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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343357/gut-microbiome-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#1
REVIEW
R G Armani, A Ramezani, A Yasir, S Sharama, M E F Canziani, D S Raj
With over 100 trillion microbial cells, the gut microbiome plays important roles in both the maintenance of health and the pathogenesis of disease. Gut microbiome dysbiosis, resulted from alteration of composition and function of the gut microbiome and disruption of gut barrier function, is commonly seen in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The dysbiotic gut microbiome generates excessive amounts of uremic toxins, and the impaired intestinal barrier permits translocation of these toxins into the systemic circulation...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343348/process-analytical-techniques-for-hot-melt-extrusion-and-their-application-to-amorphous-solid-dispersions
#2
REVIEW
Patrick Hitzer, Tim Bäuerle, Tobias Drieschner, Edwin Ostertag, Katharina Paulsen, Holger van Lishaut, Günter Lorenz, Karsten Rebner
Newly developed active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are often poorly soluble in water. As a result the bioavailability of the API in the human body is reduced. One approach to overcome this restriction is the formulation of amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs), e.g., by hot-melt extrusion (HME). Thus, the poorly soluble crystalline form of the API is transferred into a more soluble amorphous form. To reach this aim in HME, the APIs are embedded in a polymer matrix. The resulting amorphous solid dispersions may contain small amounts of residual crystallinity and have the tendency to recrystallize...
March 25, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343306/the-ins-and-outs-of-molecular-pathology-reporting
#3
REVIEW
Véronique Tack, Kelly Dufraing, Zandra C Deans, Han J van Krieken, Elisabeth M C Dequeker
The raid evolution in molecular pathology resulting in an increasing complexity requires careful reporting. The need for standardisation is clearer than ever. While synoptic reporting was first used for reporting hereditary genetic diseases, it is becoming more frequent in pathology, especially molecular pathology reports too. The narrative approach is no longer feasible with the growing amount of essential data present on the report, although narrative components are still necessary for interpretation in molecular pathology...
March 26, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343106/a-structure-based-plasma-protein-pre-fractionation-using-conjoint-immobilized-metal-chelate-affinity-ima-system
#4
Karan Karkra, Kishore K R Tetala, M A Vijayalakshmi
The potential of immobilized metal/chelate affinity (IMA) in a continuous fashion, referred as conjoint approach, to pre-fractionate plasma proteins (in their native state) prior to LC-MS analysis was investigated in this study. Four transition metal-ions (Co (II), Zn (II), Ni (II) and Cu (II)) were individually chelated with IDA (iminodiacetic acid) coated CIM (Convective Interaction Media) disks and placed in a single housing in the following sequential order: IDA-Co (II)→IDA-Zn (II)→IDA-Ni (II)→IDA-Cu (II)...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342527/development-of-a-decentralized-multi-axis-synchronous-control-approach-for-real-time-networks
#5
Xiong Xu, Guo-Ying Gu, Zhenhua Xiong, Xinjun Sheng, Xiangyang Zhu
The message scheduling and the network-induced delays of real-time networks, together with the different inertias and disturbances in different axes, make the synchronous control of the real-time network-based systems quite challenging. To address this challenge, a decentralized multi-axis synchronous control approach is developed in this paper. Due to the limitations of message scheduling and network bandwidth, error of the position synchronization is firstly defined in the proposed control approach as a subset of preceding-axis pairs...
March 23, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340269/prevention-of-dna-damage-and-anticarcinogenic-activity-of-activia-%C3%A2-in-a-preclinical-model
#6
S M A Limeiras, F M Ogo, L A L Genez, C M Carreira, E J T Oliveira, L R Pessatto, S C Neves, J R Pesarini, L C Schweich, R A Silva, W B Cantero, A C M B Antoniolli-Silva, R J Oliveira
Colorectal cancer is a global public health issue. Studies have pointed to the protective effect of probiotics on colorectal carcinogenesis. Activia(®) is a lacto probiotic product that is widely consumed all over the world and its beneficial properties are related, mainly, to the lineage of traditional yoghurt bacteria combined with a specific bacillus, DanRegularis, which gives the product a proven capacity to intestinal regulation in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antigenotoxic, antimutagenic, and anticarcinogenic proprieties of the Activia product, in response to damage caused by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in Swiss mice...
