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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938250/listening-effort-how-the-cognitive-consequences-of-acoustic-challenge-are-reflected-in-brain-and-behavior
#1
Jonathan E Peelle
Everyday conversation frequently includes challenges to the clarity of the acoustic speech signal, including hearing impairment, background noise, and foreign accents. Although an obvious problem is the increased risk of making word identification errors, extracting meaning from a degraded acoustic signal is also cognitively demanding, which contributes to increased listening effort. The concepts of cognitive demand and listening effort are critical in understanding the challenges listeners face in comprehension, which are not fully predicted by audiometric measures...
September 21, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937301/attentional-modulation-and-individual-differences-in-explaining-the-changing-role-of-fundamental-frequency-in-korean-laryngeal-stop-perception
#2
Eun Jong Kong, Hyunjung Lee
Previous research has shown differential degrees of attention in processing hierarchical linguistic information where higher order cues require greater attention in speech processing. The current study investigated the influence of attentional resources on acoustic cue weightings in speech perception by examining Korean listeners' identifications of the three-way laryngeal stops (tense vs. lax vs. aspirated). Using a dual-task paradigm, we presented 28 adult Korean listeners with identification tasks blocked by no-distractor versus distractor conditions where arithmetic calculations distracted the listeners' speech processing...
September 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936373/shared-decision-making-in-immigrant-patients
#3
EDITORIAL
Claudia C Dobler, Gabriela Spencer-Bonilla, Michael R Gionfriddo, Juan Pablo Brito
Communication is at the core of shared decision making, and communication difficulties are therefore barriers to using shared decision making in clinical practice. In clinical encounters with immigrant patients from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, a number of communication challenges arise, which can be obstacles to the implementation of shared decision making. Here, we discuss some of these challenges, possible solutions and research required to address identified knowledge gaps.
July 12, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936185/development-and-initial-validation-of-the-italian-mood-scale-itams-for-use-in-sport-and-exercise-contexts
#4
Alessandro Quartiroli, Peter C Terry, Gerard J Fogarty
The current study presents initial validation statistics for the Italian Mood Scale (ITAMS), a culturally- and linguistically-validated Italian version of the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS: Terry and Lane, 2010). The ITAMS was administered to 950 sport participants (659 females), who ranged in age from 16 to 63 years (M = 25.03, SD = 7.62). In the first stage of the validation process, statistical procedures in Mplus were used to evaluate the measurement model. Multigroup exploratory structural equation modeling supported the hypothesized 6-factor measurement model for males and females separately and for the combined sample...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936014/linguistic-predictors-of-cultural-identification-in-bilinguals
#5
Scott R Schroeder, Tuan Q Lam, Viorica Marian
Most of the world's population has knowledge of at least two languages. Many of these bilinguals are also exposed to and identify with at least two cultures. Because language knowledge enables participation in cultural practices and expression of cultural beliefs, bilingual experience and cultural identity are interconnected. However, the specific links between bilingualism and cultural identity remain largely unidentified. The current study examined which aspects of bilingualism relate to identification with first- and second-language cultures...
August 1, 2017: Appl Linguist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935679/professional-medical-interpreters-influence-the-quality-of-acute-ischemic-stroke-care-for-patients-who-speak-languages-other-than-english
#6
Betty M Luan Erfe, Khawja A Siddiqui, Lee H Schwamm, Chris Kirwan, Anabela Nunes, Nicte I Mejia
BACKGROUND: The inability to communicate effectively in a common language can jeopardize clinicians' efforts to provide quality patient care. Professional medical interpreters (PMIs) can help provide linguistically appropriate health care, in particular for the >25 million Americans who identify speaking English less than very well. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between use of PMIs and quality of acute ischemic stroke care received by patients who preferred to have their medical care in languages other than English...
