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Jeannette Attiger, Alois Boos, Karl Klisch
Binucleate trophoblast giant cells (TGCs) are one characteristic feature of the ruminant placenta. In cows, the frequency of TGCs remains constant for most of the duration of pregnancy. As TGCs are depleted by their fusion with uterine epithelial cells, they need to be constantly formed. It is still unclear whether they develop from stem cells within the trophectoderm or whether they can arise from any uninucleate trophoblast cell (UTC). Within the latter, generally accepted theory, a basally located uninucleate cell (BUC) without contact to the feto-maternal interface would represent a transient cell between a UTC and a TGC...
June 20, 2018: Cells, Tissues, Organs
David A Korasick, Ashley C Campbell, Shelbi L Christgen, Srinivas Chakravarthy, Tommi A White, Donald F Becker, John J Tanner
Homooligomerization of proline utilization A (PutA) bifunctional flavoenzymes is intimately tied to catalytic function and substrate channeling. PutA from Bradyrhizobium japonicum (BjPutA) is unique among PutAs in that it forms a tetramer in solution. Curiously, a dimeric BjPutA hot spot mutant was previously shown to display wild-type catalytic activity despite lacking the tetrameric structure. These observations raised the question of what is the active oligomeric state of BjPutA. Herein, we investigate the factors that contribute to tetramerization of BjPutA in vitro...
June 19, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Francisco Garrido, María Pacheco, Rocío Vargas-Martínez, Roberto Velasco-García, Inmaculada Jorge, Horacio Serrano, Francisco Portillo, Jesús Vázquez, María Ángeles Pajares
Protein-protein interactions are an important mechanism for the regulation of enzyme function allowing metabolite channeling, crosstalk between pathways or the introduction of post-translational modifications. Therefore, a number of high-throughput studies have been carried out to shed light on the protein networks established under different pathophysiological settings. Surprisingly, this type of information is quite limited for enzymes of intermediary metabolism such as betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase, despite its high hepatic abundancy and its role in homocysteine metabolism...
2018: PloS One
Fabon Dzogang, Stafford Lightman, Nello Cristianini
The psychological state of a person is characterised by cognitive and emotional variables which can be inferred by psychometric methods. Using the word lists from the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count, designed to infer a range of psychological states from the word usage of a person, we studied temporal changes in the average expression of psychological traits in the general population. We sampled the contents of Twitter in the United Kingdom at hourly intervals for a period of four years, revealing a strong diurnal rhythm in most of the psychometric variables, and finding that two independent factors can explain 85% of the variance across their 24-h profiles...
2018: PloS One
Amir Ali Amiri Moghadam, Seyedhamidreza Alaie, Suborna Deb Nath, Mahdie Aghasizade Shaarbaf, James K Min, Simon Dunham, Bobak Mosadegh
Pneumatically actuated soft robots address many challenges with interfacing with delicate objects, but these actuators/robots are still bulky and require many hours to fabricate, limiting their widespread use. This article reports a novel design and manufacturing method for ultrathin soft robots and actuators (∼70 μm) using a laser-cutting machine that cuts/welds sheets of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) from a 2D CAD drawing. Using this method, five different soft actuators (e.g., bending, rotating, contracting) are designed, fabricated, and characterized with both planar and nonplanar motions...
June 20, 2018: Soft Robotics
Molly M Henschel, Billie-Jo Grant
While the media continue to report incidents of school employee sexual misconduct, few empirical studies focus on this issue. To address this gap in the literature, expand knowledge and awareness around the problem, and inform future research and programs, this research intends to document and analyze the characteristics of school employee sexual misconduct cases reported in the media. The authors conducted a landscape analysis of 361 published school employee sexual misconduct cases in the United States from 2014, documenting factors such as offender and victim characteristics, type of incident, technology use, location of offense, and resulting disciplinary actions by schools and law enforcement...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Sandra Gray, Susan Rarick
Child sexual abuse (CSA) has been linked to a number of adverse effects including hypersexuality (HYP), substance use (SUB), suicidality (SUI), and depression (DEP). Despite a plethora of research on CSA, little is known about how it affects adolescents and the cultural factors that influence their coping styles. This study was founded on social-cultural coping theory and the model of traumagenic dynamics of sexual abuse, suggesting that CSA consequences lead to maladaptive coping mechanisms influenced by sociocultural factors...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Gareth Bloomfield
Sex in social amoebae (or dictyostelids) has a number of striking features. Dictyostelid zygotes do not proliferate but grow to a large size by feeding on other cells of the same species, each zygote ultimately forming a walled structure called a macrocyst. The diploid macrocyst nucleus undergoes meiosis, after which a single meiotic product survives to restart haploid vegetative growth. Meiotic recombination is generally initiated by the Spo11 enzyme, which introduces DNA double-strand breaks. Uniquely, as far as is known among sexual eukaryotes, dictyostelids lack a SPO11 gene...
