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Serkan Tulgar, Mahmut Sertan Kapakli, Ozgur Senturk, Onur Selvi, Talat Ercan Serifsoy, Zeliha Ozer
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is a commonly performed minimally invasive procedure that has led to a decrease in procedure-related mortality and morbidity. However, LC requires analgesia that blocks both visceral and somatic nerve fibers. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of Erector Spinae Plane Block (ESPB) for postoperative analgesia management in LC. DESIGN: Single-blinded, prospective, randomized, efficiency study. SETTING: Tertiary university hospital, postoperative recovery room & ward...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
María P Di Yorio, Daniela I Pérez Sirkin, José A Muñoz-Cueto, Tomás H Delgadin, Kazuyoshi Tsutsui, Gustavo M Somoza, Paula G Vissio
Reproduction is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The first neuropeptide identified that regulates this function was the decapeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Nowadays, in gnatostomates, a number of GnRH variants have been identified and classified into three different types: GnRH1, GnRH2, and GnRH3. Almost 30 years later, a new peptide that inhibits gonadotropin synthesis and secretion was discovered and thus named as gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH). In avians and mammals, the interaction and regulation between GnRH and GnIH neurons has been widely studied; however, in other vertebrate groups there is little information about the relationship between these neurons...
June 15, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Yuxin Zhang, Yiqin Bao, Wei Qiu, Lisheng Peng, Ling Fang, Ying Xu, Hui Yang
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are a group of autoimmune astrocytopathies in the central nervous system, which are mainly caused by immunoglobulin G (IgG) against astrocyte water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4). In this study, we aimed to establish a model of NMOSD-related optic neuritis (NMOSD-ON) and to evaluate the progressive changes of the optic nerve and visual function. AQP4 IgG-positive serum from NMOSD patients was injected into the subarachnoid space of the rat optic nerve to induce the NMOSD-ON model (AQP4 + group), and healthy serum was injected as the control...
June 15, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Chao Sun, Jie Zhang, Shanglin Gao, Nan Zhang, Yijun Zhang, Jian Zhuang, Ming Liu, Xiaohui Zhang, Wei Ren, Hua Wu, Zuo-Guang Ye
The interphase between fiber and matrix plays an essential role in the performance of composites. Therefore, the ability to design or modify the interphase is a key technology needed to manufacture stronger and smarter composite. Recently, depositing nano-materials onto the surface of the fiber has become a promising approach to optimize the interphase and composites. But, the modified composites have not reached the highest strength yet, because the determining parameters, such as thickness of the nano-layer, are hardly controlled by the mentioned methods in reported works...
June 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Azad Mashari, Mario Montealegre-Gallegos, Jelliffe Jeganathan, Lu Yeh, Joshua Qua Hiansen, Massimiliano Meineri, Feroze Mahmood, Robina Matyal
METHODS: Anonymized CT DICOM data was segmented to create a 3D model of the lumbar spine. The 3D model was modified, placed inside a digitally designed housing unit and fabricated on a desktop 3D printer using polylactic acid (PLA) filament. The model was filled with an echogenic solution of gelatin with psyllium fiber. Twenty-two staff anesthesiologists performed a spinal and epidural on the 3D printed simulator and a commercially available Simulab phantom. Participants evaluated the tactile and ultrasound imaging fidelity of both phantoms via Likert-scale questionnaire...
2018: PloS One
Mohamed A Alhussaini, Renee M Banakis Hartl, Victor Benichoux, Daniel J Tollin, Herman A Jenkins, Nathaniel T Greene
HYPOTHESIS: Simulated otitis media with effusion reduces intracochlear pressures comparable to umbo velocity. BACKGROUND: Otitis media with effusion is a common cause of temporary hearing loss, particularly in children, producing deficits of 30 to 40 dB. Previous studies measured the effects of simulated effusion on ossicular mechanics; however, no studies have measured cochlear stimulation directly. Here, we compare pressures in the scala vestibuli and tympani to umbo velocity, before and after induction of simulated effusion in cadaveric human specimens...