September 21, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935387/attitudes-and-beliefs-pertaining-to-sexual-and-reproductive-health-among-unmarried-female-bhutanese-refugee-youth-in-philadelphia
#7
Cherie Priya Dhar, Dilu Kaflay, Nadia Dowshen, Victoria A Miller, Kenneth R Ginsburg, Frances K Barg, Katherine Yun
PURPOSE: We explored attitudes and beliefs pertaining to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) among unmarried, female, resettled Bhutanese refugees 16-20 years. METHODS: Fourteen interviews were analyzed using the constant comparison method, and major themes were identified. RESULTS: SRH was stigmatized for unmarried youth, making seeking information about SRH or accessing family planning difficult. There were many misconceptions about access to SRH...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934526/mechanisms-of-memory-retrieval-in-slow-wave-sleep
#8
Scott A Cairney, Justyna M Sobczak, Shane Lindsay, M Gareth Gaskell
Study Objectives: Memories are strengthened during sleep. The benefits of sleep for memory can be enhanced by re-exposing the sleeping brain to auditory cues; a technique known as targeted memory reactivation (TMR). Prior studies have not assessed the nature of the retrieval mechanisms underpinning TMR: the matching process between auditory stimuli encountered during sleep and previously encoded memories. We carried out two experiments to address this issue. Methods: In Experiment 1, participants associated words with verbal and nonverbal auditory stimuli before an overnight interval in which subsets of these stimuli were replayed in slow-wave sleep...
September 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933620/sequential-processing-deficit-as-a-shared-persisting-biomarker-in-dyslexia-and-childhood-apraxia-of-speech
#9
Beate Peter, Hope Lancaster, Caitlin Vose, Kyle Middleton, Carol Stoel-Gammon
The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that individuals with dyslexia and individuals with childhood apraxia of speech share an underlying persisting deficit in processing sequential information. Levels of impairment (sensory encoding, memory, retrieval, and motor planning/programming) were also investigated. Participants were 22 adults with dyslexia, 10 adults with a probable history of childhood apraxia of speech (phCAS), and 22 typical controls. All participants completed nonword repetition, multisyllabic real word repetition, and nonword decoding tasks...
September 21, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929813/limited-english-proficient-patients-perceptions-of-when-interpreters-are-needed-and-how-the-decision-to-utilize-interpreters-is-made
#10
Rebecca J Schwei, Michelle Schroeder, Ifna Ejebe, Maichou Lor, Linda Park, Phia Xiong, Elizabeth A Jacobs
Our objective was to describe when Hmong- and Spanish-speaking limited English proficient (LEP) patients perceive an interpreter was needed and how they perceive the decision to utilize an interpreter is made in a health care encounter. We interviewed a total of 20 LEP patients. We used a number of strategies to recruit LEP patients including posting language-appropriate flyers at clinics, sending letters to LEP patients and asking our participants to refer their family and friends to participate in our study...
September 20, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929727/-differences-in-influenza-vaccination-coverage-among-subgroups-of-adult-immigrants-residing-in-italy-at-risk-for-complications-2012-2013
#11
Massimo Fabiani, Anteo Di Napoli, Flavia Riccardo, Lidia Gargiulo, Silvia Declich, Alessio Petrelli
OBJECTIVES: to evaluate differences in influenza vaccination coverage (IVC) in immigrants at risk for influenza-related complications, according to their area of origin and length of stay in Italy. DESIGN: cross-sectional survey conducted on the sample of foreign citizens included in the survey on health conditions and use of health services of the Italian resident population (Italian national institute of statistics, 2012-2013). SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: analysis conducted on 885 foreign adult citizens (≥18 years) at risk for influenza-related complications (elderly residents ≥65 years and residents with specific chronic diseases)...
May 2017: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929452/how-possessive-relations-are-mapped-onto-child-language-a-view-from-mandarin-chinese
#12
Jiawei Shi, Peng Zhou
The present studies sought to investigate the mapping relations between language and cognition by focusing on how Mandarin-speaking children acquire the mapping between their conceptual knowledge of possession and their linguistic expressions of possession. Two experiments were conducted. Experiment 1 used a comprehension task to explore whether young children are able to map their knowledge of possessive constructions onto their interpretation of possessive relations. Experiment 2 employed a production task to examine whether they are able to map their knowledge of possessive relations onto their linguistic expressions of possession...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929398/language-brokering-among-latino-immigrant-families-moderating-variables-and-youth-outcomes
#13
Rebecca M Anguiano
The children of immigrants often serve as language brokers, or cultural and linguistic intermediaries, between their families and the host culture. Although language brokering is common practice among immigrant communities, it is a growing body of research in need of theoretical grounding and further study. The present study empirically tested a theoretical model of the effects of language brokering with moderating variables, informed by the segmented assimilation literature, among 362 (48% female) Latino adolescents ranging in age from 11 to 18 years (M = 13...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928680/addressee-identity-and-morphosyntactic-processing-in-basque-allocutive-agreement
#14
Max Wolpert, Simona Mancini, Sendy Caffarra
Information about interlocutor identity is pragmatic in nature and has traditionally been distinguished from explicitly coded linguistic information, including mophosyntax. Study of speaker identity in language processing has questioned this distinction, but addressee identity has been less considered. We used Basque to explore how addressee identity is processed during morphosyntactic analysis. In the familiar register hika, Basque has obligatory allocutive agreement, where verbal morphology represents the gender of a non-argument addressee...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927714/differentiating-pnes-from-epileptic-seizures-using-conversational-analysis
#15
Costanza Papagno, Lorenzo Montali, Katherine Turner, Alessandra Frigerio, Martina Sirtori, Elena Zambrelli, Valentina Chiesa, Maria Paola Canevini
We applied conversation analysis in an unselected continuous series of 70 patients to discriminate patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) from patients with epilepsy. Two psychologists examined the patients' recorded reports. Patients were also submitted to an extensive neuropsychological battery in order to verify whether specific cognitive deficits or mental health problems are typical of patients with PNES and whether some cognitive deficits could prevent the correct diagnosis. The results showed a good percentage of correct diagnosis, with a sensitivity of 0...
