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Jana Jeffery, Maria Carradus, Karolina Songin, Michael Pettit, Karl Pettit, Christopher Wright
A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was validated for the determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the FDA list of 93 harmful or potentially harmful constituents of mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS). Target analytes were extracted from total particulate matter using accelerated solvent extraction with a toluene/ethanol solvent mixture. Matrix artefacts were removed by two-step solid-phase extraction process. Three different GC-MS systems [GC-MS (single quadrupole), GC-MS/MS (triple quadrupole) and GC-HRMS (high resolution, magnetic sector)] using the same separation conditions were compared for the analysis of MCS of 3R4F Kentucky reference cigarettes generated under ISO and intense smoking regimes...
March 13, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
Furqan Almyahi, Thomas R Andersen, Nathan A Cooling, Natalie P Holmes, Matthew J Griffith, Krishna Feron, Xiaojing Zhou, Warwick J Belcher, Paul C Dastoor
In this study we have optimised the preparation conditions for large-volume nanoparticle inks, based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):indene-C60 multiadducts (ICxA), through two purification processes: centrifugal and crossflow ultrafiltration. The impact of purification is twofold: firstly, removal of excess sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant from the ink and, secondly, concentration of the photoactive components in the ink. The removal of SDS was studied in detail both by a UV-vis spectroscopy-based method and by surface tension measurements of the nanoparticle ink filtrate; revealing that centrifugal ultrafiltration removed SDS at a higher rate than crossflow ultrafiltration even though a similar filter was applied in both cases (10,000 Da M w cut-off)...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Beth S Brodsky, Aliza Spruch-Feiner, Barbara Stanley
Suicide is reaching epidemic proportions, with over 44,000 deaths by suicide in the US, and 800,000 worldwide in 2015. This, despite research and development of evidence-based interventions that target suicidal behavior directly. Suicide prevention efforts need a comprehensive approach, and research must lead to effective implementation across public and mental health systems. A 10-year systematic review of evidence-based findings in suicide prevention summarized the areas necessary for translating research into practice...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Yohei Sasagawa, Hiroki Danno, Hitomi Takada, Masashi Ebisawa, Kaori Tanaka, Tetsutaro Hayashi, Akira Kurisaki, Itoshi Nikaido
High-throughput single-cell RNA-seq methods assign limited unique molecular identifier (UMI) counts as gene expression values to single cells from shallow sequence reads and detect limited gene counts. We thus developed a high-throughput single-cell RNA-seq method, Quartz-Seq2, to overcome these issues. Our improvements in the reaction steps make it possible to effectively convert initial reads to UMI counts, at a rate of 30-50%, and detect more genes. To demonstrate the power of Quartz-Seq2, we analyzed approximately 10,000 transcriptomes from in vitro embryonic stem cells and an in vivo stromal vascular fraction with a limited number of reads...
March 9, 2018: Genome Biology
Min Yang, Zhonghua Dong, Xiaoyan Jiang, Zhongxi Zhao, Jianqiang Zhang, Xinke Cao, Daizhou Zhang
In this work, a rapid, simple, sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the quantification of S-Allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC) in plasma. After a simple sample procedure by one step protein precipitation with acetontrile, the samples were separated on Gemini-NX C18 column (2.1 mm i.d. 150 mm, 3 μm, Phenomenex). The mobile phase was composed of water-acetonitrile (20:80, v/v) at an isocratic flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The developed method was validated based on the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Chromatographic Science
Monique Mendelson, Sébastien Bailly, Mathieu Marillier, Patrice Flore, Jean Christian Borel, Isabelle Vivodtzev, Stéphane Doutreleau, Samuel Verges, Renaud Tamisier, Jean-Louis Pépin
A systematic review of English and French articles using Pubmed/Medline and Embase included studies assessing objective physical activity levels of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients and exploring the effects of exercise training on OSA severity, body mass index (BMI), sleepiness, and cardiorespiratory fitness [peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak)]. Two independent reviewers analyzed the studies, extracted the data, and assessed the quality of evidence. For objective physical activity levels, eight studies were included...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Adina Kleinerüschkamp, Patrick Meybohm, Niels Straub, Kai Zacharowski, Suma Choorapoikayil
BACKGROUND: Patient blood management (PBM) is a multidisciplinary concept focused on the management of anaemia, minimisation of iatrogenic blood loss and rational use of allogeneic blood products. The aims of this study were: (i) to analyse post-operative outcome in patients with liberal vs restrictive exposure to allogeneic blood products and (ii) to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of PBM in patients undergoing surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis were performed to compare post-operative complications in predominantly non-transfused patients (restrictive transfusion group) and patients who received one to three units of red blood cells (liberal transfusion group)...