March 22, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340246/considerations-on-glycaemic-control-in-older-and-or-frail-individuals-with-diabetes-and-advanced-kidney-disease
#7
Nicolae Mircea Panduru, Ionut Nistor, Per-Henrik Groop, Wim Van Biesen, Ken Farrington, Adrian Covic
The increasing prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes over the last decade has resulted in increasing numbers of frail older patients with a combination of these conditions. Current treatment guidelines may not necessarily be relevant for such patients, who are mostly excluded from the trials upon which these recommendations are based. There is a paucity of data upon which to base the management of older patients with CKD. Nearly all current guidelines recommend less-tight glycaemic control for the older population, citing the lack of proven medium-term benefits and concerns about the high short-term risk of hypoglycaemia...
March 13, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340136/the-effect-of-a-class-smoke-free-pledge-on-breath-carbon-monoxide-in-arabic-male-adolescents
#8
Nihaya A Al-Sheyab, Yousef S Khader, Smita Shah, Jessica K Roydhouse, Robyn Gallagher
Introduction: Arabic male adolescents have a high smoking prevalence. Introduction of "Class smoke-free" pledges have been successful amongst European adolescents but have not been evaluated using objective valid measures. We tested the impact of adding a smoke free pledge strategy to a proven peer-led asthma and smoking prevention program on breath carbon monoxide level (BCO) in male high-school students in Jordan. Methods: We enrolled male students from four high-schools in Irbid, Jordan...
March 3, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340117/an-evaluation-of-the-performance-of-the-dynamiker%C3%A2-fungus-1-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan-assay-to-assist-in-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillosis-invasive-candidiasis-and-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#9
P Lewis White, Jessica S Price, Raquel B Posso, Rosemary A Barnes
Invasive fungal disease (IFD) can be caused by a range of pathogens. Conventional diagnosis has the capacity to detect most causes of IFD, but poor performance limits impact. The introduction of non-culture diagnostics, including the detection of (1-3)-β-D-Glucan (BDG), has shown promising performance for the detection of IFD in variety of clinical settings. Recently, the Dynamiker® Fungus (1-3)-β-D-Glucan assay (D-BDG) was released as an IFD diagnostic test. This article describes an evaluation of the D-BDG assay for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA), invasive candidiasis (IC) and Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) across several high-risk patient cohorts and provides comparative data with the Associates of Cape Cod Fungitell® and BioRad Platelia™ Aspergillus Ag (GM) assays...
March 3, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339906/interstitial-fibrosis-scored-on-whole-slide-digital-imaging-of-kidney-biopsies-is-a-predictor-of-outcome-in-proteinuric-glomerulopathies
#10
Laura H Mariani, Sebastian Martini, Laura Barisoni, Pietro A Canetta, Jonathan P Troost, Jeffrey B Hodgin, Matthew Palmer, Avi Z Rosenberg, Kevin V Lemley, Hui-Ping Chien, Jarcy Zee, Abigail Smith, Gerald B Appel, Howard Trachtman, Stephen M Hewitt, Matthias Kretzler, Serena M Bagnasco
Background.: Interstitial fibrosis (IF), tubular atrophy (TA) and interstitial inflammation (II) are known determinants of progression of renal disease. Standardized quantification of these features could add value to current classification of glomerulopathies. Methods.: We studied 315 participants in the Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network (NEPTUNE) study, including biopsy-proven minimal change disease (MCD = 98), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS = 121), membranous nephropathy (MN = 59) and IgA nephropathy (IgAN = 37)...
