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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433000/elastic-moduli-of-electrospun-mats-importance-of-fiber-curvature-and-specimen-dimensions
#1
Vijay Kumar, Amit Rawal
Success of tissue engineering relies on the architecture and properties of porous scaffolds. Electrospun nonwoven scaffolds in the form of mats are unique materials due to large surface area to volume ratio, high porosity, versatility in surface functionalities and excellent mechanical properties. Maneuvering the mechanical behavior of the electrospun mat is a major challenge both from theoretical and experimental perspectives. Herein, we report a two-dimensional (2D) analytical model of normalized elastic moduli of electrospun mats by formulating a relationship with the governing fiber and structural parameters...
April 12, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432679/potential-use-of-cowpea-vigna-unguiculata-l-walp-stover-treated-with-white-rot-fungi-as-rabbit-feed
#2
Ederson Andrade, Victor Pinheiro, Alexandre Gonçalves, John W Cone, Guilhermina Marques, Valéria Silva, Luis Ferreira, Miguel Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Lignin inhibitory effects within the cell wall structure constitute a serious drawback in maximizing the utilization of fibrous feedstuffs in animal feeding. In this way, treatments that promote efficient delignification of these materials must be applied. This study evaluated the potential of white-rot fungi to upgrade the nutritive value of cowpea stover for rabbits feeding. RESULTS: There was an increase in the crude protein content of all substrates as a result of fungi treatments reaching a net gain of 13% for Pleurotus citrinopileatus incubation...
April 22, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432602/sphenopalatine-ganglion-block-in-the-management-of-chronic-headaches
#3
REVIEW
Jeffery Mojica, Bi Mo, Andrew Ng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) block has been used by clinicians in the treatment of a variety of headache disorders, facial pain syndromes, and other facial neuralgias. The sensory and autonomic fibers that travel through the SPG provided the scientific rationale for symptoms associated with these head and neck syndromes. Yet, despite the elucidation of this pathogenic target, the optimal method to block its pain-producing properties has not been determined. Clinicians have developed various invasive and non-invasive techniques, each of which has shown variable rates of success...
June 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432601/neuropathic-pain-central-vs-peripheral-mechanisms
#4
REVIEW
Kathleen Meacham, Andrew Shepherd, Durga P Mohapatra, Simon Haroutounian
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our goal is to examine the processes-both central and peripheral-that underlie the development of peripherally-induced neuropathic pain (pNP) and to highlight recent evidence for mechanisms contributing to its maintenance. While many pNP conditions are initiated by damage to the peripheral nervous system (PNS), their persistence appears to rely on maladaptive processes within the central nervous system (CNS). The potential existence of an autonomous pain-generating mechanism in the CNS creates significant implications for the development of new neuropathic pain treatments; thus, work towards its resolution is crucial...
June 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432452/fluorescent-angioscopic-imaging-of-calcium-phosphate-tribasic-precursor-of-hydroxyapatite-the-major-calcium-deposit-in-human-coronary-plaques
#5
Takanobu Kobayashi, Osamu Nakagawa, Seiichiro Shirai, Ei Shimoyama, Nobuyuki Hiruta, Yasumi Uchida
Coronary calcification is a risk factor for ischemic heart disease. Hydroxyapatite that is formed by polymerization from calcium phosphate tribasic (CPT) is the major constituent of coronary calcium deposits. If CPT could be visualized, coronary calcification could be predicted and prevented. We discovered that when CPT and collagen I, the main constituent of collagen fibers, are mixed with lac dye (LD) and then exposed to fluorescent light excited at 345 ± 15 nm and emitted at 420 nm, a purple fluorescence that is characteristic of CPT only is elicited...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432448/resistance-to-radial-expansion-limits-muscle-strain-and-work
#6
E Azizi, A R Deslauriers, N C Holt, C E Eaton
The collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) of skeletal muscle functions to transmit force, protect sensitive structures, and generate passive tension to resist stretch. The mechanical properties of the ECM change with age, atrophy, and neuromuscular pathologies, resulting in an increase in the relative amount of collagen and an increase in stiffness. Although numerous studies have focused on the effect of muscle fibrosis on passive muscle stiffness, few have examined how these structural changes may compromise contractile performance...
