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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736607/typical-versus-delayed-speech-onset-influences-verbal-reporting-of-autistic-interests
#1
Liliane Chiodo, Steve Majerus, Laurent Mottron
BACKGROUND: The distinction between autism and Asperger syndrome has been abandoned in the DSM-5. However, this clinical categorization largely overlaps with the presence or absence of a speech onset delay which is associated with clinical, cognitive, and neural differences. It is unknown whether these different speech development pathways and associated cognitive differences are involved in the heterogeneity of the restricted interests that characterize autistic adults. METHOD: This study tested the hypothesis that speech onset delay, or conversely, early mastery of speech, orients the nature and verbal reporting of adult autistic interests...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736538/agents-and-patients-in-physical-settings-linguistic-cues-affect-the-assignment-of-causality-in-german-and-tongan
#2
Andrea Bender, Sieghard Beller
Linguistic cues may be considered a potent tool for focusing attention on causes or effects. In this paper, we explore how different cues affect causal assignments in German and Tongan. From a larger screening study, two parts are reported here: Part 1 dealt with syntactic variations, including word order (agent vs. patient in first/subject position) and case marking (e.g., as ergative vs. non-ergative in Tongan) depending on verb type (transitive vs. intransitive). For two physical settings (wood floating on water and a man breaking a glass), participants assigned causality to the two entities involved...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735218/strength-of-linguistic-text-evidence-a-fused-forensic-text-comparison-system
#3
Shunichi Ishihara
Compared to other forensic comparative sciences, studies of the efficacy of the likelihood ratio (LR) framework in forensic authorship analysis are lagging. An experiment is described concerning the estimation of strength of linguistic text evidence within that framework. The LRs were estimated by trialling three different procedures: one is based on the multivariate kernel density (MVKD) formula, with each group of messages being modelled as a vector of authorship attribution features; the other two involve N-grams based on word tokens and characters, respectively...
July 8, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734837/neural-reuse-of-action-perception-circuits-for-language-concepts-and-communication
#4
REVIEW
Friedemann Pulvermüller
Neurocognitive and neurolinguistics theories make explicit statements relating specialized cognitive and linguistic processes to specific brain loci. These linking hypotheses are in need of neurobiological explanation. Recent mathematical models of human language mechanisms constrained by fundamental neuroscience principles and established knowledge about comparative neuroanatomy offer explanations for where, when and how language is processed in the human brain. In these models, network structure and connectivity along with action- and perception-induced correlation of neuronal activity co-determine neurocognitive mechanisms...
July 19, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733256/prefrontal-neuromodulation-reverses-spatial-associations-of-non-numerical-sequences-but-not-numbers
#5
Philipp Alexander Schroeder, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Christian Plewnia
Numerical and non-numerical sequence items interact with spatial responding, pointing towards mental representations that are grounded in space and referred to as SNARC effects (spatial-numerical association of response codes). An ongoing controversy pertains to the universal origin of different SNARC effects and whether their underpinning is a spatial arrangement of cardinal magnitude (mental number line) or a sequential arrangement of ordinal elements in working memory. Recent results from prefrontal neuromodulation with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) were supportive of the unified working memory account...
July 18, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732484/characteristic-differences-in-the-mini-mental-state-examination-used-in-asian-countries
#6
Yong S Shim, Dong Won Yang, Hee-Jin Kim, Young Ho Park, SangYun Kim
BACKGROUND: The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) was adapted by individual countries according to their languages and cultures, though it has not been systematically compared. The objective of this study was to compare the linguistic and cultural variations of the MMSE used in various Asian countries. With this, we can analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the MMSE and consider using a common version in future international clinical studies in Asia. METHODS: We collected the MMSEs used in 11 Asian nations...
July 21, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731604/nutritional-status-management-and-clinical-outcomes-in-patients-with-esophageal-and-gastro-oesophageal-cancers-a-descriptive-study
#7
May Mak, Katherine Bell, Weng Ng, Mark Lee
AIM: The aims of this study were to investigate the nutritional management practice and nutritional status of patients with oesophageal and gastro-oesophageal cancers, and to propose strategies for improving their nutritional and clinical outcomes. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with oesophageal and gastro-oesophageal cancers and treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy at the Liverpool Cancer Therapy Centre (between August 2010 and February 2014) were included in this retrospective study...