June 20, 2018: Annual Review of Microbiology
Stefan Kuczera, Luigi Gentile, Timothy Brox, Ulf Olsson, Claudia Schmidt, Petrik Galvosas
The formation of multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) in the lyotropic lamellar phase of the system triethylene glycol mono n-decyl ether (C10 E3 )/water is investigated under Large Amplitude Oscillatory Shear (LAOS) using spatially resolved rheo-NMR spectroscopy and a combination of rheo-small angle light scattering (rheo-SALS) and conventional rheology. Recent advances in rheo-NMR hardware development facilitated the application of LAOS deformations in high-field NMR magnets. For the range of investigated strain amplitudes (10-50) and frequencies (1 and 2 rad/s) MLV formation is observed in all NMR and most SALS experiments...
June 20, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Titiksha Srivastava, Marine Schott, Roméo Juge, Viola Krizakova, M Belmeguenai, Yves Roussigné, Anne Bernand-Mantel, Laurent Ranno, Stéfania Pizzini, Salim-Mourad Cherif, Andrei Stashkevich, Stéphane Auffret, Olivier Boulle, Gilles Gaudin, Mairbek Chshiev, Claire Baraduc, Hélène Béa
Electric field control of interfacial magnetism promises low power consuming and versatile spintronic devices. More specifically, in ultra thin heavy metal/ferromagnet/insulator heterostructures, voltage gating has been shown to locally and dynamically tune properties like perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and saturation magnetization. However its effect on the nowadays widely explored antisymmetric exchange property called interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction (DMI) has not been addressed yet. This DMI plays a fundamental role in stabilizing magnetic textures known as skyrmions envisaged for memory and logic based spintronic devices...
June 20, 2018: Nano Letters
Derek S Frank, Adam J Matzger
Amorphous solid dispersions containing a polymeric component often impart improved stability against crystallization for a small molecule relative to the pure amorphous form. However, the relationship between side chain functionalities on a polymer and the ability of a polymer to stabilize against crystallization is not well understood. To shed light on this relationship, a series of polymers were functionalized from a parent batch of poly(chloromethylstyrene- co-styrene) to investigate the effect of functionality on the stability in amorphous solid dispersions without altering the physical parameters of polymers, such as the average molecular weight or backbone chain chemistry...
June 20, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Gwanho Yoon, Dasol Lee, Ki Tae Nam, Junsuk Rho
Although conventional metasurfaces have demonstrated many promising functionalities in light control by tailoring either phase or spectral responses of subwavelength structures, simultaneous control of both responses has not been explored yet. Here, we propose a concept of dual-mode metasurface that enables simultaneous control of phase and spectral responses for two kinds of operation modes of transmission and reflection, respectively. In the transmission mode, the dual-mode metasurface acts as conventional metasurfaces by tailoring phase distribution of incident light...
June 20, 2018: ACS Nano
Maila Danielis, Sara Colussi, Carla de Leitenburg, Lluis Soler, Jordi Llorca, Alessandro Trovarelli
By carefully mixing Pd metal nanoparticles with CeO2 polycrystalline powder under dry conditions a new unpredicted arrangement of the Pd-O-Ce interface is obtained, where an amorphous shell containing Palladium species dissolved in Ceria is covering a core of CeO2 particles. The robust contact that is generated at nanoscale, along with mechanical forces generated during mixing, promotes the redox exchange between Pd and CeO2 and creates highly reactive and stable sites constituted by PdOx embedded into CeO2 surface layers...
