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Marta R Casanova, Rui L Reis, Albino Martins, Nuno M Neves
Electrospinning, an electrostatic fiber fabrication technique, has attracted significant interest in recent years due to its versatility and ability to produce highly tunable nanofibrous meshes. These nanofibrous meshes have been investigated as promising tissue engineering scaffolds since they mimic the scale and morphology of the native extracellular matrix. The sub-micron diameter of fibers produced by this process presents various advantages like the high surface area to volume ratio, tunable porosity, and the ability to manipulate the nanofiber composition in order to get desired properties and functionality...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Zaida Ortega, María Elena Alemán, Ricardo Donate
The use of fibers into scaffolds is a way to mimic natural tissues, in which fibrils are embedded in a matrix. The use of fibers can improve the mechanical properties of the scaffolds and may act as structural support for cell growth. Also, as the morphology of fibrous scaffolds is similar to the natural extracellular matrix, cells cultured on these scaffolds tend to maintain their phenotypic shape. Different materials and techniques can be used to produce micrfibers- and nanofibers for scaffolds manufacturing; cells, in general, adhere and proliferate very well on PCL, chitosan, silk fibroin, and other nanofibers...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Naven Hon, Alison M Behie, Jessica M Rothman, Ken G Ryan
This study measured the nutritional composition of foods consumed by the northern yellow-cheeked crested gibbon (Nomascus annamensis) in northeastern Cambodia. One group of N. annamensis was studied, and focal animal sampling was used to observe their feeding behavior. The study was conducted for 4 months (January-April 2015) in the dry season and 69 foods were collected for nutritional analyses. N. annamensis fed on 37 plant species, but only seven species made up more than 80% of feeding time. N. annamensis spent the majority of their time feeding on fruit (60...
April 24, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Shruthi Venugopal, Chieh Kao, Ritu Chandna, Konerirajapuram N Sulochana, Vivekanandan Subramanian, Mo Chen, R Manjunatha Kini, Ruowen Ge
Anti-angiogenesis therapy is an established therapeutic strategy for cancer. The endogenous angiogenic inhibitor angiostatin contains the first 3-4 kringle domains of plasminogen and inhibits both angiogenesis and vascular permeability. We present here a 10-residue peptide, Angio-3, derived from plasminogen kringle 3, which retains the functions of angiostatin in inhibiting both angiogenesis and vascular permeability. NMR studies indicate that Angio-3 holds a solution structure similar to the corresponding region of kringle 3...
April 24, 2018: Angiogenesis
Simon Hein, Ralf Petzold, Martin Schoenthaler, Ulrich Wetterauer, Arkadiusz Miernik
PURPOSE: To evaluate the thermal effect of Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy in a standardized in vitro model via real-time temperature measurement. METHODS: Our model comprised a 20 ml test tube simulating the renal pelvis that was immersed in a 37 °C water bath. Two different laser fibers [FlexiFib (15-45 W), RigiFib 1000 (45-100 W), LISA laser products OHG, Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany] were placed in the test tube. An Ho:YAG 100 W laser was used in all experiments (LISA)...
April 24, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Erica Seigneur, Thomas C Südhof
Cerebellins are synaptic organizer molecules that bind to presynaptic neurexins and postsynaptic receptors. Cerebellins are well studied in cerebellum, but three of the four cerebellins (Cbln1, Cbln2, and Cbln4) are also broadly expressed outside of the cerebellum, suggesting that they perform general functions throughout the brain. Here we generated male and female single, double, and triple constitutive KO mice of Cbln1, Cbln2, and Cbln4. We found that all constitutive cerebellin-deficient mice are viable and fertile, suggesting that cerebellins are not essential for survival...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Junsung Woo, Joo Ok Min, Dae-Si Kang, Yoo Sung Kim, Guk Hwa Jung, Hyun Jung Park, Sunpil Kim, Heeyoung An, Jea Known, Jeongyeon Kim, Insop Shim, Hyung-Gun Kim, C Justin Lee, Bo-Eun Yoon
Tonic inhibition in the brain is mediated through an activation of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors by the tonically released GABA, resulting in a persistent GABAergic inhibitory action. It is one of the key regulators for neuronal excitability, exerting a powerful action on excitation/inhibition balance. We have previously reported that astrocytic GABA, synthesized by monoamine oxidase B (MAOB), mediates tonic inhibition via GABA-permeable bestrophin 1 (Best1) channel in the cerebellum. However, the role of astrocytic GABA in regulating neuronal excitability, synaptic transmission, and cerebellar brain function has remained elusive...
