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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161220/speaking-with-and-without-words-an-analysis-of-foster-children-s-expressions-and-behaviors-that-are-suggestive-of-prior-sexual-abuse
#1
Dorijn Wubs, Laura Batstra, Hans W E Grietens
This exploratory study reports on foster children's informal self-disclosures of previously unknown histories of sexual abuse. Data were collected from 40 children's files, and an inductive thematic analysis of verbal and behavioral expressions was conducted. Findings suggest that foster children's self-disclosures can be fragmented, spontaneous, narrative, or triggered and often occur during everyday activities in the foster family. The children disclose their past by referring to the perpetrator or the severity of the abuse or by acting out, mostly by reenacting sexual abuse experiences...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160019/comparison-of-animal-action-and-phonemic-fluency-in-aphasia
#2
Yasmeen Faroqi-Shah, Lisa Milman
BACKGROUND: The ability to generate words that follow certain constraints, or verbal fluency, is a sensitive indicator of neurocognitive impairment, and is impacted by a variety of variables. AIMS: To investigate the effect of post-stroke aphasia, elicitation category and linguistic variables on verbal fluency performance. METHODS & PROCEDURES: Twenty-eight persons with aphasia (PWA) with a single left-hemisphere lesion and 40 age-matched neurotypical community-dwelling adults were administered three verbal fluency tasks: two semantic (animals and actions) and one phonemic (the letters F, A and S)...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158378/kinship-structures-create-persistent-channels-for-language-transmission
#3
J Stephen Lansing, Cheryl Abundo, Guy S Jacobs, Elsa G Guillot, Stefan Thurner, Sean S Downey, Lock Yue Chew, Tanmoy Bhattacharya, Ning Ning Chung, Herawati Sudoyo, Murray P Cox
Languages are transmitted through channels created by kinship systems. Given sufficient time, these kinship channels can change the genetic and linguistic structure of populations. In traditional societies of eastern Indonesia, finely resolved cophylogenies of languages and genes reveal persistent movements between stable speech communities facilitated by kinship rules. When multiple languages are present in a region and postmarital residence rules encourage sustained directional movement between speech communities, then languages should be channeled along uniparental lines...
November 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156241/pre-linguistic-segmentation-of-speech-into-syllable-like-units
#4
Okko Räsänen, Gabriel Doyle, Michael C Frank
Syllables are often considered to be central to infant and adult speech perception. Many theories and behavioral studies on early language acquisition are also based on syllable-level representations of spoken language. There is little clarity, however, on what sort of pre-linguistic "syllable" would actually be accessible to an infant with no phonological or lexical knowledge. Anchored by the notion that syllables are organized around particularly sonorous (audible) speech sounds, the present study investigates the feasibility of speech segmentation into syllable-like chunks without any a priori linguistic knowledge...
November 17, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154635/you-have-to-hear-this-using-tone-of-voice-to-motivate-others
#5
Netta Weinstein, Konstantina Zougkou, Silke Paulmann
The present studies explored the role of prosody in motivating others, and applied self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000) to do so. Initial studies describe patterns of prosody that discriminate motivational speech. Autonomy support was expressed with lower intensity, slower speech rate and less voice energy in both motivationally laden and neutral (but motivationally primed) sentences. In a follow-up study, participants were able to recognize motivational prosody in semantically neutral sentences, suggesting prosody alone may carry motivational content...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152701/risk-communication-by-health-professionals-an-analysis-of-press-releases-drafted-by-italian-veterinarians
#6
Claudio Mantovani, Stefania Crovato, Anna Pinto, Giulia Mascarello, Michele Cortelazzo, Licia Ravarotto
The aim of this study is to analyse and evaluate the knowledge concerning risk communication acquired by veterinarians during a national training course. The study analyses 694 press releases written during the training course. Textual variables and indexes were considered to identify the linguistic structures used by veterinarians. At first, the analysis of press releases focused on the descriptive demographic variables, then stylistic and editorial variables were considered, and finally a lexicographic analysis was performed on the textual variables...
September 30, 2017: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151821/streamqre-modular-specification-and-efficient-evaluation-of-quantitative-queries-over-streaming-data
#7
Konstantinos Mamouras, Mukund Raghothaman, Rajeev Alur, Zachary G Ives, Sanjeev Khanna
Real-time decision making in emerging IoT applications typically relies on computing quantitative summaries of large data streams in an efficient and incremental manner. To simplify the task of programming the desired logic, we propose StreamQRE, which provides natural and high-level constructs for processing streaming data. Our language has a novel integration of linguistic constructs from two distinct programming paradigms: streaming extensions of relational query languages and quantitative extensions of regular expressions...