April 21, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432318/orbital-angular-momentum-oam-conversion-and-multicasting-using-n-core-supermode-fiber
#7
Guang-Hao Shao, Shao-Cheng Yan, Wei Luo, Guo-Wei Lu, Yan-Qing Lu
We propose and numerically demonstrate a conversion and multicasting scheme of orbital angular momentum (OAM) states by using N-core supermode fiber (NCSF), where the topological charges of converted OAM states mainly depend on the injected OAM state and the number of fiber cores. The conversion efficiency (CE) of the converted OAM states could be optimized by properly designing the fiber structure. Take N = 6 as an example, ~37% CE could be achieved at telecom bands. Moreover, even for a fabricated NCSF, the CE could be dynamically changed by stretching the fiber or by adjusting the refractive index of the fiber cores through external control of the environmental conditions...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432254/tlr4-defective-c3h-hej-mice-are-not-protected-from-cast-immobilization-induced-muscle-atrophy
#8
Noriaki Kawanishi, Risa Nozaki, Hisashi Naito, Shuichi Machida
Recent studies have shown that activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 signaling may be an important factor in muscle atrophy and excessive inflammatory response associated with immobilization. To examine the role of TLR4 signaling on cast immobilization-induced skeletal muscle atrophy, we tested the hypothesis that muscle atrophy and inflammation after cast immobilization is reduced in TLR4-defective mice. TLR4-defective (C3H/HeJ) and wild type (C3H/HeN) mice were divided into control and cast-immobilization groups...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432188/magnetic-resonance-neurography-visualizes-abnormalities-in-sciatic-and-tibial-nerves-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-and-neuropathy
#9
Michael Vaeggemose, Mirko Pham, Steffen Ringgaard, Hatice Tankisi, Niels Ejskjaer, Sabine Heiland, Per L Poulsen, Henning Andersen
This study evaluates whether diffusion-tensor-imaging MR-Neurography (DTI-MRN), T2-relaxation-time and proton-spin-density can detect and grade neuropathic abnormalities in patients with type 1 diabetes.Forty-nine patients with type 1 diabetes (11 with severe polyneuropathy (sDPN), 13 with mild polyneuropathy (mDPN) and 25 without polyneuropathy (nDPN)) and 30 healthy controls (HC) were included. Clinical examinations, nerve-conduction-studies and vibratory-perception-thresholds determined the presence and severity of DPN...
April 21, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432118/molecular-basis-for-exercise-induced-fatigue-the-importance-of-strictly-controlled-cellular-ca-2-handling
#10
Arthur J Cheng, Nicolas Place, Håkan Westerblad
The contractile function of skeletal muscle declines during intense or prolonged physical exercise, that is, fatigue develops. Skeletal muscle fibers fatigue acutely during highly intense exercise when they have to rely on anaerobic metabolism. Early stages of fatigue involve impaired myofibrillar function, whereas decreased Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) becomes more important in later stages. SR Ca(2+) release can also become reduced with more prolonged, lower intensity exercise, and it is then related to glycogen depletion...
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432057/imaging-and-modeling-of-acute-pressure-induced-changes-of-collagen-and-elastin-microarchitectures-in-pig-and-human-resistance-arteries
#11
Maria Bloksgaard, Thomas M Leurgans, Bart Spronck, Maarten Hg Heusinkveld, Bjarne Thorsted, Kristoffer Rosenstand, Inger Nissen, Ulla Melchior Hansen, Jonathan R Brewer, Luis A Bagatolli, Lars M Rasmussen, Akhmadjon Irmukhamedov, Koen D Reesink, Jo G R De Mey
The impact of disease related changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM) on the mechanical properties of human resistance arteries largely remains to be established. Resistance arteries from both pig and human parietal pericardium (PRA) display a different ECM microarchitecture compared to frequently used rodent mesenteric arteries. We hypothesized that the biaxial mechanics of PRA mirror pressure induced changes in the ECM microarchitecture. This was tested using isolated pig PRA as model system, integrating vital imaging, pressure myography and mathematical modeling...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432009/the-lateral-hypothalamus-to-lateral-habenula-projection-but-not-the-ventral-pallidum-to-lateral-habenula-projection-regulates-voluntary-ethanol-consumption
#12
Chandni Sheth, Teri M Furlong, Kristen A Keefe, Sharif A Taha
The lateral habenula (LHb) is an epithalamic brain region implicated in aversive processing via negative modulation of midbrain dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) systems. Given the role of the LHb in inhibiting DA and 5-HT systems, it is thought to be involved in various psychiatric pathologies, including drug addiction. In support, it has been shown that LHb plays a critical role in cocaine- and ethanol-related behaviors, most likely by mediating drug-induced aversive conditioning. In our previous work, we showed that LHb lesions increased voluntary ethanol consumption and operant ethanol self-administration and blocked yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol self-administration...
April 18, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431803/reutilization-of-discarded-biomass-for-preparing-functional-polymer-materials
#13
REVIEW
Jianfeng Wang, Wenzhen Qian, Yufeng He, Yubing Xiong, Pengfei Song, Rong-Min Wang
Biomass is abundant and recyclable on the earth, which has been assigned numerous roles to human beings. However, over the past decades, accompanying with the rapid expansion of man-made materials, such as alloy, plastic, synthetic rubber and fiber, a great number of natural materials had been neglected and abandoned, such as straw, which cause a waste of resource and environmental pollution. In this review, based on introducing sources of discarded biomass, the main composition and polymer chains in discarded biomass materials, the traditional treatment and novel approach for reutilization of discarded biomass were summarized...