June 15, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Chu Kion Yao, James Fung, Natural Hoi Sing Chu, Victoria Ping Yi Tan
Liver cirrhosis is associated with significant nutritional risks that often result in serious hepatic complications and poor survival rates. Diet is an important but underutilized aspect in the treatment modality of cirrhosis. Therefore, the aims of this review are to ascertain nutritional risks associated with its pathophysiology and to summarize existing evidence that support dietary recommendations for managing this patient population. Alterations in substrate utilization for energy production is a main feature of liver cirrhosis, resulting in increased catabolism of protein stores and a predisposition toward protein-energy malnutrition, even in the early stages of the disease...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Emilia Gatto, Virginia Parisi, Gabriel Persi, Estela Fernandez Rey, Martin Cesarini, José Luis Etcheverry, Pablo Rivera, Ferdinando Squitieri
BACKGROUND: Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic, rare and progressive neurodegenerative disorder that causes motor and cognitive impairment in midlife patients. Although retinal damage was observed in animal HD models and in patients with other neurodegenerative diseases, we still need confirmation of impairment in HD patients. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive methodology that analyzes the retinal nerve fiber layers (RNFL) and could reflect processes of neurodegeneration...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
E L Deters, R S Stokes, O N Genther-Schroeder, S L Hansen
Thirty-six newly weaned, crossbred beef steers (323 ± 12 kg; SD) from a single-source were used in a 56-d study to examine the effects of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP; Original XPC, Diamond V, Cedar Rapids, IA) on total tract nutrient digestibility and response to a vaccination challenge. Twelve d after arrival, steers were blocked by body weight (BW) and randomly assigned to treatments: SCFP at 0 (CON), 14 (SCFP14), or 28 (SCFP28) g·steer-1·d-1. Steers were fed via bunks that measured individual intake and received ear tags (CowManager, Select Sires, Plain City, OH) that recorded rumination and activity...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Hao Liang, Meng Zhang, Chao Gao, Yandong Zhao
This article presents a non-destructive methodology to determine the modulus of elasticity (MOE) in static bending of wood through the use of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Wood specimens were obtained from Quercus mongolica growing in Northeast of China. The NIR spectra of specimens were acquired by using a one-chip NIR fiber optic spectrometer whose spectral range was 900~1900 nm. The raw spectra of specimens were pretreated by multiplication scatter correlation and Savitzky-Golay smoothing and differentiation filter...
June 18, 2018: Sensors
Amie L Severino, Rong Chen, Kenichiro Hayashida, Carol A Aschenbrenner, Haiguo Sun, Christopher M Peters, Silvia Gutierrez, Bethany Pan, James C Eisenach
BACKGROUND: Recovery from pain after surgery is faster after cesarean delivery than after other abdominal procedures. The authors hypothesized that recovery in rats after surgery could be reversed by antagonism of spinal oxytocin or vasopressin receptors, that there may be a sex difference, and that spinal oxytocin innervation could change after surgery. METHODS: Male and female rats underwent partial spinal nerve ligation surgery. Effects of nonselective and selective oxytocin and vasopressin 1A receptor antagonists on mechanical hypersensitivity during partial recovery were assessed (n = 8 to 14/group)...
June 15, 2018: Anesthesiology
Kamyar Esmaeili Pourfarhangi, Edgar Cardenas De La Hoz, Andrew R Cohen, Bojana Gligorijevic
Cancer cell migration is essential for metastasis, during which cancer cells move through the tumor and reach the blood vessels. In vivo , cancer cells are exposed to contact guidance and chemotactic cues. Depending on the strength of such cues, cells will migrate in a random or directed manner. While similar cues may also stimulate cell proliferation, it is not clear whether cell cycle progression affects migration of cancer cells and whether this effect is different in random versus directed migration. In this study, we tested the effect of cell cycle progression on contact guided migration in 2D and 3D environments, in the breast carcinoma cell line, FUCCI-MDA-MB-231...
September 2018: APL bioengineering
Michael A Powell, Javier O Garcia, Fang-Cheng Yeh, Jean M Vettel, Timothy Verstynen
The unique architecture of the human connectome is defined initially by genetics and subsequently sculpted over time with experience. Thus, similarities in predisposition and experience that lead to similarities in social, biological, and cognitive attributes should also be reflected in the local architecture of white matter fascicles. Here we employ a method known as local connectome fingerprinting that uses diffusion MRI to measure the fiber-wise characteristics of macroscopic white matter pathways throughout the brain...