June 2017: Proc ACM SIGPLAN Conf Program Lang Des Implement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151803/cognitive-consequences-of-trilingualism
#8
Scott R Schroeder, Viorica Marian
Aims and Objectives: The objectives of the present research were to examine the cognitive consequences of trilingualism and explain them relative to the cognitive consequences of bilingualism. Approach: A comparison of cognitive abilities in trilinguals and bilinguals was conducted. In addition, we proposed a cognitive plasticity framework to account for cognitive differences and similarities between trilinguals and bilinguals. Data and Analysis: Three aspects of cognition were analyzed: (1) cognitive reserve in older adults, as measured by age of onset of Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment; (2) inhibitory control in children and younger adults, as measured by response times on behavioral Simon and flanker tasks; and (3) memory generalization in infants and toddlers, as measured by accuracy on behavioral deferred imitation tasks...
2017: International Journal of Bilingualism: Cross-disciplinary, Cross-linguistic Studies of Language Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151122/genetic-polymorphisms-in-18-autosomal-str-loci-in-the-tibetan-population-living-in-tibet-chamdo-southwest-china
#9
Zhenghui Li, Jian Zhang, Hantao Zhang, Ziqing Lin, Jian Ye
Short tandem repeats (STRs) play a vitally important role in forensics. Population data is needed to improve the field. There is currently no large population data-based data set in Chamdo Tibetan. In our study, the allele frequencies and forensic statistical parameters of 18 autosomal STR loci (D5S818, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D2S1338, D3S1358, VWA, D8S1179, D16S539, PentaE, TPOX, TH01, D19S433, D18S51, FGA, D6S1043, D13S317, and D12S391) included in the DNATyper™19 kit were investigated in 2249 healthy, unrelated Tibetan subjects living in Tibet Chamdo, Southwest China...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151094/glossolalia-and-aphasia-related-but-different-worlds
#10
Leila Chouiter, Jean-Marie Annoni
The word glossolalia, also referred to as "speaking in tongues," originates from the Greek "glossa" which means "language" and "Lalia" which means "speak." It simply means to talk language. On a linguistic perspective, glossolalia is characterized by almost no recognizable words or semantic content, apart from biblical words and phrases, with an overrepresentation of a small phonemes number, accelerated speech output, and modification of accents and melody. Its phonemic properties have been said to resemble those of the language(s) of the speaker...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150626/constructing-genetic-networks-using-biomedical-literature-and-rare-event-classification
#11
Amira Al-Aamri, Kamal Taha, Yousof Al-Hammadi, Maher Maalouf, Dirar Homouz
Text mining has become an important tool in bioinformatics research with the massive growth in the biomedical literature over the past decade. Mining the biomedical literature has resulted in an incredible number of computational algorithms that assist many bioinformatics researchers. In this paper, we present a text mining system called Gene Interaction Rare Event Miner (GIREM) that constructs gene-gene-interaction networks for human genome using information extracted from biomedical literature. GIREM identifies functionally related genes based on their co-occurrences in the abstracts of biomedical literature...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148845/speech-recovery-and-language-plasticity-can-be-facilitated-by-sensori-motor-fusion-training-in-chronic-non-fluent-aphasia-a-case-report-study
#12
Célise Haldin, Audrey Acher, Louise Kauffmann, Thomas Hueber, Emilie Cousin, Pierre Badin, Pascal Perrier, Diandra Fabre, Dominic Perennou, Olivier Detante, Assia Jaillard, Hélène Lœvenbruck, Monica Baciu
The rehabilitation of speech disorders benefits from providing visual information which may improve speech motor plans in patients. We tested the proof of concept of a rehabilitation method (Sensori-Motor Fusion, SMF; Ultraspeech player) in one post-stroke patient presenting chronic non-fluent aphasia. SMF allows visualisation by the patient of target tongue and lips movements using high-speed ultrasound and video imaging. This can improve the patient's awareness of his/her own lingual and labial movements, which can, in turn, improve the representation of articulatory movements and increase the ability to coordinate and combine articulatory gestures...
November 17, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147832/wh-questions-universal-statements-and-free-choice-inferences-in-child-mandarin
#13
Haiquan Huang, Peng Zhou, Stephen Crain
This study investigated 5-year-old Mandarin-speaking children's comprehension of wh-questions, universal statements and free choice inferences. Previous research has found that Mandarin-speaking children assign a universal interpretation to sentences with a wh-word (e.g., shei 'who') followed by the adverbial quantifier dou 'all' (Zhou in Appl Psycholinguist 36:411-435, 2013). Children also compute free choice inferences in sentences that contain a modal verb in addition to a wh-word and dou (Zhou, in: Nakayama, Su, Huang (eds...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145359/racial-ethnic-health-disparities-among-rural-adults-united-states-2012-2015
#14
Cara V James, Ramal Moonesinghe, Shondelle M Wilson-Frederick, Jeffrey E Hall, Ana Penman-Aguilar, Karen Bouye
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Rural communities often have worse health outcomes, have less access to care, and are less diverse than urban communities. Much of the research on rural health disparities examines disparities between rural and urban communities, with fewer studies on disparities within rural communities. This report provides an overview of racial/ethnic health disparities for selected indicators in rural areas of the United States. REPORTING PERIOD: 2012-2015...