April 18, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431604/a-reappraisal-of-diagnostic-tests-for-myasthenia-gravis-in-a-large-asian-cohort
#14
Yew Long Lo, Raymond P Najjar, Kelvin Y Teo, Sharon L Tow, Jing Liang Loo, Dan Milea
BACKGROUND: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by weakness of bodily skeletal muscles. Office-based diagnostic tests such as repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS), single fiber electromyography (SFEMG), and the ice test, are used to refine the differential clinical diagnosis of this disease. Evaluating the clinical sensitivity and specificity of these tests, however, may be confounded by lack of a gold standard, non-blinding, incorporation bias, use of non-representative populations and retrospective data...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431586/expression-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-in-the-infrapatellar-fat-pad-in-knee-osteoarthritis-patients
#15
Jun Aikawa, Kentaro Uchida, Shotaro Takano, Gen Inoue, Atsushi Minatani, Masayuki Miyagi, Dai Iwase, Hiroyuki Sekiguchi, Manabu Mukai, Masashi Takaso
BACKGROUND: The infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP) has been implicated as a possible source of osteoarthritis (OA) development and knee pain due to the production of inflammatory mediators and the existence of nerve fibers within this structure. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a vasodilatory neuropeptide that is localized to joint tissues and has recently been implicated in the development of knee OA and OA pain. To date, however, the expression levels of CGRP in the IPFP of human knee OA patients have not been examined...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431559/effects-of-whole-grain-rye-with-and-without-resistant-starch-type-2-supplementation-on-glucose-tolerance-gut-hormones-inflammation-and-appetite-regulation-in-an-11-14-5%C3%A2-hour-perspective-a-randomized-controlled-study-in-healthy-subjects
#16
Jonna C Sandberg, Inger M E Björck, Anne C Nilsson
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide and prevention is needed. Whole grain has shown potential to lower the risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. One possible mechanism behind the benefits of whole grain is the gut fermentation of dietary fiber (DF), e.g. non-starch polysaccharides and resistant starch (RS), in whole grain. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of whole grain rye-based products on glucose- and appetite regulation...
April 21, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431523/the-utility-of-electron-microscopy-in-detecting-asbestos-fibers-and-particles-in-balf-in-diffuse-lung-diseases
#17
Takashi Kido, Yasuo Morimoto, Kazuhiro Yatera, Hiroshi Ishimoto, Takaaki Ogoshi, Keishi Oda, Kei Yamasaki, Toshinori Kawanami, Shohei Shimajiri, Hiroshi Mukae
BACKGROUND: In patients with diffuse lung diseases, differentiating occupational lung diseases from other diseases is clinically important. However, the value of assessing asbestos and particles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in diffuse lung diseases by electron microscopy (EM) remains unclear. We evaluated the utility of EM in detecting asbestos fibers and particles in patients with diffuse lung diseases. METHODS: The BALF specimens of 107 patients with diffuse lung diseases were evaluated...
April 21, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431266/reduced-abnormal-integration-of-adult-generated-granule-cells-does-not-attenuate-spontaneous-recurrent-seizures-in-mice
#18
Kun Zhu, Bo Yuan, Ming Hu, Gai-Feng Feng, Yong Liu, Jian-Xin Liu
Epileptic seizures lead to aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis, including increased proliferation of neural progenitors and abnormal integrations of newly generated granule cells - hilar ectopic granule cells (EGCs), mossy fiber sprouting (MFS), and hilar basal dendrites (HBDs). Previous results from ablating hippocampal neurogenesis after acute seizures have been controversial with regards to the development of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs). While ablation of hippocampal newborn cells was effective, a sufficient decrease of subsequent abnormal integrations in chronically epileptic hippocampus was not well-established in these studies...
April 11, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431149/next-generation-non-starch-polysaccharide-degrading-multi-carbohydrase-complex-rich-in-xylanase-and-arabinofuranosidase-to-enhance-broiler-feed-digestibility
#19
Pierre Cozannet, Michael T Kidd, Roberto Montanhini Neto, Pierre-André Geraert
This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of a multi-carbohydrase complex ( ) rich in xylanase ( ) and arabinofuranosidase ( ) on overall broiler feed digestibility in broilers. Energy utilization and digestibility of dry matter ( ), organic matter ( ), protein, starch, fat, and insoluble and soluble fibers were measured using the mass-balance method. The experiment was carried out on 120 broilers (3-week-old chickens). Broilers were distributed over 8 treatments to evaluate the effect of the dietary arabinoxylan content and nutrient density with and without MCC (Rovabio® Advance)...
April 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430876/ift25-an-intraflagellar-transporter-protein-dispensable-for-ciliogenesis-in-somatic-cells-is-essential-for-sperm-flagella-formation
#20
Hong Liu, Wei Li, Yong Zhang, Zhengang Zhang, Xuejun Shang, Ling Zhang, Shiyang Zhang, Yanwei Li, Andres V Somoza, Brandon Delpi, George L Gerton, James A Foster, Rex A Hess, Gregory J Pazour, Zhibing Zhang
Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is a conserved mechanism essential for the assembly and maintenance of most eukaryotic cilia and flagella. However, IFT25, a component of the IFT complex is not required for the formation of cilia in somatic tissues. In mice, the gene is highly expressed in the testis, and its expression is up-regulated during the final phase when sperm flagella are formed. To investigate the role of IFT25 in sperm flagella formation, the gene was specifically disrupted in male germ cells. All homozygous knockout mice survived to adulthood and did not show any gross abnormalities...
April 18, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
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