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Jingsong Peng, Qunfeng Cheng
Natural materials, including nacre, bone, and the lobster cuticle, exhibit excellent mechanical properties, combining high strength and toughness. Such materials have the added benefit of being light in weight. These advantageous features are due to such natural materials' orderly hierarchical architectures and abundant interface interactions. How to utilize these design principles created by nature to fabricate high-performance bioinspired nanocomposites remains a great research challenge. A logical roadmap for developing these nanocomposites can be described as "discovery, invention, and creation...
October 23, 2017: Advanced Materials
Hirofumi Miyata, Rika Itoh, Fumio Sato, Naoya Takebe, Tetsuro Hada, Teruaki Tozaki
Variants of the Myostatin gene have been shown to have an influence on muscle hypertrophy phenotypes in a wide range of mammalian species. Recently, a Thoroughbred horse with a C-Allele at the g.66493737C/T single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been reported to be suited to short-distance racing. In this study, we examined the effect of the Myostatin SNP on muscle fiber properties in young Thoroughbred horses during a training period. To investigate the effect of the Myostatin SNP on muscle fiber before training, several mRNA expressions were relatively quantified in biopsy samples from the middle gluteal muscle of 27 untrained male Thoroughbred horses (1...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Fabiana Sélos Guerra, Ramon Guerra de Oliveira, Carlos Alberto Manssour Fraga, Claudia Dos Santos Mermelstein, Patricia Dias Fernandes
Tumor aggressiveness is usually associated with metastasis. MDA-MB 231, a triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), is an aggressive type of breast cancer and associated with early metastasis. The Rho/ROCK pathway is a key regulator of cell motility involving cytoskeleton regulation through stabilization of actin filaments and stress fiber formation. In this study we show that Fasudil, a ROCK inhibitor, inhibited the migration of MDA-MB 231 and A549 cells, without altering the viability of these cells at the concentration of 10 μM, modified tumor cell morphology, with disorganization of stress fibers and promotes activation of the canonical-Wnt/beta-catenin pathway...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Mark W Pataky, Haiyan Wang, Carmen S Yu, Edward B Arias, Robert J Ploutz-Snyder, Xiaohua Zheng, Gregory D Cartee
Skeletal muscle is the major site for insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, and muscle insulin resistance confers many negative health outcomes. Muscle is composed of multiple fiber types, and conventional analysis of whole muscles cannot elucidate fiber type differences at the cellular level. Previous research demonstrated that a brief (two weeks) high fat diet (HFD) caused insulin resistance in rat skeletal muscle. The primary aim of this study was to determine in rat skeletal muscle the influence of a brief (two weeks) HFD on glucose uptake (GU) ± insulin in single fibers that were also characterized for fiber type...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Giuliana Rossi, Chiara Bonfanti, Stefania Antonini, Mattia Bastoni, Stefania Monteverde, Anna Innocenzi, Marielle Saclier, Valentina Taglietti, Graziella Messina
Muscular dystrophies are severe disorders due to mutations in structural genes, and are characterized by skeletal muscle wasting, compromised patient mobility, and respiratory functions. Although previous works suggested enhancing regeneration and muscle mass as therapeutic strategies, these led to no long-term benefits in humans. Mice lacking the transcription factor Nfix have delayed regeneration and a shift toward an oxidative fiber type. Here, we show that ablating or silencing the transcription factor Nfix ameliorates pathology in several forms of muscular dystrophy...
October 20, 2017: Nature Communications
Javier Nuño, Giuseppe Rizzelli, Francesca Gallazzi, Francisco Prieto, Concepción Pulido, Pedro Corredera, Stefan Wabnitz, Juan D Ania-Castanon
Random distributed feedback fiber Raman lasers, where the feedback mechanism is provided by Rayleigh backscattering, have attracted a good deal of attention since they were first introduced in 2010. Their simple and flexible design, combined with good lasing efficiency and beam quality properties, comparable to those of standard cavity lasers, have led to multiple applications, particularly in the fields of fiber sensing and optical communications. In spite of these advances, the polarization properties of random fiber Raman lasers, which can strongly affect their performance in both sensing and communications, have barely been explored so far...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jinde Yin, Hao Chen, Wei Lu, Mengli Liu, Irene Ling Li, Min Zhang, Wenfei Zhang, Jinzhang Wang, Zihan Xu, Peiguang Yan, Wen-Jun Liu, Shuang Chen Ruan
Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have been successfully used as broadband optical modulator materials for pulsed fiber laser systems. However, the nonlinear optical absorptions of exfoliated TMDs are strongly limited by their nanoflakes morphology with uncontrollable lateral size and thickness. In this work, we provide an effective method to fully explore the nonlinear optical properties of MoSe2. Large-area and high quality lattice MoSe2 grown by chemical vapor deposition method was adopted as an optical modulator for the first time...
