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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496487/chemical-composition-and-biological-activities-of-methanolic-extract-of-scrophularia-oxysepala-boiss
#1
Ardalan Pasdaran, Abbas Delazar, Seyed Abdulmajid Ayatollahi, Arsalan Pasdaran
Isolated five known iridoids glycosides (Scrophuloside A, Harpagoside B, 5-hydroxyloganin, 8-O-acetylharpagide and 6-O-methyl,1-glucopyranosyl catalpol), one phenyl ethanoid glycoside (Verbascoside) and a phenyl ethanol amine (2-(4-Chlorobenzyl amino) ethanol) compound from the methanolic extract of aerial parts of Scrophularia oxysepala using by high performance liquid chromatographyare based on isocratic and liner gradients by C18 column. The structure elucidations of the isolated compounds were performed by spectroscopic methods including1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 2 D NMR technique such as HMBC( in deuterated methanol as solvent), GC-MS and UV, also methanolic extract and fractions( fractionated on solid phase extraction on C18 cartridge(Spack-C18)) of this plant was tested for free radical scavenging properties toward the 1, 1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), general toxicity (Brine shrimp toxicity assay) , insecticidal ( Contact toxicity insecticidal assay) and antimalarial activities (hemebiocrystallization inhibition assay)...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464811/effect-of-catalpol-on-remyelination-through-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-acting-to-promote-olig1-and-olig2-expressions-in-mice
#2
Tao Yang, Qi Zheng, Su Wang, Ling Fang, Lei Liu, Hui Zhao, Lei Wang, Yongping Fan
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) as an autoimmune disorder is a common disease occurring in central nervous system (CNS) and the remyelination plays a pivotal role in the alleviating neurological impairment in the MS. Catalpol, an effective component extracted from the Chinese herb Radix Rehmanniae, which has been proved protective in cerebral diseases. METHODS: To determine the protective effects and mechanisms of Catalpol on MS, the mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) were induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) 35-55, as a model for human MS...
May 2, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381802/prophylactic-administration-of-aucubin-inhibits-paclitaxel-induced-mechanical-allodynia-via-the-inhibition-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-peripheral-schwann-cells
#3
Tsugunobu Andoh, Daisuke Uta, Mitsuru Kato, Kazufumi Toume, Katsuko Komatsu, Yasushi Kuraishi
Paclitaxel is a chemotherapeutic agent that causes peripheral neuropathy as its major dose-limiting side effect. However, the peripheral neuropathy is difficult to manage. A study we recently conducted showed that repetitive administration of aucubin as a prophylactic inhibits paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-allodynic activity of aucubin, which is a major component of Plantaginis Semen, was unclear. In addition to mechanical allodynia, aucubin inhibited spontaneous and mechanical stimuli-induced firing in spinal dorsal horn neurons; however, catalpol, a metabolite of aucubin, did not show these effects...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367097/lyophilized-powder-of-catalpol-and-puerarin-protected-cerebral-vessels-from-ischemia-by-its-anti-apoptosis-on-endothelial-cells
#4
Yang Liu, Qing Tang, Siying Shao, Yi Chen, Weihai Chen, Xiaoyu Xu
Catalpol and puerarin are two monomers of Rehmannia glutinosa and Lobed Kudzuvine Root, which are two herbs commonly used together in ancient prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine for cerebral ischemia. Our previous study shows that the lyophilized powder of the two monomers improved the outcome of cerebral ischemia excellently in rodents. However, if it protects vessels from ischemia is unknown. The present research studied the protection of lyophilized powder of catalpol and puerarin (CP) on endothelial cells and the relative mechanism in vivo and in vitro...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292026/catalpol-protects-glucose-deprived-rat-embryonic-cardiac-cells-by-inducing-mitophagy-and-modulating-estrogen-receptor
#5
Chao Lin, Ying Lu, Xiaojing Yan, Xiang Wu, Meiyu Kuai, Xin Sun, Qi Chen, Xueyun Kong, Zhaoguo Liu, Yuping Tang, Yi Jing, Yu Li, Qichun Zhang, Huimin Bian
Catalpol, a bioactive component from Rehmannia glutinosa (Di Huang), has been widely used to protect cardiomyocytes against myocardial ischemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative effects of Catalpol on glucose-starved H9c2 cells for cardio-protection and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Here, we showed that Catalpol protected the glucose-starved H9c2 cells through reducing apoptosis and attenuating oxidative damage. Moreover, the increases of autophagic lysosomes, LC3, autophagic flux and autophagic vacuole were observed in Catalpol-treated cells using flow cytometer and fluorescence microscope...
