
Melissa A Wren-Dail, Robert T Dauchy, Tara G Ooms, Kate C Baker, David E Blask, Steven M Hill, Lynell M Dupepe, Rudolf P Bohm
Environmental enrichment (EE) gives laboratory animals opportunities to engage in species-specific behaviors. However, the effects of EE devices on normal physiology and scientific outcomes must be evaluated. We hypothesized that the spectral transmittance (color) of light to which rats are exposed when inside colored enrichment devices (CED) affects the circadian rhythms of various plasma markers. Pair-housed male Crl:SD rats were maintained in ventilated racks under a 12:12-h light:dark environment (265.0 lx; lights on, 0600); room lighting intensity and schedule remained constant throughout the study...
2016: Comparative Medicine
Robert T Dauchy, Melissa A Wren-Dail, Aaron E Hoffman, John P Hanifin, Benjamin Warfield, George C Brainard, Steven M Hill, Victoria P Belancio, Erin M Dauchy, David E Blask
Regular cycles of exposure to light and dark control pineal melatonin production and temporally coordinate circadian rhythms of metabolism and physiology in mammals. Previously we demonstrated that the peak circadian amplitude of nocturnal blood melatonin levels of rats were more than 6-fold higher after exposure to cool white fluorescent (CWF) light through blue-tinted (compared with clear) rodent cages. Here, we evaluated the effects of light-phase exposure of rats to white light-emitting diodes (LED), which emit light rich in the blue-appearing portion of the visible spectrum (465-485 nm), compared with standard broadspectrum CWF light, on melatonin levels during the subsequent dark phase and on plasma measures of metabolism and physiology...
2016: Comparative Medicine
Christophe von Garnier, Fabian Blank, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser, Joachim R Goethert, Patrick G Holt, Philip A Stumbles, Deborah H Strickland
The pulmonary parenchymal and mucosal microenvironments are constantly exposed to the external environment and thus require continuous surveillance to maintain steady-state immunological homeostasis. This is achieved by a mobile network of pulmonary dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages (mø) that constantly sample and process microenvironmental antigens into signals that can initiate or dampen inflammation, either locally or after onward migration to draining lymph nodes. The constant steady-state turnover of pulmonary DC and mø requires replenishment from bone-marrow precursors, however the nature of the pulmonary precursor cell remains unclear, although recent studies suggest that subsets of pulmonary DC may derive from circulating monocytic precursors...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Ramaz Khomeriki, Levan Chotorlishvili, Igor Tralle, Jamal Berakdar
We uncover and identify the regime for a magnetically and ferroelectrically controllable negative refraction of light traversing multiferroic, oxide-based metastructure consisting of alternating nanoscopic ferroelectric (SrTiO2) and ferromagnetic (Y3Fe2(FeO4)3, YIG) layers. We perform analytical and numerical simulations based on discretized, coupled equations for the self-consistent Maxwell/ferroelectric/ferromagnetic dynamics and obtain a biquadratic relation for the refractive index. Various scenarios of ordinary and negative refraction in different frequency ranges are analyzed and quantified by simple analytical formula that are confirmed by full-fledge numerical simulations...
October 25, 2016: Nano Letters
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