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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926839/circular-dichroism-spectroscopy-of-collagen-fibrillogenesis-a-new-use-for-an-old-technique
#1
Kathryn E Drzewiecki, Daniel R Grisham, Avanish S Parmar, Vikas Nanda, David I Shreiber
Type-I collagen assembles in a stepwise, hierarchic fashion from the folding of the triple helix to the assembly of fibrils into fibers. The mature assembled fibers are crucial for tissue structure and mechanics, cell interactions, and other functions in vivo. Although triple helix folding can be followed with the use of optical methods such as circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, fibrillogenesis is typically measured by alternative methods such as turbidity, rheology, and microscopy. Together, these approaches allow for investigation of the mechanical properties and architectures of collagen-based scaffolds and excised tissues...
December 6, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926833/conformational-plasticity-in-the-transsynaptic-neurexin-cerebellin-glutamate-receptor-adhesion-complex
#2
Shouqiang Cheng, Alpay B Seven, Jing Wang, Georgios Skiniotis, Engin Özkan
Synaptic specificity is a defining property of neural networks. In the cerebellum, synapses between parallel fiber neurons and Purkinje cells are specified by the simultaneous interactions of secreted protein cerebellin with pre-synaptic neurexin and post-synaptic delta-type glutamate receptors (GluD). Here, we determined the crystal structures of the trimeric C1q-like domain of rat cerebellin-1, and the first complete ectodomain of a GluD, rat GluD2. Cerebellin binds to the LNS6 domain of α- and β-neurexin-1 through a high-affinity interaction that involves its highly flexible N-terminal domain...
December 6, 2016: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926760/epidermal-nerve-fiber-quantification-in-patients-with-erythromelalgia
#3
William G Mantyh, P James B Dyck, Peter J Dyck, Janean K Engelstad, William J Litchy, Paola Sandroni, Mark D P Davis
Importance: Erythromelalgia is a clinical diagnosis based on intermittent warmth, erythema, and pain in the distal extremities. One problem facing physicians is how to objectively test for this disease. Given that other painful conditions of the distal extremities (ie, neuropathy related to human immunodeficiency virus, diabetes, or Fabry disease) can be evaluated with a skin biopsy to visualize pathologically decreased densities of the small nerve fibers that innervate the epidermis, one hypothesis is that erythromelalgia could similarly be associated with a loss of epidermal nerve fiber density (ENFD)...
December 7, 2016: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926378/automated-segmentation-of-white-matter-fiber-bundles-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging-data-and-a-new-density-based-clustering-algorithm
#4
Tahereh Kamali, Daniel Stashuk
OBJECTIVE: Robust and accurate segmentation of brain white matter (WM) fiber bundles assists in diagnosing and assessing progression or remission of neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, autism and depression. Supervised segmentation methods are infeasible in most applications since generating gold standards is too costly. Hence, there is a growing interest in designing unsupervised methods. However, most conventional unsupervised methods require the number of clusters be known in advance which is not possible in most applications...
October 2016: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925719/synthetic-dimensions-and-spin-orbit-coupling-with-an-optical-clock-transition
#5
L F Livi, G Cappellini, M Diem, L Franchi, C Clivati, M Frittelli, F Levi, D Calonico, J Catani, M Inguscio, L Fallani
We demonstrate a novel way of synthesizing spin-orbit interactions in ultracold quantum gases, based on a single-photon optical clock transition coupling two long-lived electronic states of two-electron ^{173}Yb atoms. By mapping the electronic states onto effective sites along a synthetic "electronic" dimension, we have engineered fermionic ladders with synthetic magnetic flux in an experimental configuration that has allowed us to achieve uniform fluxes on a lattice with minimal requirements and unprecedented tunability...