May 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111216/rehmanniae-radix-in-osteoporosis-a-review-of-traditional-chinese-medicinal-uses-phytochemistry-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacology
#6
REVIEW
Chenyue Liu, Rufeng Ma, Lili Wang, Ruyuan Zhu, Haixia Liu, Yubo Guo, Baosheng Zhao, Shangang Zhao, Jinfa Tang, Yu Li, Jianzhao Niu, Min Fu, Dongwei Zhang, Sihua Gao
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Emerging clinical usage and pharmacological effects have been achieved in using Rehmanniae Radix either singly or in combination with other herbs to treat skeletal diseases in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the recent years. This study is aimed to provide a comprehensive review about the historical TCM interpretation of the action of Rehmanniae Radix in osteoporosis, its usage in clinical trials and osteoporotic models, its main phytochemical constituents, and its pharmacokinetics...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994507/catalpol-protects-pre-myelinating-oligodendrocytes-against-ischemia-induced-oxidative-injury-through-erk1-2-signaling-pathway
#7
Qiyan Cai, Teng Ma, Chengren Li, Yanping Tian, Hongli Li
The vulnerability of pre-myelinating oligodendrocytes (PreOLs) to ischemic injury plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of perinatal white matter injury. Although oxidative stress is thought to be a major pathogenic mechanism predisposing the PreOLs to injury, no effective therapies have been identified to date. The present study aimed to investigate the direct protective effects of catalpol, a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger, on ischemia-induced oxidative damage in PreOLs and to explore whether the ERK1/2 signaling pathway contributed to the protection provided by catalpol...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992791/catalpol-alleviates-ovalbumin-induced-asthma-in-mice-reduced-eosinophil-infiltration-in-the-lung
#8
Yanyan Chen, Yongzheng Zhang, Mingyuan Xu, Junqi Luan, Shengai Piao, Shuang Chi, Hai Wang
BACKGROUND: Radix Rehmanniae Preparata is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine used to treat asthma, and catalpol is one of the main active ingredients in this herb. In the present study, the effects of catalpol on asthma and the underlying mechanism were explored. METHODS: Mice with ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma were given 5 or 10mg/kg catalpol from Day 15 to Day 28 (intraperitoneal injection). Histopathologic changes were detected by Hematoxylin and Eosin staining and Periodic Acid Schiff staining...
February 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830011/catalpol-ameliorates-diabetic-atherosclerosis-in-diabetic-rabbits
#9
Jiang-Yue Liu, Chen-Zhao Zheng, Xin-Ping Hao, Dai-Juan Zhang, An-Wei Mao, Ping Yuan
Catalpol, isolated from the roots of Rehmanniaglutinosa, Chinese foxglove, is an iridoid glycoside with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperglycemic agent. The present study was to investigate the effects of catalpol on diabetic atherosclerosis in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Diabetes was induced in rabbits by a hyperlipidemic diet and intravenous injection of alloxan (100 mg/kg). Rabbits were treated for 12 weeks. The fasting blood glucose, insulin, homeostasis model of insulin resistance, total cholesterol and triglyceride were measured...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789455/catalpol-restores-lps-elicited-rat-microcirculation-disorder-by-regulation-of-a-network-of-signaling-involving-inhibition-of-tlr-4-and-src
#10
Yun-Pei Zhang, Chun-Shui Pan, Li Yan, Yu-Ying Liu, Bai-He Hu, Xin Chang, Quan Li, Dan-Dan Huang, Hao-Yu Sun, Ge Fu, Kai Sun, Jing-Yu Fan, Jing-Yan Han
LPS-induced microvascular hyperpermeability and hemorrhage play a key role in the development of sepsis, the attenuation of which might be an important strategy to prevent sepsis. However, the current clinical therapies have proven to be inefficient in improving the prognosis for patients with sepsis. Catalpol, an iridoid glycoside extracted from the roots of Rehmannia, has been reported to protect against LPS-induced acute lung injury through a Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4)-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659301/anti-ageing-active-ingredients-from-herbs-and-nutraceuticals-used-in-traditional-chinese-medicine-pharmacological-mechanisms-and-implications-for-drug-discovery
#11
REVIEW
Chun-Yan Shen, Jian-Guo Jiang, Li Yang, Da-Wei Wang, Wei Zhu
Ageing, an unanswered question in the medical field, is a multifactorial process that results in a progressive functional decline in cells, tissues and organisms. Although it is impossible to prevent ageing, slowing down the rate of ageing is entirely possible to achieve. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is characterized by the nourishing of life and its role in anti-ageing is getting more and more attention. This article summarizes the work done on the natural products from TCM that are reported to have anti-ageing effects, in the past two decades...