July 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730883/affected-aspects-regarding-literacy-and-numeracy-in-children-treated-for-brain-tumors
#8
Malin Lönnerblad, Riikka Lovio, Eva Berglund, Ingrid Van't Hooft
The aim of this study was to investigate the test results of reading speed, reading comprehension, word comprehension, spelling, basic arithmetic skills, and number sense (intuitive understanding of numbers) by children treated for brain tumors. This is a retrospective study based on medical records, including standardized academic tests. In the years of 2010 to 2014, all children in the area of Stockholm between 7 and 18 years (IQ <70) who had no major linguistic or motor difficulties after they had undergone treatment for brain tumors were offered a special education assessment one year after treatment, at school start, or the year before a transition from one stage to another...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing: Official Journal of the Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729814/who-gets-needed-mental-health-care-use-of-mental-health-services-among-adults-with-mental-health-need-in-california
#9
Linda Diem Tran, Ninez A Ponce
BACKGROUND: Timely and appropriate treatment could help reduce the burden of mental illness. PURPOSE: This study describes mental health services use among Californians with mental health need, highlights underserved populations, and discusses policy opportunities. METHODS: Four years of California Health Interview Survey data (2011, 2012, 2013, 2014) were pooled and weighted to the 2013 population to estimate mental health need and unmet need (n=82,706)...
2017: Californian Journal of Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729753/gesture-and-intonation-are-sister-systems-of-infant-communication-evidence-from-regression-patterns-of-language-development
#10
David P Snow
This study investigates infants' transition from nonverbal to verbal communication using evidence from regression patterns. As an example of regressions, prelinguistic infants learning American Sign Language (ASL) use pointing gestures to communicate. At the onset of single signs, however, these gestures disappear. Petitto (1987) attributed the regression to the children's discovery that pointing has two functions, namely, deixis and linguistic pronouns. The 1:2 relation (1 form, 2 functions) violates the simple 1:1 pattern that infants are believed to expect...
January 2017: Language Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727833/refugee-and-migrant-women-s-engagement-with-sexual-and-reproductive-health-care-in-australia-a-socio-ecological-analysis-of-health-care-professional-perspectives
#11
Zelalem B Mengesha, Janette Perz, Tinashe Dune, Jane Ussher
BACKGROUND: In Australia only 2.2% of published health research has focused on multi-cultural health despite the increase of culturally and linguistically diverse populations. Research on the perceptions and experiences of health care professionals (HCPs) in engaging with refugee and migrant women is also lacking. Given the integral role of HCPs in providing sexual and reproductive health (SRH) care for these populations, an understanding of the challenges they experience is required...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726019/arabic-translation-cultural-adaptation-and-validation-study-of-knee-outcome-survey-activities-of-daily-living-scale-kos-adls
#12
Abdulrahman D Algarni, Hamza M Alrabai, Abdulaziz Al-Ahaideb, Shaji John Kachanathu, Sulaiman A AlShammari
Knee complaints and their accompanying functional impairments are frequent problems encountered by healthcare practitioners worldwide. Plenty of functional scoring systems were developed and validated to give a relative estimation about the knee function. Despite the wide geographic distribution of Arabic language in the Middle East and North Africa, it is rare to find a validated knee function scale in Arabic. The present study is aimed to translate, validate, and culturally adjust the Knee Outcome Survey: Activities of Daily Living Scale (KOS-ADLS) into Arabic language for future use among Arabic-speaking patients...
July 19, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723964/development-of-the-korean-adult-reading-test-kart-to-estimate-premorbid-intelligence-in-dementia-patients
#13
Dahyun Yi, Eun Hyun Seo, Ji Young Han, Bo Kyung Sohn, Min Soo Byun, Jun Ho Lee, Young Min Choe, Suzy Ahn, Jong Inn Woo, Jongho Jun, Dong Young Lee
We aimed to develop a word-reading test for Korean-speaking adults using irregularly pronounced words that would be useful for estimation of premorbid intelligence. A linguist who specialized in Korean phonology selected 94 words that have irregular relationship between orthography and phonology. Sixty cognitively normal elderly (CN) and 31 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) were asked to read out loud the words and were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 4th edition, Korean version (K-WAIS-IV)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723939/assessing-health-related-resiliency-in-hiv-latin-women-preliminary-psychometric-findings
#14
Gladys J Jimenez-Torres, Valerie Wojna, Ernesto Rosario, Rosa Hechevarría, Ada M Alemán-Batista, Miriam Ríos Matos, Alok Madan, Richard L Skolasky, Summer F Acevedo
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated vulnerabilities-especially those linked to psychological issues-and limited mental health-treatment resources have the potential to adversely affect the health statuses of individuals. The concept of resilience has been introduced in the literature to shift the emphasis from vulnerability to protective factors. Resilience, however, is an evolving construct and is measured in various ways, though rarely among underserved, minority populations. Herein, we present the preliminary psychometric properties of a sample of HIV-seropositive Puerto Rican women, measured using a newly developed health-related resilience scale...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720526/effects-of-musical-expertise-on-oscillatory-brain-activity-in-response-to-emotional-sounds
#15
Sophie Nolden, Simon Rigoulot, Pierre Jolicoeur, Jorge L Armony
Emotions can be conveyed through a variety of channels in the auditory domain, be it via music, non-linguistic vocalizations, or speech prosody. Moreover, recent studies suggest that expertise in one sound category can impact the processing of emotional sounds as they found that musicians process more efficiently emotional musical and vocal sounds than non-musicians. However, the neural correlates of these modulations, especially their time course, are not very well understood. Consequently, we focused here on how the neural processing of emotional information varies as a function of sound category and expertise of participants...