June 20, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Heorhii V Humeniuk, Arnulf Rosspeintner, Giuseppe Licari, Vasyl Kilin, Luigi Bonacina, Eric Vauthey, Naomi Sakai, Stefan Matile
Bent N,N'-diphenyl-dihydrodibenzo[a,c]phenazine amphiphiles are introduced as mechanosensitive membrane probes that operate by an unprecedented mechanism, namely, unbending in the excited state as opposed to the previously reported untwisting in the ground and twisting in the excited state. Their dual emission from bent or "closed" and planarized or "open" excited states is shown to discriminate between micelles in water and monomers in solid-ordered (So ), liquid-disordered (Ld ) and bulk membranes...
June 20, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Eun-Kyung Choi, Joon Hyung Sohn, Sung Sik Han, Dong Heui Kim
In teleost, the structural characteristics of fertilized egg and egg envelope are very important for classification of genus or species. The structures of fertilized egg and egg envelope from Corydoras adolfoi and Corydoras sterbai, Callichthyidae, Siluriformes in teleost were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopes to confirm whether these morphological structures have specificities of species and family or not. The fertilized eggs of C. adolfoi and C. sterbai were non-transparent, spherical, demersal, and strong adhesive...
June 20, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Thaaer Khalil, Arwa Alharbi, Clayton Baum, Yi Liao
In recent years, merocyanine photoacids have been utilized to control various chemical processes using visible light and have found applications in materials, energy, and biomedical areas. Molecular merocyanine photoacids are commonly used in the previous works. Covalently linking the photoacids to polymers improves their compatibility with different media, avoids leakage problems, and allows a localized proton concentration to be produced. However, the phenolic and indolinium moieties of the photoacids make them difficult to be polymerized with common methods...
June 20, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Catherina Gasser, Jennifer Gebetsberger, Manuel Gebetsberger, Ronald Micura
Self-cleaving ribozymes are biologically relevant RNA molecules which catalyze site-specific cleavage of the phosphodiester backbone. Gathering knowledge of their three-dimensional structures is critical toward an in-depth understanding of their function and chemical mechanism. Equally important is collecting information on the folding process and the inherent dynamics of a ribozyme fold. Over the past years, Selective-2'-Hydroxyl Acylation analyzed by Primer Extension (SHAPE) turned out to be a significant tool to probe secondary and tertiary interactions of diverse RNA species at the single nucleotide level under varying environmental conditions...
June 19, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
X Averós, I Estevez
To better understand how relevant intensive systems' characteristics simultaneously affect the performance and welfare of broiler chickens, a meta-analysis of recent literature was carried out. The study determined the effects of gender, genetics, experimental initial age (EIA, d), stocking density (SD; kg/m2), group size (GS; n), bedding material (yes/no), duration of photoperiod (DP; h), divided scotoperiod (yes/no), feeding phases (1/2/3/>3), environmental control (EC; yes/no), environmental enrichment (yes/no), use of vaccines and other medications (yes/no), experimental duration (d), and relevant 2-way interactions on average daily gain (g/d), average daily feed intake (g/d), FCR (g: g), mortality (%), behavior (%), and gait score (mean value)...
June 19, 2018: Poultry Science
Katherine Healy, Amanda C Palmer, Maxwell A Barffour, Kerry J Schulze, Ward Siamusantu, Justin Chileshe, Keith P West, Alain B Labrique
Background: Impairments in visual function have been well characterized in vitamin A deficiency. However, eye function may also be sensitive to other nutrient deficiencies. Objective: We examined associations between visual function-characterized by pupillary threshold or pupillary responsiveness-and nutritional status in Zambian children. Methods: We used digital pupillometry to measure visual responses to calibrated light stimuli (-2.9 to 0...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Ruihua Ma, Pinwen Wu, Qiqing Shi, Dongli Song, Hao Fang
Mechanical ventilation (MV) is an important procedure for the treatment of patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome in a clinical setting; however, MV can lead to severe complications, including ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Telocytes (TCs) can promote tissue repair following injury in the heart, kidneys, and other organs. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of TCs in VILI in mice and the associated mechanisms. By using in vivo studies in mice and in vitro studies in cells, we demonstrated that an airway injection of TCs can reduce the pulmonary inflammatory response and improve the lung function in mice with VILI and promote the proliferation of pulmonary vascular endothelial cells...
June 19, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
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