June 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27459772/nectar-microbes-can-reduce-secondary-metabolites-in-nectar-and-alter-effects-on-nectar-consumption-by-pollinators
#12
Rachel L Vannette, Tadashi Fukami
Secondary metabolites that are present in floral nectar have been hypothesized to enhance specificity in plant-pollinator mutualism by reducing larceny by non-pollinators, including microorganisms that colonize nectar. However, few studies have tested this hypothesis. Using synthetic nectar, we conducted laboratory and field experiments to examine the effects of five chemical compounds found in nectar on the growth and metabolism of nectar-colonizing yeasts and bacteria, and the interactive effects of these compounds and nectar microbes on the consumption of nectar by pollinators...
June 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429834/simultaneous-determination-of-catalpol-aucubin-and-geniposidic-acid-in-different-developmental-stages-of-rehmannia-glutinosa-leaves-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography
#13
Yanjie Wang, Dengqun Liao, Minjian Qin, Xian'en Li
Although R. glutinosa roots are currently the only organ source in clinics, its leaves are a potential supplement for the roots especially in extraction of some important bioactive compounds. Our early work found that the contents of catalpol and total iridoid glycosides varied among different developmental stages of R. glutinosa leaves. Aucubin and geniposidic acid, the abundant major bioactive compounds in Eucommia ulmoides and Gardenia jasminoides, respectively, were found present in R. glutinosa roots, however, and have not been analyzed in its leaves...
2016: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27419098/prophylactic-administration-of-an-extract-from-plantaginis-semen-and-its-major-component-aucubin-inhibits-mechanical-allodynia-caused-by-paclitaxel-in-mice
#14
Tsugunobu Andoh, Mitsuru Kato, Ryo Kitamura, Shizuka Mizoguchi, Daisuke Uta, Kazufumi Toume, Katsuko Komatsu, Yasushi Kuraishi
The chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel (PTX) causes peripheral neuropathy as a major dose-limiting side effect, and this peripheral neuropathy is difficult to control. Our previous report showed that prophylactic repetitive administration of goshajinkigan ( niú chē shèn qì wán), but not hachimijiogan ( bā wèi dì huáng wán), which lacks two of the constituents of goshajinkigan, inhibited PTX-induced mechanical allodynia in mice. Thus, the herbal medicines Plantaginis Semen ( chē qián zǐ) or Achyranthis Radix ( niú xī) may contribute to the inhibitory action of goshajinkigan on the exacerbation of PTX-induced mechanical allodynia [Andoh et al, J...