November 25, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925501/a-case-of-musical-anhedonia-due-to-right-putaminal-hemorrhage-a-disconnection-syndrome-between-the-auditory-cortex-and-insula
#6
Masayuki Satoh, Natsuko Kato, Ken-Ichi Tabei, Chizuru Nakano, Makiko Abe, Risa Fujita, Hirotaka Kida, Hidekazu Tomimoto, Kiyohiko Kondo
A 63-year-old, right-handed professional chorus conductor developed right putaminal hemorrhage, and became unable to experience emotion while listening to music. Two years later, neurological examination revealed slight left hemiparesis. Neuromusicological assessments revealed impaired judgment of "musical sense," and the inability to discriminate the sound of chords in pure intervals from those in equal temperament. Brain MRI and tractography identified the old hemorrhagic lesion in the right putamen and impaired fiber connectivity between the right insula and superior temporal lobe...
December 7, 2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925474/fiber-development-and-matrix-production-in-tissue-engineered-menisci-using-bovine-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-fibrochondrocytes
#7
Mary Clare McCorry, Lawrence J Bonassar
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been investigated with promising results for meniscus healing and tissue engineering. While MSCs are known to contribute to ECM production, less is known about how MSCs produce and align large organized fibers for application to tissue engineering the meniscus. The goal of this study was to investigate the capability of MSCs to produce and organize extracellular matrix molecules compared to meniscal fibrochondrocytes (FCCs). Bovine FCCs and MSCs were encapsulated in an anatomically accurate collagen meniscus using mono-culture and co-culture of each cell type...
December 7, 2016: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925412/in-situ-raman-spectroscopic-studies-on-concentration-of-electrolyte-salt-in-lithium-ion-batteries-by-using-ultrafine-multi-fiber-probes
#8
Toshiro Yamanaka, Hiroe Nakagawa, Shigetaka Tsubouchi, Yasuhiro Domi, Takayuki Doi, Takeshi Abe, Zempachi Ogumi
Lithium ion batteries have attracted considerable attention due to their high power density. The change in concentration of salt in the electrolyte solution in lithium ion batteries during operation causes serious degradation of battery performance. In this work, a new method of in situ Raman spectroscopy using ultrafine multi-fiber probes was developed to simultaneously study the concentrations of ions at several different positions in the electrolyte solution in deep narrow spaces between the electrodes in batteries...
December 7, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925399/genotype-distribution-and-allele-frequencies-of-the-genes-associated-with-body-composition-and-locomotion-traits-in-myanmar-native-horses
#9
Yu Okuda, Hla Hla Moe, Kyaw Kyaw Moe, Yuki Shimizu, Kenji Nishioka, Takeshi Shimogiri, Hideyuki Mannen, Misao Kanemaki, Tetsuo Kunieda
Myanmar native horses are small horses used mainly for drafting carts or carriages in rural areas and packing loads in mountainy areas. In the present study, we investigated genotype distributions and allele frequencies of the LCORL/NCAPG, MSTN and DMRT3 genes, which are associated with body composition and locomotion traits of horses, in seven local populations of Myanmar native horses. The genotyping result of LCORL/NCAPG showed that allele frequencies of C allele associated with higher withers height ranged from 0...
December 7, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925341/skeletal-muscle-atrophy-is-induced-by-fbxw7%C3%AE-via-atrogene-upregulation
#10
Kyungshin Shin, Young-Gyu Ko, Jaemin Jeong, Heechung Kwon
Muscle atrophy decreases skeletal muscle mass and is induced by inherited cachectic symptoms, genetic disorders, and sarcopenia. However, the molecular pathways associated with the onset of muscle atrophy are still unclear. In this study, we evaluated Fbxw7β, a gene associated with the development of muscle atrophy in vitro and in vivo. Among the three Fbxw7 isoforms, ectopically overexpressed Fbxw7β induced the expression of myogenin and major atrogene markers (atrogin-1 and MuRF-1) and reduced myoblast differentiation...