July 15, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720016/first-grade-cognitive-predictors-of-writing-disabilities-in-grades-2-through-4-elementary-school-students
#16
Lara-Jeane Costa, Melissa Green, John Sideris, Stephen R Hooper
The primary aim of this study was determining Grade 1 cognitive predictors of students at risk for writing disabilities in Grades 2 through 4. Applying cognitive measures selected to align with theoretical and empirical models of writing, tasks were administered to Grade 1 students assessing fine-motor, linguistic, and executive functions: 84 at risk (bottom quartile for age-base expectations) and 54 typically developing. A model with individual predictors was compared to a previously developed latent trait model to determine the relative predictive worth of each approach...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719572/neuroimaging-correlates-of-post-stroke-aphasia-rehabilitation-in-a-pilot-randomized-trial-of-constraint-induced-aphasia-therapy
#17
Rodolphe Nenert, Jane B Allendorfer, Amber M Martin, Christi Banks, Angel Ball, Jennifer Vannest, Aimee R Dietz, Jerzy P Szaflarski
BACKGROUND Recovery from post-stroke aphasia is a long and complex process with an uncertain outcome. Various interventions have been proposed to augment the recovery, including constraint-induced aphasia therapy (CIAT). CIAT has been applied to patients suffering from post-stroke aphasia in several unblinded studies to show mild-to-moderate linguistic gains. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the neuroimaging correlates of CIAT in patients with chronic aphasia related to left middle cerebral artery stroke...
July 18, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716965/neural-tuning-to-low-level-features-of-speech-throughout-the-perisylvian-cortex
#18
Julia Berezutskaya, Zachary V Freudenburg, Umut Güçlü, Marcel A J van Gerven, Nick F Ramsey
Despite a large body of research, we continue to lack a detailed account of how auditory processing of continuous speech unfolds in the human brain. Previous research showed the propagation of low-level acoustic features of speech from posterior superior temporal gyrus towards anterior superior temporal gyrus in the human brain (Hullett et al., 2016). In this study we investigate what happens to these neural representations past the superior temporal gyrus, and how they engage higher-level language processing areas, such as inferior frontal gyrus...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716916/genomic-landscape-of-human-diversity-across-madagascar
#19
Denis Pierron, Margit Heiske, Harilanto Razafindrazaka, Ignace Rakoto, Nelly Rabetokotany, Bodo Ravololomanga, Lucien M-A Rakotozafy, Mireille Mialy Rakotomalala, Michel Razafiarivony, Bako Rasoarifetra, Miakabola Andriamampianina Raharijesy, Lolona Razafindralambo, Ramilisonina, Fulgence Fanony, Sendra Lejamble, Olivier Thomas, Ahmed Mohamed Abdallah, Christophe Rocher, Amal Arachiche, Laure Tonaso, Veronica Pereda-Loth, Stéphanie Schiavinato, Nicolas Brucato, Francois-Xavier Ricaut, Pradiptajati Kusuma, Herawati Sudoyo, Shengyu Ni, Anne Boland, Jean-Francois Deleuze, Philippe Beaujard, Philippe Grange, Sander Adelaar, Mark Stoneking, Jean-Aimé Rakotoarisoa, Chantal Radimilahy, Thierry Letellier
Although situated ∼400 km from the east coast of Africa, Madagascar exhibits cultural, linguistic, and genetic traits from both Southeast Asia and Eastern Africa. The settlement history remains contentious; we therefore used a grid-based approach to sample at high resolution the genomic diversity (including maternal lineages, paternal lineages, and genome-wide data) across 257 villages and 2,704 Malagasy individuals. We find a common Bantu and Austronesian descent for all Malagasy individuals with a limited paternal contribution from Europe and the Middle East...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716385/protein-lipograms
#20
Jason Laurie, Amit K Chattopadhyay, Darren R Flower
Linguistic analysis of protein sequences is an underexploited technique. Here, we capitalize on the concept of the lipogram to characterize sequences at the proteome levels. A lipogram is a literary composition which omits one or more letters. A protein lipogram likewise omits one or more types of amino acid. In this article, we establish a usable terminology for the decomposition of a sequence collection in terms of the lipogram. Next, we characterize Uniref50 using a lipogram decomposition. At the global level, protein lipograms exhibit power-law properties...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
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