October 23, 2017: Nanotechnology
Alessio Maria Monteleone, Palmiero Monteleone, Fabrizio Esposito, Anna Prinster, Valeria Ruzzi, Antonietta Canna, Marco Aiello, Francesco Di Salle, Mario Maj
OBJECTIVES: Childhood maltreatment is a non specific risk factor for eating disorders (EDs). However, no study assessed so far the impact of childhood maltreatment on brain structure of adults with EDs. Therefore, we investigated brain areas volumes and fiber tracts integrity of childhood maltreated (Mal) and non-maltreated (noMal) patients with EDs. METHODS: Thirty-six ED women and 16 healthy women underwent a MRI scanning including acquisition of a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) sequence and a high resolution T1-weighted scan...
October 23, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Bart E Vos, Luka C Liebrand, Mahsa Vahabi, Andreas Biebricher, Gijs J L Wuite, Erwin J G Peterman, Nicholas A Kurniawan, Fred C MacKintosh, Gijsje H Koenderink
Fibrous networks are ideal functional materials since they provide mechanical rigidity at low weight. Here, we demonstrate that fibrous networks of the blood clotting protein fibrin undergo a strong and irreversible increase in their mechanical rigidity in response to uniaxial compression. This rigidification can be precisely controlled by the level of applied compressive strain, providing a means to program the network rigidity without having to change its composition. To identify the underlying mechanism we measure single fiber-fiber interactions using optical tweezers...
October 23, 2017: Soft Matter
Arnold David Gomez, Fanxu Xing, Deva Chan, Dzung Pham, Philip Bayly, Jerry Prince
Noninvasive measurements of tissue deformation provide bio-mechanical insights of an organ, which can be used as clinical functional biomarkers or experimental data for validating computational simulations. However, acquisition of 3D displacement information is susceptible to experimental inconsistency and limited scan time. In this research, we describe the process of tracking tagged magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as enforcing harmonic phase conservation in finite-element (FE) models. This concept is demonstrated as a tool for motion estimation in a brain motion phantom, the heart, and the tongue...
May 2017: Comput Biomech Med Algorithms Models Appl (2017)
Giuseppe Tedesco, Alessandro Gasbarrini, Stefano Bandiera, Riccardo Ghermandi, Stefano Boriani
BACKGROUND: Combination of surgery and radiotherapy in the treatment of primary spine tumour can be indicated in some cases where a satisfactory oncological margin cannot be achieved. The presence of metal hardware has always limited post-operative radiotherapy due to the scattering effects of ionizing radiation or particles. The use of a fixation system (including rods and screw) fully made in PEEK embedded Carbon fiber (CFR-PEEK) could make easier and more effective the post-operative radiotherapy as it is radiolucent and does not interfere with ionizing radiation and accelerated particles...
September 2017: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
Robel Dagnew, Yin-Ying Lin, Jerikko Agatep, Michael Cheng, Andrew Jann, Viola Quach, Michelle Monroe, Ganeev Singh, Ani Minasyan, Joshua Hakimian, Theodore Kee, Jesse Cushman, Wendy Walwyn
The use of optogenetics to activate or inhibit neurons is an important toolbox for neuroscientists. Several optogenetic devices are in use. These range from wired systems where the optoprobe is physically connected to the light source by a tether, to wireless systems that are remotely controlled. There are advantages and disadvantages of both; the wired systems are lightweight but limit movement due to the tether, and wireless systems allow unrestricted movement but may be heavier than wired systems. Both systems can be expensive to install and use...
October 2017: Neurophotonics
Hanqi Zhu, Jack Doan, Calvin Stence, Ge Lv, Toby Elery, Robert Gregg
This paper presents the mechatronic design and experimental validation of a novel powered knee-ankle orthosis for testing torque-driven rehabilitation control strategies. The modular actuator of the orthosis is designed with a torque dense motor and a custom low-ratio transmission (24:1) to provide mechanical transparency to the user, allowing them to actively contribute to their joint kinematics during gait training. The 4.88 kg orthosis utilizes frameless components and light materials, such as aluminum alloy and carbon fiber, to reduce its mass...