April 24, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Giulia S Rossi, Andy J Turko, Patricia A Wright
Skeletal muscle remodeling in response to terrestrial acclimation improves the locomotor performance of some amphibious fishes on land, but the cue for this remodeling is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that muscle remodeling in the amphibious Kryptolebias marmoratus on land is driven by higher O2 availability in atmospheric air, and the alternative hypothesis that remodeling is induced by a different environmental or physiological condition fish experience on land. Fish were acclimated to 28 days of air, aquatic hyperoxia, hypercapnia, hypoxia, elevated temperature, or fasting conditions...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
José-Luis L Rivero
From a terrestrial ancestry, fin whale ( Balaenoptera physalus ) is one of the largest animal on Earth with a sprinter antipredator strategy, and a characteristic feeding mode, lunge feeding, which involve bouts of high-intensity muscle activity demanding high metabolic output. We investigated the locomotor muscle morphology and metabolism of this cetacean to determine whether its muscle profile (1) explains this unique swimming performance and feeding behaviour, (2) is or is not homogeneous within the muscle, and (3) predicts allometric variations inherent to an extreme body size...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Julie Élize Guérin, Maxime Charles Paré, Sylvain Lavoie, Nancy Bourgeois
Knowledge of the quantity and the type of residual household waste (RHW) generated by a population within a given territory is essential for developing affordable, effective, and sustainable management strategies for waste. This study aims to accurately describe the composition of residential residual materials collected directly from households over the course of a year. Household waste was collected from urban and rural sectors that were representative of the study territory. Samples were collected during the winter, summer, and fall of 2014...
April 21, 2018: Waste Management
Mahnaz Nozohour Yazdi, Yadollah Yamini, Hamid Asiabi
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the application of hollow fiber solid-phase microextraction (HF-SPME) followed by HPLC-UV to determine the ultra-trace amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as model analytes in complex coffee and tea samples. HF-SPME can be effectively used as an alternative to the direct immersion SPME (DI-SPME) method in complex matrices. The DI-SPME method suffers from serious limitation in dirty and complicated matrices with low sample clean-up, while the HF-SPME method has high clean-up and selectivity due to the high porosity of hollow fiber that can pick out analyte from complicated matrices...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Miguel Ángel Robles-García, Carmen Lizette Del-Toro-Sánchez, Enrique Márquez-Ríos, Arturo Barrera-Rodríguez, Jacobo Aguilar, José A Aguilar, Francisco Javier Reynoso-Marín, I Ceja, R Dórame-Miranda, Francisco Rodríguez-Félix
In this study, cellulose of bagasse from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul was extracted to elaborate nanofibers by the electrospinning technique. Fiber characterization was performed using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), x-ray, Fournier Transform-InfraRed (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and thermal analysis by Differential Scanning Calorimetry-Thermogravimetric Analysis (DSC-TGA). Different diameters (ranging from 54.57 ± 0.02 to 171 ± 0.01 nm) of nanofibers were obtained. Cellulose nanofibers were analyzed by means of x-ray diffraction, where we observed a total loss of crystallinity in comparison with the cellulose, while FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that the hemicellulose and lignin present in the agave bagasse were removed...
July 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Fayaz Ali, Sher Bahadar Khan, Tahseen Kamal, Khalid A Alamry, Esraa M Bakhsh, Abdullah M Asiri, Tariq R A Sobahi
Different metal nanoparticles (MNPs) templated on chitosan-silica (CH-SiO2 ) nanocomposite fiber were prepared via simple and fast method of the metal ions uptake by fiber and their subseqent reduction using strong reducing agent. The performance difference of CH-SiO2 templated with Cu, Co, Ag and Ni nanoparticles for both reduction of 4-nitroaniline (4-NA) and decolorization of congo red (CR) was investigated. The Cu nanoparticles loaded CH-SiO2 (Cu/CH-SiO2 ), showed high catalytic efficiencies in the reduction of 4-NA and CR, as compared to other loaded MNP fibers...
July 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Lida Xing, Jin Gu, Weiwei Zhang, Dengyun Tu, Chuanshuang Hu
Polymorphism is an important factor associated with the cellulose nanomaterial properties. In this study, cellulose fibers (CFs) were efficiently isolated from waste Tetra pak packages, and cellulose I and II nanocrystals were produced by treatment of CFs with 64% sulfuric acid and controlling the reaction time from 15 to 30 min. Cellulose I (CI) was partially converted to cellulose II (CII) within 15 min and the resulting cellulose nanocrystal product (i.e. CNC15) contained 93.2% CII. Further extending the hydrolysis time decreased the CII content of CNC20 to 25...