2018: Network neuroscience
P Karlsson, S Haroutounian, M Polydefkis, J R Nyengaard, T S Jensen
Aims The introduction of skin biopsies to examine small nerve fiber morphology together with functional measures such as quantitative sensory testing (QST) has led to an improvement in diagnosing patients with small fiber neuropathy (SFN). Quantification of intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) is an important measure in SFN. However, the relationship between structure and function is not straightforward and the morphological and functional fiber characteristics are still unclear. This study aimed to combine structural and functional measurements to improve the diagnosis of distal symmetric polyneuropathy and small fiber involvement...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
D P Jacobsen, A Moen, F Haugen, J Gjerstad
Aims Lumbar radicular pain following intervertebral disc herniation may be caused by a local inflammatory response induced by nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. Here in an animal model mimicking the clinical situation following disc herniation we investigated the effect of NP on the spinal nociceptive signaling and local gene expression. Methods In anaesthetized Lewis rats, extracellular single unit recordings of spinal nociceptive activity and qPCR were used to explore the effect of NP application onto the dorsal nerve roots (L3-L5)...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Gema Rebolleda, Ane Pérez-Sarriegui, Laura Díez-Álvarez, Victoria De Juan, Francisco J Muñoz-Negrete
PURPOSE: To compare the optic nerve head morphology among primary open-angle glaucoma, non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy eyes, their fellow healthy eyes and control eyes, using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with enhanced depth imaging. METHODS: Observational cross-sectional study including 88 eyes of 68 patients. In this study, 23 non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy eyes, 17 fellow unaffected eyes, 25 primary open-angle glaucoma eyes, and 23 age-matched control eyes were included...
June 1, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Hannah Ceuleers, Nikita Hanning, Jelena Heirbaut, Samuel Van Remoortel, Michelle De Bruyn, Jurgen Joossens, Pieter van der Veken, Anne-Marie Lambeir, Sven M Francque, Joris G De Man, Jean-Pierre Timmermans, Koen Augustyns, Ingrid De Meester, Benedicte Y De Winter
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Serine proteases are suggested as important players in visceral pain. We investigated their effect by using newly developed serine protease inhibitors with a well-characterized inhibitory profile in a post-inflammatory IBS rat model. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Colitis rats received intrarectal TNBS and controls 0.9% NaCl. Colonoscopies were performed on day 3, to confirm colitis, and later on until mucosal healing. Visceral hypersensitivity was quantified by visceromotor responses (VMR) to colorectal distension, 30 min after intraperitoneal injection of the serine protease inhibitors nafamostat, UAMC-00050 or UAMC-01162...
June 17, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Mylène de Ruijter, Alexandre Ribeiro, Inge Dokter, Miguel Castilho, Jos Malda
Fabrication of biomimetic tissues holds much promise for the regeneration of cells or organs that are lost or damaged due to injury or disease. To enable the generation of complex, multicellular tissues on demand, the ability to design and incorporate different materials and cell types needs to be improved. Two techniques are combined: extrusion-based bioprinting, which enables printing of cell-encapsulated hydrogels; and melt electrowriting (MEW), which enables fabrication of aligned (sub)-micrometer fibers into a single-step biofabrication process...
June 17, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Hannelore Aerts, Michael Schirner, Ben Jeurissen, Dirk Van Roost, Eric Achten, Petra Ritter, Daniele Marinazzo
Presurgical planning for brain tumor resection aims at delineating eloquent tissue in the vicinity of the lesion to spare during surgery. To this end, noninvasive neuroimaging techniques such as functional MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging fiber tracking are currently employed. However, taking into account this information is often still insufficient, as the complex nonlinear dynamics of the brain impede straightforward prediction of functional outcome after surgical intervention. Large-scale brain network modeling carries the potential to bridge this gap by integrating neuroimaging data with biophysically based models to predict collective brain dynamics...
May 2018: ENeuro
Jelle Folkerts, Ralph Stadhouders, Frank A Redegeld, See-Ying Tam, Rudi W Hendriks, Stephen J Galli, Marcus Maurer
Many mast cell-associated diseases, including allergies and asthma, have seen a strong increase in prevalence during the past decades, especially in Western(ized) countries. It has been suggested that a Western diet may contribute to the prevalence and manifestation of allergies and asthma through reduced intake of dietary fiber and the subsequent production of their metabolites. Indeed, dietary fiber and its metabolites have been shown to positively influence the development of immune disorders via changes in microbiota composition and the regulation of B- and T-cell activation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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