May 2017: IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation: ICRA: [proceedings]
Victor L Fulgoni, James Painter, Arianna Carughi
Raisins are one of the most commonly consumed dried fruits. Because of their unique nutrient profile, raisins may have some distinctive health benefits. The purpose of this study was to examine the cross-sectional association between raisin consumption and nutrient intake, dietary quality, body weight, and metabolic syndrome risk factors in adults. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2001-2012 (n = 29,684) were used. Raisin consumers (n = 458, 60% female) were defined as those having any amount of raisins during the first 24 h dietary recall...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
Kira Vorobej, Andrew S Mitchell, Ian C Smith, Stefan Donath, A Russell Tupling, Joe Quadrilatero
Augmented apoptotic signaling can result in degradation of skeletal muscle proteins and loss of myonuclei, ultimately contributing to muscle atrophy and contractile dysfunction. Apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC) is an anti-apoptotic protein highly expressed in skeletal muscle. Here we examined the role of ARC on age-related skeletal muscle apoptosis and wasting by utilizing an ARC-deficient mouse model. Aged mice displayed a number of morphological, phenotypic, and contractile alterations in both soleus and plantaris muscle with aging...
October 19, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
Ji Liu, Kristie Conde, Peng Zhang, Varoth Lilascharoen, Zihui Xu, Byung Kook Lim, Randy J Seeley, J Julius Zhu, Michael M Scott, Zhiping P Pang
Glucagon-like Peptide 1 (GLP-1)-expressing neurons in the hindbrain send robust projections to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), which is involved in the regulation of food intake. Here, we describe that stimulation of GLP-1 afferent fibers within the PVN is sufficient to suppress food intake independent of glutamate release. We also show that GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation augments excitatory synaptic strength in PVN corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons, with GLP-1R activation promoting a protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent signaling cascade leading to phosphorylation of serine S845 on GluA1 AMPA receptors and their trafficking to the plasma membrane...
October 13, 2017: Neuron
Fangying Lv, Ning Gan, Yuting Cao, You Zhou, Rongjie Zuo, Youren Dong
In this work, the molybdenum disulfide/reduced graphene oxide (MoS2/RGO) composite material was synthesized as a fiber coating to extract seven indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; PCB28, PCB52, PCB101, PCB118, PCB138, PCB153, and PCB180) present in food via a saponification-headspace solid-phase microextraction assay (saponification-HS-SPME). The MoS2/RGO coating was prepared and deposited on a stainless steel wire with the help of a silicone sealant and used as an SPME fiber. The alkali solution dissolved the fat and helped in releasing the PCBs present in milk to the headspace for extraction under 100°C...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Wei Ling Lau, Nosratola D Vaziri
Chronic kidney disease results in disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier as well as profound changes in the gut microbial flora. These events are largely mediated by (1) heavy influx of circulating urea to the gut lumen and (2) dietary restrictions of foods containing high fiber (such as fruits and vegetable) and symbiotic organisms (such as yogurt and cheese) imposed to mitigate hyperkalemia and hyperphosphatemia. Collectively, these factors promote systemic inflammation and cardiovascular morbidity by mediating microbial dysbiosis, disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier, and translocation of endotoxin, bacterial fragments, and uremic toxins across the "leaky gut" into the bloodstream...
November 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
Bader Hamza Shirah, Hamza Asaad Shirah, Abdelelah Hussein Fallata, Shaima Nassar Alobidy, Majdah Mohammad Al Hawsawi
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhoids are a very common ano-rectal condition affecting pregnant females worldwide and representing a major medical and socioeconomic problem. In this paper, we aim to compare the effectiveness of the Sitz bath method with an ano-rectal cream as part of a conservative management protocol to treat hemorrhoids among pregnant Saudi Arabian females. METHODS: A prospective comparative study of the results of two conservative treatment protocols of 495 pregnant females diagnosed to have hemorrhoids during pregnancy between January 2010 and December 2014 was done...
October 18, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
T S Dennis, F X Suarez-Mena, T M Hill, J D Quigley, R L Schlotterbeck, G J Lascano
Using soluble fiber sources in starter and grower feeds for dairy calves less than 4 mo of age is common to reduce costs compared with including traditional cereal grains. Beet pulp (BP) contains relatively high concentrations of pectin compared with other fibrous feed ingredients and has been shown to be an acceptable replacement for corn in adult cow diets. However, limited information is available on BP digestibility and growth performance for young calves fed diets with BP. In this study, 48 male Holstein calves (59 ± 2 d of age, 77 ± 2...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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