February 16, 2018: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
Ronald A J M Bierings, Marleen Kuiper, Casper M van Berkel, Tom Overkempe, Nomdo M Jansonius
INTRODUCTION: To determine whether foveal light and dark adaptation are affected in glaucoma. METHODS: Case-control study with 23 glaucoma patients and 51 controls. Light and dark adaptation were measured twice. After 10 minutes pre-adaptation to 0.0032 cd/m2, the background luminance increased stepwise to 320 (5 log unit step) or 10,000 cd/m2 (6.5 log unit step) for 10 minutes, then it decreased back to 0.0032 cd/m2 for 30 minutes. Foveal contrast sensitivity [CS]) as a function of time was determined using a 1...
2018: PloS One
Ellen S Deutsch, Robert A Yonash, Donald E Martin, Joshua H Atkins, Theresa V Arnold, Christina M Hunt
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Wrong-site nerve blocks (WSBs) are a significant, though rare, source of perioperative morbidity. WSBs constitute the most common type of perioperative wrong-site procedure reported to the Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority. This systematic literature review aggregates information about the incidence, patient consequences, and conditions that contribute to WSBs, as well as evidence-based methods to prevent them. DESIGN: A systematic search of English-language publications was performed, using the PRISMA process...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
S Finer, P Robb, K Cowan, A Daly, K Shah, A Farmer
AIMS: To describe processes and outcomes of a priority setting partnership to identify the 'top 10 research priorities' in Type 2 diabetes, involving people living with the condition, their carers, and healthcare professionals. METHODS: We followed the four-step James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership process which involved: gathering uncertainties using a questionnaire survey distributed to 70 000 people living with Type 2 diabetes and their carers, and healthcare professionals; organizing the uncertainties; interim priority setting by resampling of participants with a second survey; and final priority setting in an independent group of participants, using the nominal group technique...
February 27, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Zhenzhen Zhang, Jiawen Guo, Yali Sun, Beimin Tian, Xiaojuan Zheng, Ming Zhou, Lin He, Shaofeng Zhang
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to improve wear resistance and mechanical properties of lithium disilicate glass-ceramics by refining their crystal sizes. METHODS: After lithium disilicate glass-ceramics (LD) were melted to form precursory glass blocks, bar (N = 40, n = 10) and plate (N = 32, n = 8) specimens were prepared. According to the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of precursory glass, specimens G1-G4 were designed to form lithium disilicate glass-ceramics with different crystal sizes using a two-step thermal treatment...
February 20, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Adrian Körzendörfer, Philipp Temme, Eberhard Schlücker, Jörg Hinrichs, Stefan Nöbel
Machinery such as pumps used for the commercial production of fermented milk products cause vibrations that can spread to the fermentation tanks. During fermentation, such vibrations can disturb the gelation of milk proteins by causing texture defects including lumpiness and syneresis. To study the effect of vibrations on yogurt structure systematically, an experimental setup was developed consisting of a vibration exciter to generate defined vibrational states and accelerometers for monitoring. During the fermentation of skim milk, vibrations (frequency sweep: 25 to 1,005 Hz) were introduced at different pH (5...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Minhwa Oh, Eugene Huh, Myung Sook Oh, Ji-Seon Jeong, Seon-Pyo Hong
We developed a diagnostic method for Parkinson's disease by simultaneously analyzing biogenic amines and their metabolites using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with integrated pulsed amperometric detection (RP-HPLC-IPAD) method. Dopamine (DA), 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA), and homovanillic acid (HVA) were used as biomarkers to diagnose Parkinson's disease. All target components were detected with good sensitivity using sodium hydroxide (as a post-column eluent)...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Shun-Qian Wen, Ming Wan, Kai-Ming Len, Qiu-Hui Hu, Xue-Yi Xie, Qing Wu, Guan-Qun Liao
INTRODUCTION: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an effective and minimally invasive technique for the management of hepatic hemangiomas (HHs). This study aims to assess the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic RFA for HHs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-four patients with 50 hepatic hemangiomas (5-10 cm in diameter) undergoing laparoscopic RFA from January 2012 to May 2015 at three tertiary hospitals in China were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Thirty-three patients with subcapsular hemangiomas were treated with a laparoscopic approach, and 11 patients with lesions in the liver parenchyma were treated with a combined laparoscopy and an ultrasound-guided percutaneous approach...
