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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093573/impact-of-lifestyle-intervention-for-obese-women-during-pregnancy-on-maternal-metabolic-and-inflammatory-markers
#1
K M Renault, E M Carlsen, S Hædersdal, L Nilas, N J Secher, J Eugen-Olsen, D Cortes, S F Olsen, T I Halldorsson, K Nørgaard
BACKGROUND: Offspring of obese mothers have increased risk of developing obesity and related short and long-term disease. The cause is multifactorial and may partly be explained by the unfavorable intrauterine environment. Intervention during pregnancy leading to a healthier lifestyle among obese may alter this. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of lifestyle intervention on markers of maternal metabolism and inflammation in 'the TOP (Treatment of Obese Pregnant Women)-study', a randomized controlled trial...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087535/efficient-low-ph-iron-removal-by-a-microbial-iron-oxide-mound-ecosystem-at-scalp-level-run
#2
Christen L Grettenberger, Alexandra R Pearce, Kyle J Bibby, Daniel S Jones, William D Burgos, Jennifer L Macalady
: Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a major environmental problem affecting tens of thousands of km of waterways worldwide. Passive bioremediation of AMD relies on microbial communities to oxidize and remove iron from the system; however, iron-oxidation rates in AMD environments are highly variable across sites. At Scalp Level Run (Cambria County PA), first-order iron-oxidation rates are ten times faster than at other coal associated iron mounds in the Appalachians. We examined the bacterial community at Scalp Level Run to determine whether a unique community is responsible for the rapid iron oxidation rate...
January 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073970/estimated-generic-prices-for-novel-treatments-for-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#3
Dzintars Gotham, Joseph Fortunak, Anton Pozniak, Saye Khoo, Graham Cooke, Frederick E Nytko, Andrew Hill
BACKGROUND: The estimated worldwide annual incidence of MDR-TB is 480 000, representing 5% of TB incidence, but 20% of mortality. Multiple drugs have recently been developed or repurposed for the treatment of MDR-TB. Currently, treatment for MDR-TB costs thousands of dollars per course. OBJECTIVES: To estimate generic prices for novel TB drugs that would be achievable given large-scale competitive manufacture. METHODS: Prices for linezolid, moxifloxacin and clofazimine were estimated based on per-kilogram prices of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068968/lifestyle-behaviours-associated-with-5-year-weight-gain-in-a-prospective-cohort-of-australian-adults-aged-26-36-years-at-baseline
#4
Kylie J Smith, Seana L Gall, Sarah A McNaughton, Verity J Cleland, Petr Otahal, Terence Dwyer, Alison J Venn
BACKGROUND: Whether not meeting common guidelines for lifestyle behaviours is associated with weight gain is uncertain. This study examined whether 5-year weight gain was predicted by not meeting guidelines for: breakfast consumption (eating between 6 and 9 am), takeaway food consumption (<2 times/week), television viewing (<2 h/day) and daily steps (≥10,000 steps/day). METHODS: One thousand one hundred and fifty-five Australian participants (43% men, 26-36 years) completed questionnaires and wore a pedometer at baseline (2004-06) and follow-up (2009-11)...
January 10, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068270/influence-of-polishing-on-surface-roughness-following-toothbrushing-wear-of-composite-resins
#5
Karine Battestin Dalla-Vecchia, Talita Damas Taborda, Deborah Stona, Heloísa Pressi, Luiz Henrique Burnett Júnior, Sinval Adalberto Rodrigues-Junior
This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different polishing systems on the surface roughness of composite resins following procedures to simulate the effects of toothbrushing over time. Four currently available commercial composites were used to make 128 cylindrical specimens. The specimens were randomly allocated to polishing with a 1-step polisher or 1 of 3 multistep polishers (n = 8 per group). The baseline surface roughness was measured, and the specimens were submitted to 5000, 10,000, and 20,000 brushing cycles to represent toothbrushing throughout 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively...
January 2017: General Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049624/using-web-2-0-applications-to-promote-health-related-physical-activity-findings-from-the-walk-2-0-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
Gregory S Kolt, Richard R Rosenkranz, Corneel Vandelanotte, Cristina M Caperchione, Anthony J Maeder, Rhys Tague, Trevor N Savage, Anetta Van Itallie, W Kerry Mummery, Christopher Oldmeadow, Mitch J Duncan
BACKGROUND/AIM: Web 2.0 internet technology has great potential in promoting physical activity. This trial investigated the effectiveness of a Web 2.0-based intervention on physical activity behaviour, and the impact on website usage and engagement. METHODS: 504 (328 women, 126 men) insufficiently active adult participants were randomly allocated to one of two web-based interventions or a paper-based Logbook group. The Web 1.0 group participated in the existing 10 000 Steps programme, while the Web 2...