July 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Hui Yu, Jolena N Waddell, Shihuan Kuang, Ross L Tellam, Noelle E Cockett, Christopher A Bidwell
BACKGROUND: In food animal agriculture, there is a need to identify the mechanisms that can improve the efficiency of muscle growth and protein accretion. Callipyge sheep provide excellent machinery since the up-regulation of DLK1 and RTL1 results in extreme postnatal muscle hypertrophy in distinct muscles. The aim of this study is to distinguish the genes that directly respond to DLK1 and RTL1 signaling from the genes that change as the result of muscle specific effects. RESULTS: The quantitative PCR results indicated that DLK1 expression was significantly increased in hypertrophied muscles but not in non-hypertrophied muscles...
April 24, 2018: BMC Genomics
Hanis Nazihah Hasmad, Mohd Reusmaazran Yusof, Zainul Rashid Mohd Razi, Ruszymah Binti Haji Idrus, Shiplu Roy Chowdhury
Fabrication of composite scaffolds is one of the strategies proposed to enhance the functionality of tissue engineered scaffolds for improved tissue regeneration. By combining multiple elements together, unique biomimetic scaffolds with desirable physical and mechanical properties can be tailored for tissue-specific applications. Despite having a highly porous structure, the utility of electrospun fibers (EF) as scaffold is usually hampered by their insufficient mechanical strength. In this study, we attempted to produce a mechanically competent scaffold with cell-guiding ability by fabricating aligned PLGA fibers on decellularized human amniotic membrane (HAM), known to possess favorable tensile and wound healing properties...
April 25, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
Sun Up Noh, Won-Young Lee, Won-Serk Kim, Yong-Taek Lee, Kyung Jae Yoon
Background Diabetic neuropathy (DN) originating in distal lower extremities is associated with pain early in the disease course, overwhelming in the feet. However, the pathogenesis of DN remains unclear. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been implicated in the onset of neuropathic pain and the development of diabetes. Objective of this study was to observe pain syndromes elicited in the footpad of DN rat model and to assess the contributory role of MIF in the pathogenesis of DN. Methods DN was made in SD rats by streptozotocin (STZ)...
January 1, 2018: Molecular Pain
James P Karchner, Farzad Yousefi, Stephanie R Bitman, Kurosh Darvish, Nancy Pleshko
Objective Autologous articular cartilage (AC) harvested for repair procedures of high weight bearing (HWB) regions of the femoral condyles is typically obtained from low weight bearing (LWB) regions, in part due to the lack of non-destructive techniques for cartilage composition assessment. Here, we demonstrate that infrared fiber optic spectroscopy can be used to non-destructively evaluate variations in compositional and mechanical properties of AC across LWB and HWB regions. Design AC plugs ( N = 72) were harvested from the patellofemoral groove of juvenile bovine stifle joints, a LWB region, and femoral condyles, a HWB region...
April 1, 2018: Cartilage
Dominik Tobias Schmieden, Samantha J Basalo Vázquez, Hector Sangüesa, Marit van der Does, Timon Idema, Anne Sara Meyer
Biofilms can grow on virtually any surface available, with impacts ranging from endangering the lives of patients to degrading unwanted water contaminants. Biofilm research is challenging due to the high degree of biofilm heterogeneity. A method for the production of standardized, reproducible, and patterned biofilm-inspired materials could be a boon for biofilm research and allow for completely new engineering applications. Here, we present such a method, combining 3D printing with genetic engineering. We prototyped a low-cost 3D printer that prints bioink, a suspension of bacteria in a solution of alginate that solidifies on a calcium-containing substrate...
April 24, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
L H Tang, Q Y Lao, L Yu, J Wang
Objective: To investigate the clinical and pathological features of spindle cell lipoma (SCL) and pleomorphic lipoma (PL) with emphasis on differential diagnosis. Methods: Sixty-five cases of SCL/PL from the archive of Department of Pathology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, from August of 2006 to June of 2017, were included in the study. Immunohistochemistry by EnVision method, MDM2 gene amplifycation and DDIT3 gene translocation by fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH) were detected and the literature was reviewed...
April 8, 2018: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
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