July 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418367/exogenous-feeding-of-immediate-precursors-reveals-synergistic-effect-on-picroside-i-biosynthesis-in-shoot-cultures-of-picrorhiza-kurroa-royle-ex-benth
#15
Varun Kumar, Neha Sharma, Hemant Sood, Rajinder Singh Chauhan
In the current study, we asked how the supply of immediate biosynthetic precursors i.e. cinnamic acid (CA) and catalpol (CAT) influences the synthesis of picroside-I (P-I) in shoot cultures of P. kurroa. Our results revealed that only CA and CA+CAT stimulated P-I production with 1.6-fold and 4.2-fold, respectively at 2.5 mg/100 mL concentration treatment. Interestingly, feeding CA+CAT not only directed flux towards p-Coumaric acid (p-CA) production but also appeared to trigger the metabolic flux through both shikimate/phenylpropanoid and iridoid pathways by utilizing more of CA and CAT for P-I biosynthesis...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27301615/catalpol-stimulates-vegf-production-via-the-jak2-stat3-pathway-to-improve-angiogenesis-in-rats-stroke-model
#16
Wan Dong, Yang Xian, Wang Yuan, Zhu Huifeng, Wang Tao, Liu Zhiqiang, Feng Shan, Fu Ya, Wang Hongli, Wang Jinghuan, Qin Lei, Zou Li, Qi Hongyi
ETHNOBOTANICAL RELEVANCE: Catalpol is the main active component of the radix from Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch, which has pleiotropic protective effects in neurodegenerative diseases, ischemic stroke, metabolic disorders and others AIM: Catalpol has been shown to have neuroprotective, neurorepair, and angiogenesis effects following ischemic brain injury. However, its molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. In previous studies, the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway was found to play a role in neuroprotection and angiogenesis...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27175212/antidiabetic-and-antioxidant-effects-of-catalpol-extracted-from-rehmannia-glutinosa-di-huang-on-rat-diabetes-induced-by-streptozotocin-and-high-fat-high-sugar-feed
#17
Huifeng Zhu, Yuan Wang, Zhiqiang Liu, Jinghuan Wang, Dong Wan, Shan Feng, Xian Yang, Tao Wang
BACKGROUND: Diabetes, associated with hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress, would lead to an increased production of reactive oxygen species. Rehmannia glutinosa (Di Huang) is widely used to nourish yin, invigorate the kidney (shen), and treat xiao ke (a diabetes-like syndrome in Chinese medicine). This study aims to investigate the antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of catalpol from R. glutinosa on rat diabetes induced by streptozotocin (STZ) and high-fat, high-sugar feed. METHODS: Rats (eight rats in each group at least) were induced diabetes by an initial high-fat high-sugar feed for 3 weeks, followed by an intraperitoneal injection of STZ (30 mg/kg) for 3 days, and rats were fasted overnight before treatments...
2016: Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27166426/catalpol-inhibits-apoptosis-in-hydrogen-peroxide-induced-cardiac-myocytes-through-a-mitochondrial-dependent-caspase-pathway
#18
Ling-Ai Hu, Yu-Kun Sun, Hong-Sheng Zhang, Jin-Guo Zhang, Jian Hu
Catalpol, an iridoid glucoside, has been reported to inhibit apoptosis of neuron and endothelial cells. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of catalpol-mediated cardioprotection. The rat embryonic ventricular myocardial cell line (H9c2) cells were first incubated with catalpol, and then exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were all determined by using commercially available kits. Apoptotic cells were assessed by Hoechst 33258 and Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate binding assay...
July 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27145608/nectar-chemistry-mediates-the-behavior-of-parasitized-bees-consequences-for-plant-fitness
#19
Leif L Richardson, M Deane Bowers, Rebecca E Irwin
Plants produce an array of secondary metabolites that play important ecological roles as anti-herbivore and anti-pathogen defenses. Many herbivores experience physiological costs when they consume secondary metabolites, yet some also benefit, for example when these chemicals confer resistance to parasites and predators. Secondary metabolites are often present in nectar and pollen, which is paradoxical given that floral rewards are important in the attraction of mutualists rather than deterrence of antagonists...
February 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27097417/-effect-on-quality-of-scrophulariae-radix-with-modern-drying-technology
#20
Hui-wei Li, Pei Liu, Da-wei Qian, Xue-jun Lu, Sheng Guo, Zhen-hua Zhu, Jin-ao Duan
Modern drying technology was used to explore suitable drying process to provide scientific basis for improving drying processing methods of Scrophulariae Radix. Controlled temperature and humidity drying, vacuum drying apparatus, microwave vacuum drying apparatus, short infrared drying device were used to gain samples for analyzing. The character appearance, concentration of main components and power consumption indicators were chosen for preliminary judging. Six major components, including iridoids and phenylpropanoids were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS method...
November 2015: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
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