March 1, 2018: Annals of Hepatology
Alicia C Salinero, Elisabeth R Knoll, Z Iris Zhu, David Landsman, M Joan Curcio, Randall H Morse
The Ty1 retrotransposons present in the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae belong to the large class of mobile genetic elements that replicate via an RNA intermediary and constitute a significant portion of most eukaryotic genomes. The retromobility of Ty1 is regulated by numerous host factors, including several subunits of the Mediator transcriptional co-activator complex. In spite of its known function in the nucleus, previous studies have implicated Mediator in the regulation of post-translational steps in Ty1 retromobility...
February 20, 2018: PLoS Genetics
John M Robbins, Andreas S Bommarius, Giovanni Gadda
Formate oxidase (FOX) from Aspergillus oryzae is the only GMC member that oxidizes a carbon acid rather than alcohols; thus, its catalytic mechanism may be different from that of other GMC members. We have used pH, solvent viscosity, and deuterium kinetic isotope effects, to investigate the catalytic mechanism of FOX. The enzyme followed a Bi-Bi sequential steady-state kinetic mechanism. The kcat value was pH-independent between pH 2.8 and 6.8, suggesting lack of ionizable groups in kinetic step(s) that limit the overall turnover of the enzyme...
February 16, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Xue-Feng Cheng, Xiang Hou, Jin Zhou, Bi-Jun Gao, Jing-Hui He, Hua Li, Qing-Feng Xu, Na-Jun Li, Dong-Yun Chen, Jian-Mei Lu
Recently, organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (OIHP) are studied in memory devices, but ternary resistive memory with three states based on OIHP is not achieved yet. In this work, ternary resistive memory based on hybrid perovskite is achieved with a high device yield (75%), much higher than most organic ternary resistive memories. The pseudohalide-induced 2D (CH3 NH3 )2 PbI2 (SCN)2 perovskite thin film is prepared by using a one-step solution method and fabricated into Al/perovskite film/indium-tin oxide (glass substrate as well as flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate) random resistive access memory (RRAM) devices...
February 19, 2018: Small
Sam Liu, Dina Brooks, Scott G Thomas, Gunther Eysenbach, Robert P Nolan
INTRODUCTION: The effectiveness of self-guided Internet-based lifestyle counseling (e-counseling) varies, depending on treatment protocol. Two dominant procedures in e-counseling are expert- and user-driven. The influence of these procedures on hypertension management remains unclear. The objective was to assess whether blood pressure improved with expert-driven or user-driven e-counseling over control intervention in patients with hypertension over a 4-month period. STUDY DESIGN: This study used a three-parallel group, double-blind randomized controlled design...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Minsoo Kwak, Seul Gi Kang, Won-Kyung Hong, Jong-In Han, Yong Keun Chang
Microalgae are regarded as a promising source of biofuels, and the concept of a microalgae-based biorefinery has attracted increasing attention in recent years. From an economic perspective, however, the process remains far from competitive with fossil fuels. This is particularly true of lipid extraction, due in part to the energy-intensive drying step. As a result, wet extraction methods have been studied as an economic alternative. In the present study, a novel extraction approach which utilizes high shear stress mixing was adopted and demonstrated for simultaneous lipid extraction and cell disruption to enable the retrieval of lipids directly from concentrated wet biomass...
February 16, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Vasily Giannakeas, Victoria Sopik, Steven A Narod
BACKGROUND: Approximately 1% of patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) will die of breast cancer within 10 years. Women who develop an invasive breast cancer after DCIS have a much greater risk of dying than those who do not and it is often stated that these deaths are a consequence of metastases from the invasive in-breast recurrence. This progression is the result of a two-step process: first local invasive recurrence and then spread beyond the breast. A large proportion of women who die of DCIS have no record of invasive recurrence...
February 14, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
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