December 7, 2016: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925317/toward-arbitrary-direction-energy-harvesting-through-flexible-piezoelectric-nanogenerators-using-perovskite-pbtio3-nanotube-arrays
#11
Young Bum Lee, Jin Kyu Han, Suttinart Noothongkaew, Seong Ku Kim, Wooseok Song, Sung Myung, Sun Sook Lee, Jongsun Lim, Sang Don Bu, Ki-Seok An
New fiber-type piezoelectric nanogenerator devices consisting of radially aligned perovskite PbTiO3 nanotubes are designed for energy harvesting from arbitrary mechanical motion. The free-standing fiber-type nanogenerators generate constant amount of electric power by bending or wind motion regardless of direction, thus, extending the possibility of their practical applications.
December 7, 2016: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925251/a-novel-method-for-blood-typing-using-nitrocellulose
#12
Parastoo Afshari, Nabiollah Abolfathi
Blood wicking in its steady state form -i.e. the uniform distribution of blood cells in plasma- is completely different from its coagulated form on a porous surface like paper. The hydrophilic property of the Cellulose leads to a Significant wicking of the blood cells on paper fibers after being rinsed by the isotonic solution. The difference in the wicking length of the blood cells in a steady state and the coagulated form could be considered as a criterion to recognize the blood type in paper-based kit. However, due to the molecular structure of the nitrocellulose, a better process occurs while separating the coagulated blood from the steady form of cells...
December 7, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925231/experimental-approach-to-visualize-flow-in-a-stacked-hollow-fiber-bundle-of-an-artificial-lung-with-particle-image-velocimetry
#13
Andreas Kaesler, Peter C Schlanstein, Felix Hesselmann, Martin Büsen, Michael Klaas, Dorothee Roggenkamp, Thomas Schmitz-Rode, Ulrich Steinseifer, Jutta Arens
Flow distribution is key in artificial lungs, as it directly influences gas exchange performance as well as clot forming and blood damaging potential. The current state of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in artificial lungs can only give insight on a macroscopic level due to model simplification applied to the fiber bundle. Based on our recent work on wound fiber bundles, we applied particle image velocimetry (PIV) to the model of an artificial lung prototype intended for neonatal use to visualize flow distribution in a stacked fiber bundle configuration to (i) evaluate the feasibility of PIV for artificial lungs, (ii) validate CFD in the fiber bundle of artificial lungs, and (iii) give a suggestion how to incorporate microscopic aspects into mainly macroscopic CFD studies...
December 7, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924947/two-genomic-regions-associated-with-fiber-quality-traits-in-chinese-upland-cotton-under-apparent-breeding-selection
#14
Junji Su, Libei Li, Chaoyou Pang, Hengling Wei, Caixiang Wang, Meizhen Song, Hantao Wang, Shuqi Zhao, Chi Zhang, Guangzhi Mao, Long Huang, Chengshe Wang, Shuli Fan, Shuxun Yu
Fiber quality is one of the most important agronomic traits of cotton, and understanding the genetic basis of its target traits will accelerate improvements to cotton fiber quality. In this study, a panel comprising 355 upland cotton accessions was used to perform genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of five fiber quality traits in four environments. A total of 16, 10 and 7 SNPs were associated with fiber length (FL), fiber strength (FS) and fiber uniformity (FU), respectively, based on the mixed linear model (MLM)...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924848/self-patterning-gd-nano-fibers-in-mg-gd-alloys
#15
Yangxin Li, Jian Wang, Kaiguo Chen, Meiyue Shao, Yao Shen, Li Jin, Guo-Zhen Zhu
Manipulating the shape and distribution of strengthening units, e.g. particles, fibers, and precipitates, in a bulk metal, has been a widely applied strategy of tailoring their mechanical properties. Here, we report self-assembled patterns of Gd nano-fibers in Mg-Gd alloys for the purpose of improving their strength and deformability. 1-nm Gd nano-fibers, with a 〈c〉-rod shape, are formed and hexagonally patterned in association with Gd segregations along dislocations that nucleated during hot extrusion...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924570/quantifying-tensile-force-and-erk-phosphorylation-on-actin-stress-fibers