February 27, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339709/clinicopathologic-correlations-of-renal-pathology-in-adult-population-of-poland
#11
Agnieszka Perkowska-Ptasinska, Artur Bartczak, Malgorzata Wagrowska-Danilewicz, Agnieszka Halon, Krzysztof Okon, Aldona Wozniak, Marian Danilewicz, Henryk Karkoszka, Andrzej Marszalek, Jolanta Kowalewska, Andrzej Mroz, Agnieszka Korolczuk, Andrzej Oko, Alicja Debska-Slizien, Beata Naumnik, Zbigniew Hruby, Marian Klinger, Kazimierz Ciechanowski, Marek Myslak, Wladyslaw Sulowicz, Andrzej Rydzewski, Andrzej Wiecek, Jacek Manitius, Tadeusz Gregorczyk, Stanislaw Niemczyk, Michal Nowicki, Ryszard Gellert, Tomasz Stompor, Monika Wieliczko, Krzysztof Marczewski, Leszek Paczek, Olga Rostkowska, Dominika Deborska-Materkowska, Grazyna Bogdanowicz, Andrzej Milkowski, Magdalena Durlik
Background: This is the first report on the epidemiology of biopsy-proven kidney diseases in Poland. Methods: The Polish Registry of Renal Biopsies has collected information on all (n = 9394) native renal biopsies performed in Poland from 2009 to 2014. Patients' clinical data collected at the time of biopsy, and histopathological diagnoses were used for epidemiological and clinicopathologic analysis. Results: There was a gradual increase in the number of native renal biopsies performed per million people (PMP) per year in Poland in 2009-14, starting from 36 PMP in 2009 to 44 PMP in 2014...
February 11, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339605/uniparental-chicken-offsprings-derived-from-oogenesis-of-chicken-primordial-germ-cells-zz-%C3%A2
#12
Chunhai Liu, Il-Kuk Chang, Kamal A Khazanehdari, Shruti Thomas, Preetha Varghese, Vijaya Baskar, Razan Alkhatib, Wenhai Li, Jörg Kinne, Michael J McGrew, Ulrich Wernery
Cloning (somatic cell nuclear transfer) in avian species has proven unachievable due to the physical structure of the avian oocyte. Here, the sexual differentiation of primordial germ cells with genetic sex ZZ (ZZ PGCs) was investigated in female germline chimeric chicken hosts with the aim to produce uniparental offspring. ZZ PGCs were expanded in culture and transplanted into the same and opposite sex chicken embryos which were partially sterilized using irradiation. All tested chimeric roosters (ZZ/ZZ) showed germline transmission with transmission rates of 3...
February 2, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339478/morphological-and-morphometric-specializations-of-the-lung-of-the-andean-goose-chloephaga-melanoptera-a-lifelong-high-altitude-resident
#13
John N Maina, Kevin G McCracken, Beverly Chua, Julia M York, William K Milsom
High altitude flight in rarefied, extremely cold and hypoxic air is a very challenging activity. Only a few species of birds can achieve it. Hitherto, the structure of the lungs of such birds has not been studied. This is because of the rarity of such species and the challenges of preparing well-fixed lung tissue. Here, it was posited that in addition to the now proven physiological adaptations, high altitude flying birds will also have acquired pulmonary structural adaptations that enable them to obtain the large amounts of oxygen (O2) needed for flight at high elevation, an environment where O2 levels are very low...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339063/viral-and-host-factors-associated-with-outcomes-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-review
#14
Zehui Yan, Yuming Wang
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major health issue globally. Owing to the progress made in host genetics and HCV molecular virology, emerging data have suggested that the natural course and treatment response in patients with HCV infection are largely determined by complex host‑viral interactions. HCV genotype is the most important viral factor predicting the response to pegylated interferon‑α plus ribavirin therapy. The subtype of HCV genotype 1 is the key viral factor that predicts the efficacy of direct‑acting antiviral therapy...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339007/mir%C3%A2-217-inhibits-osteogenic-differentiation-of-rat-bone-marrow%C3%A2-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-binding-to-runx2
#15
Yu-Long Zhu, Shui Wang, De-Gang Ding, Liang Xu, Hai-Tao Zhu
The elucidation of the underlying molecular mechanisms regulating the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow‑derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) is of great importance in improving the treatment of bone‑associated diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been proven to regulate the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. The present study investigated the role of miR‑217 in the osteogenic differentiation of rat BMSCs. It was observed that miR‑217 expression levels were downregulated during the process of osteogenic differentiation...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338976/synchronisms-between-bud-and-cambium-phenology-in-black-spruce-early-flushing-provenances-exhibit-early-xylem-formation
#16
Magali Perrin, Sergio Rossi, Nathalie Isabel
Bud and cambial phenology represent the adaptation of species to the local environment that allows the growing season to be maximized while minimizing the risk of frost for the developing tissues. The temporal relationship between the apical and radial meristems can help in the understanding of tree growth as a whole process. The aim of this study was to compare cambial phenology in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) provenances classified as early and late bud flushing. The different phases of cambial phenology were assessed on wood microcores sampled weekly from April to October in 2014 and 2015 from 61 trees growing in a provenance trial in Quebec, Canada...