January 3, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004902/effectiveness-of-step-into-health-program-sih-in-qatar-a-pedometer-based-longitudinal-study
#7
Mohamed G Al-Kuwari, Abdulla S Al-Mohannadi, Suzan Sayegh
BACKGROUND: This study examines the impact of a one-year pedometer-based intervention on increasing the physical activity level among adult population in Qatar. METHODS: This longitudinal study was conducted over a one-year period and included a total of 268 adults aged between 18-64 years old. Data were extracted and used from the "Step into Health" (SIH) program, a community-based program launched in 2012, as an approach to improve physical activity in Qatar. Walking intervention encouraged members of SIH to accumulate 10,000 steps or more per day and monitor their progress through a pedometer supported by a self-monitoring online account and a reinforcement system...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980064/efficient-size-independent-chromosome-delivery-from-yeast-to-cultured-cell-lines
#8
David M Brown, Yujia A Chan, Prashant J Desai, Peter Grzesik, Lauren M Oldfield, Sanjay Vashee, Jeffrey C Way, Pamela A Silver, John I Glass
The delivery of large DNA vectors (>100 000 bp) remains a limiting step in the engineering of mammalian cells and the development of human artificial chromosomes (HACs). Yeast is commonly used to assemble genetic constructs in the megabase size range, and has previously been used to transfer constructs directly into cultured cells. We improved this method to efficiently deliver large (1.1 Mb) synthetic yeast centromeric plasmids (YCps) to cultured cell lines at rates similar to that of 12 kb YCps. Synchronizing cells in mitosis improved the delivery efficiency by 10-fold and a statistical design of experiments approach was employed to boost the vector delivery rate by nearly 300-fold from 1/250 000 to 1/840 cells, and subsequently optimize the delivery process for multiple mammalian, avian, and insect cell lines...
December 15, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976843/rational-design-of-self-supported-ni3s2-nanosheets-array-for-advanced-asymmetric-supercapacitor-with-a-superior-energy-density
#9
Jun Song Chen, Cao Guan, Yang Gui, Daniel John Blackwood
We report a rationally designed two-step method to fabricate self-supported Ni3S2 nanosheet arrays. We first used 2-methylimidazole (2-MI), an organic molecule commonly served as organic linkers in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), to synthesize an α-Ni(OH)2 nanosheet array as a precursor, followed by its hydrothermal sulfidization into Ni3S2. The resulting Ni3S2 nanosheet array demonstrated superior supercapacitance properties, with a very high capacitance of about 1,000 F g(-1) being delivered at a high current density of 50 A g(-1) for 20,000 charge-discharge cycles...
December 29, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968871/global-prevalence-and-epidemiological-characteristics-of-congenital-cataract-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Xiaohang Wu, Erping Long, Haotian Lin, Yizhi Liu
BACKGROUND: Congenital cataract is the primary cause of treatable childhood blindness worldwide. The establishment of reliable, epidemiological estimates is an essential first step towards development of causal and management strategies. We therefore undertook an initial systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the global prevalence and other epidemiological characteristics of congenital cataract. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases with a combination of search terms, including "congenital cataract", "prevalence", "epidemiology", "population", and "survey", up to January, 2015...
October 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965869/feasibility-and-acceptance-of-exercise-recommendations-10-000-steps-a-day-within-routine-german-health-check-check-up-35-go%C3%A3-29-study-protocol
#11
Christine Graf, Stefanie Schlepper, Carina Bauer, Nina Ferrari, Stefan Frank, Lena Gartner, Svenja Gehring, Rudolf Henke, Walter Lehmacher, Hans-Michael Steffen, Sabine Schindler-Marlow, Katharina Sternal
BACKGROUND: Benefits of exercise to prevent non-communicable diseases are well-documented. Limited data exists to promote physical activity in healthy but sedentary and/or overweight people. Brief interventions within routine German health checks may be an effective way to reach these patients. METHODS/DESIGN: The quasi-experimental, multi-center prospective feasibility study is designed for general practices in Cologne (intervention group) and Düsseldorf (control group), up to 20 per region...