#16
Hiroaki Hirata, Mukund Gupta, Sri Ram Krishna Vedula, Chwee Teck Lim, Benoit Ladoux, Masahiro Sokabe
ERK associates with the actin cytoskeleton, and the actin-associated pool of ERK can be activated (phosphorylated in the activation loop) to induce specific cell responses. Increasing evidence has shown that mechanical conditions of cells significantly affect ERK activation. In particular, tension developed in the actin cytoskeleton has been implicated as a critical mechanism driving ERK signaling. However, a quantitative study of the relationship between actin tension and ERK phosphorylation is missing. In this chapter, we describe our novel methods to quantify tensile force and ERK phosphorylation on individual actin stress fibers...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924137/exercise-induced-stress-behavior-gut-microbiota-brain-axis-and-diet-a-systematic-review-for-athletes
#17
REVIEW
Allison Clark, Núria Mach
Fatigue, mood disturbances, under performance and gastrointestinal distress are common among athletes during training and competition. The psychosocial and physical demands during intense exercise can initiate a stress response activating the sympathetic-adrenomedullary and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes, resulting in the release of stress and catabolic hormones, inflammatory cytokines and microbial molecules. The gut is home to trillions of microorganisms that have fundamental roles in many aspects of human biology, including metabolism, endocrine, neuronal and immune function...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924117/transcriptome-differences-between-fiber-type-and-seed-type-cannabis-sativa-variety-exposed-to-salinity
#18
Jiajia Liu, Qin Qiao, Xia Cheng, Guanghui Du, Gang Deng, Mingzhi Zhao, Feihu Liu
The industrial hemp varieties 'Yunma 5' and 'Bamahuoma,' which demonstrate growth vigor and environmental adaptability, have been primarily cultivated in Yunnan and Guangxi, China, respectively, for fiber and seeds. The results of physiological measurements showed the phenotypic differences between the two varieties in response to salt stress. RNA-Seq analysis was first performed on leaves of both varieties sampled at four time intervals (0, 2, 4, 6 days) after treatment with salt (500 mM NaCl) We identified 220 co-up-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the two varieties, while 26 up-regulated DEGs and 24 down-regulated DEGs were identified exclusively in the single varieties after 2 days of salt stress...
October 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924067/chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-induces-cardiac-inflammation-and-dysfunction-in-a-rat-obstructive-sleep-apnea-model
#19
Qin Wei, Yeping Bian, Fuchao Yu, Qiang Zhang, Guanghao Zhang, Yang Li, Songsong Song, Xiaomei Ren, Jiayi Tong
Chronic intermittent hypoxia is considered to play an important role in cardiovascular pathogenesis during the development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We used a well-described OSA rat model induced with simultaneous intermittent hypoxia. Male Sprague Dawley rats were individually placed into plexiglass chambers with air pressure and components were electronically controlled. The rats were exposed to intermittent hypoxia 8 hours daily for 5 weeks. The changes of cardiac structure and function were examined by ultrasound...
November 2016: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923983/sex-differences-in-function-and-structure-of-the-quadriceps-muscle-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients
#20
Pilar Ausín, Juana Martínez-Llorens, Marina Sabaté-Bresco, Carme Casadevall, Esther Barreiro, Joaquim Gea
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex disorder with extrapulmonary manifestations. Even though there is some knowledge regarding sex differences in the lung disease, little is known about extrapulmonary manifestations. Our aim was to analyze the specific profile of muscle dysfunction, structure, and biology in COPD women. Twenty-one women and 19 men with stable COPD as well as 15 controls were included. Nutritional status, physical activity, lung and muscle function, exercise capacity, and quality of life were assessed...
December 6, 2016: Chronic Respiratory Disease
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