March 3, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338763/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-and-autoimmunity
#17
Vito Pistoia, Lizzia Raffaghello
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are committed progenitors of mesodermal origin that are found virtually in every organ and exhibit multilineage differentiation into osteocytes, adipocytes and chondrocytes. MSCs also mediate a wide spectrum of immunoregulatory activities that usually dampen innate and adaptive immune responses. These features have attracted interest in the perspective of developing novel cell therapies for autoimmune disease. However, depending on the microenvironmental conditions, MSCs may show a plastic behavior and switch to an immunostimulatory phenotype...
February 18, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338627/morphology-analysis-and-optimization-crucial-factor-determining-the-performance-of-perovskite-solar-cells
#18
REVIEW
Wenjin Zeng, Xingming Liu, Xiangru Guo, Qiaoli Niu, Jianpeng Yi, Ruidong Xia, Yong Min
This review presents an overall discussion on the morphology analysis and optimization for perovskite (PVSK) solar cells. Surface morphology and energy alignment have been proven to play a dominant role in determining the device performance. The effect of the key parameters such as solution condition and preparation atmosphere on the crystallization of PVSK, the characterization of surface morphology and interface distribution in the perovskite layer is discussed in detail. Furthermore, the analysis of interface energy level alignment by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy is presented to reveals the correlation between morphology and charge generation and collection within the perovskite layer, and its influence on the device performance...
March 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338572/the-drivers-of-medicare-reimbursement-for-thoracolumbar-fusion-an-analysis-of-data-from-the-centers-for-medicare-and-medicaid-services
#19
Krishn Khanna, Eric M Padegimas, Benjamin Zmistowski, Michael Howley, Kushagra Vema
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective observational OBJECTIVE.: The purpose of this study is to examine the variation in Thoracolumbar Fusion (TLF) payment and determine the drivers of this variation. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: As healthcare spending continues to increase, variation in surgical procedures reimbursements has come under more scrutiny. TLF is an example of a high-cost, proven-benefit procedure that is often the focus of Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) administrators...
March 23, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338351/worldwide-impact-of-warmer-seasons-on-the-on-the-incidence-of-renal-colic-and-kidney-stone-disease-ksd-evidence-from-a-systematic-review-of-literature
#20
Robert Geraghty, Silvia Proietti, Olivier Traxer, Matthew Archer, Bhaskar K Somani
INTRODUCTION: Several studies have examined the link between temperature or monthly-seasonal variations and urolithiasis. The majority of these studies have demonstrated a link between higher ambient monthly temperatures and the incidence of renal colic and kidney stone disease (KSD). However a worldwide trend on this association has not been explored and we perform a systematic review to examine the effect of seasonal variations on renal colic and KSD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of literature over a 26-year period (1990-2017) was conducted on all studies reporting on the effect of seasonal variations and its link to KSD...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Endourology
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