November 17, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145178/minor-hemisphere-major-syndromes
#15
Antonio Carota, Julien Bogousslavsky
A right "minor hemisphere" does not exist as the right hemisphere is dominant for awareness (nosognosia), spatial attention, emotional regulation, facial and voice expressions, visual recognition, and topographical orientation. Without the right hemisphere, the world would be flat, deprived of general and spatial attentions, pointing preferentially to the right side of the space, lacking visual experiences and emotions, exhibiting diminished awareness of the self and environment. Clinical-related syndromes of the right hemisphere are unilateral spatial neglect, object and face visual agnosia, the anosognosia for hemiparesis and/or hemianopia, misidentification syndromes, mania, and other obsessions for the food and the body...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144963/translation-and-validation-of-pediatric-quality-of-life-inventory%C3%A2-3-0-diabetes-module-pedsql%C3%A2-3-0-diabetes-module-in-brazil-portuguese-language
#16
Leila F Dos S Garcia, Thais Della Manna, Caroline de Gouveia Buff Passone, Lygia Spassapan de Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to create a translated version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ 3.0 Diabetes Module (PedsQL™ 3.0 Diabetes Module) in Brazilian Portuguese that was conceptually equivalent to the original American English version and to linguistically validate it in a Brazilian pediatric population with type 1 diabetes mellitus and their parents or caregivers. METHODS: The instrument was translated, back-translated, and then administered to 83 children/adolescents (5-18 years) with type 1 diabetes mellitus and their family members and to 25 parents/caregivers of patients aged between 2 and 4 years...
November 13, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143561/beyond-lip-service-towards-human-rights-driven-our-speech-language-pathology-guidelines-for-south-african-speech-language-pathologists
#17
Michelle Pascoe, Daleen Klop, Thandeka Mdlalo, Mikateko Ndhambi
Developed with a strong awareness of past injustices, South Africa's progressive constitution emphasises a full spectrum of human rights. While the constitution celebrates many languages and cultures, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) face challenges in translating these values into practice with a diverse clientele. Similarly, Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights focuses on freedom of expression in one's language of choice, but is often perceived as a "Cinderella" right (i.e. one that is frequently neglected)...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142043/the-higher-the-farther-distance-specific-referential-gestures-in-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#18
Chloe Gonseth, Fumito Kawakami, Etsuko Ichino, Masaki Tomonaga
Referential signals, such as manual pointing or deictic words, allow individuals to efficiently locate a specific entity in the environment, using distance-specific linguistic and/or gestural units. To explore the evolutionary prerequisites of such deictic ability, the present study investigates the ability of chimpanzees to adjust their communicative signals to the distance of a referent. A food-request paradigm in which the chimpanzees had to request a close or distant piece of food on a table in the presence/absence of an experimenter was employed...
November 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140189/predicting-the-sources-of-impaired-wh-question-comprehension-in-non-fluent-aphasia-a-cross-linguistic-machine-learning-study-on-turkish-and-german
#19
Seçkin Arslan, Eren Gür, Claudia Felser
This study investigates the comprehension of wh-questions in individuals with aphasia (IWA) speaking Turkish, a non-wh-movement language, and German, a wh-movement language. We examined six German-speaking and 11 Turkish-speaking IWA using picture-pointing tasks. Findings from our experiments show that the Turkish IWA responded more accurately to both object who and object which questions than to subject questions, while the German IWA performed better for subject which questions than in all other conditions...
November 15, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139070/mobile-health-application-and-e-health-literacy-opportunities-and-concerns-for-cancer-patients-and-caregivers
#20
Hyunmin Kim, Joy V Goldsmith, Soham Sengupta, Asos Mahmood, M Paige Powell, Jay Bhatt, Cyril F Chang, Soumitra S Bhuyan
Health literacy is critical for cancer patients as they must understand complex procedures or treatment options. Caregivers' health literacy also plays a crucial role in caring for cancer patients. Low health literacy is associated with low adherence to medications, poor health status, and increased health care costs. There is a growing interest in the use of mobile health applications (apps) to improve health literacy. Mobile health apps can empower underserved cancer patients and their caregivers by providing features or functionalities to enhance interactive patient-provider communication and to understand medical information more readily...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
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