September 15, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926985/linguistic-multi-attribute-group-decision-making-with-risk-preferences-and-its-use-in-low-carbon-tourism-destination-selection
#16
Hui Lin, Zhou-Jing Wang
Low-carbon tourism plays an important role in carbon emission reduction and environmental protection. Low-carbon tourism destination selection often involves multiple conflicting and incommensurate attributes or criteria and can be modelled as a multi-attribute decision-making problem. This paper develops a framework to solve multi-attribute group decision-making problems, where attribute evaluation values are provided as linguistic terms and the attribute weight information is incomplete. In order to obtain a group risk preference captured by a linguistic term set with triangular fuzzy semantic information, a nonlinear programming model is established on the basis of individual risk preferences...
September 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926621/mathematical-values-in-the-processing-of-chinese-numeral-classifiers-and-measure-words
#17
One-Soon Her, Ying-Chun Chen, Nai-Shing Yen
A numeral classifier is required between a numeral and a noun in Chinese, which comes in two varieties, sortal classifer (C) and measural classifier (M), also known as 'classifier' and 'measure word', respectively. Cs categorize objects based on semantic attributes and Cs and Ms both denote quantity in terms of mathematical values. The aim of this study was to conduct a psycholinguistic experiment to examine whether participants process C/Ms based on their mathematical values with a semantic distance comparison task, where participants judged which of the two C/M phrases was semantically closer to the target C/M...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924215/bilingual-cortical-control-of-between-and-within-language-competition
#18
Viorica Marian, James Bartolotti, Sirada Rochanavibhata, Kailyn Bradley, Arturo E Hernandez
The human capacity to master multiple languages is remarkable and leads to structural and functional changes in the brain. Understanding how the brain accommodates multiple languages simultaneously is crucial to developing a complete picture of our species' linguistic capabilities. To examine the neural mechanisms involved in processing two languages, we looked at cortical activation in Spanish-English bilinguals in response to phonological competition either between two languages or within a language. Participants recognized spoken words in a visual world task while their brains were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923921/color-naming-across-languages-reflects-color-use
#19
Edward Gibson, Richard Futrell, Julian Jara-Ettinger, Kyle Mahowald, Leon Bergen, Sivalogeswaran Ratnasingam, Mitchell Gibson, Steven T Piantadosi, Bevil R Conway
What determines how languages categorize colors? We analyzed results of the World Color Survey (WCS) of 110 languages to show that despite gross differences across languages, communication of chromatic chips is always better for warm colors (yellows/reds) than cool colors (blues/greens). We present an analysis of color statistics in a large databank of natural images curated by human observers for salient objects and show that objects tend to have warm rather than cool colors. These results suggest that the cross-linguistic similarity in color-naming efficiency reflects colors of universal usefulness and provide an account of a principle (color use) that governs how color categories come about...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923763/hemispheric-specialization-for-global-and-local-processing-a-direct-comparison-of-linguistic-and-non-linguistic-stimuli
#20
Sanne G Brederoo, Mark R Nieuwenstein, Monicque M Lorist, Frans W Cornelissen
It is often assumed that the human brain processes the global and local properties of visual stimuli in a lateralized fashion, with a left hemisphere (LH) specialization for local detail, and a right hemisphere (RH) specialization for global form. However, the evidence for such global-local lateralization stems predominantly from studies using linguistic stimuli, the processing of which has shown to be LH lateralized in itself. In addition, some studies have reported a reversal of global-local lateralization when using non-linguistic stimuli...
September 15, 2017: Brain and Cognition
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