2016: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956377/examining-incentives-to-promote-physical-activity-maintenance-among-hospital-employees-not-achieving-10-000-daily-steps-a-web-based-randomized-controlled-trial-protocol
#12
Marc Mitchell, Lauren White, Paul Oh, Matthew Kwan, Peter Gove, Tricia Leahey, Guy Faulkner
BACKGROUND: The economic burden of physical inactivity in Canada is estimated at Can $6.8 billion (US $5 billion) per year. Employers bear a substantial proportion of the economic costs, as they pay more for inactive workers in health care and other organizational costs. In response, many Canadian employers offer wellness programs, though these are often underutilized. While financial health incentives have been proposed as one way of increasing participation, their longer term effects (ie postintervention effects) are not clear...
December 12, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955929/ten-thousand-steps-a-pedometer-study-of-junior-dentists-in-a-major-british-teaching-hospital-and-a-district-general-hospital
#13
R M Keat, M Thomas, A McKechnie
Sedentary behaviour is widely associated with deleterious health outcomes that in modern medicine have similar connotations to smoking tobacco and alcohol misuse. The integration of e-portfolio, e-logbook, British National Formulary (BNF) and encrypted emails has made smartphones a necessity for trainees. Smartphones also have the ability to record the amount of exercise taken, which allows activity at work to be monitored. The aim of this study to compare the activity of the same group of dental core trainees when they worked within a large multisite teaching hospital and a smaller district general hospital, to find out if supplementary activity was needed outside work...
December 9, 2016: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933460/assessing-colorectal-cancer-screening-barriers-by-two-methods
#14
Mira L Katz, Gregory S Young, Barret J Zimmermann, Cathy M Tatum, Electra D Paskett
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is commonly diagnosed in the USA despite screening tests that have decreased CRC incidence and mortality. Finding the best method to identify patient-level screening barriers is important to improve CRC screening rates. A group-randomized trial was conducted among ten primary-care clinics. Clinics were randomized to a multi-level (clinic, provider, patient) CRC screening intervention or usual care (2007-2013). Subsequent to clinic- and provider-level interventions, a three-step, patient-level intervention was conducted...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933325/influence-of-pre-etching-times-on-fatigue-strength-of-self-etch-adhesives-to-enamel
#15
Toshiki Takamizawa, Wayne W Barkmeier, Akimasa Tsujimoto, Hajime Endo, Kenji Tsuchiya, Robert L Erickson, Mark A Latta, Masashi Miyazaki
PURPOSE: To use shear bond strength (SBS) and shear fatigue strength (SFS) testing to determine the influence of phosphoric acid pre-etching times prior to application of self-etch adhesives on enamel bonding. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two single-step self-etch universal adhesives (Prime&Bond Elect and Scotchbond Universal), a conventional single-step self-etch adhesive (G-ӕnial Bond), and a conventional two-step self-etch adhesive (OptiBond XTR) were used. The SBS and SFS were obtained with phosphoric acid pre-etching for 3, 10, or 15 s prior to application of the adhesives, and without pre-etching (0 s) as a control...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Adhesive Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929355/global-physical-activity-levels-among-people-living-with-hiv-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Davy Vancampfort, James Mugisha, Marc De Hert, Michel Probst, Joseph Firth, Paul Gorczynski, Brendon Stubbs
PURPOSE: It is unclear how much physical activity people living with HIV (PLWH) engage in. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate physical activity levels and its predictors in PLWH. METHODS: PubMed, PsycARTICLES, and CINAHL Plus were searched by two independent reviewers from inception till 1 April 2016 using the keywords: "HIV" OR "AIDS" AND "physical activity" OR "exercise" OR "sports". A random effects meta-analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Across 24 studies including 34 physical activity levels there were 3780 (2471♂) PLWH (mean age range: 37-58 years)...
December 8, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923777/parent-and-clinician-preferences-for-an-asthma-app-to-promote-adolescent-self-management-a-formative-study
#17
Lorie L Geryk, Courtney A Roberts, Adam J Sage, Tamera Coyne-Beasley, Betsy L Sleath, Delesha M Carpenter
BACKGROUND: Most youth asthma apps are not designed with parent and clinician use in mind, and rarely is the app development process informed by parent or clinician input. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to generate formative data on the use, attitudes, and preferences for asthma mHealth app features among parents and clinicians, the important stakeholders who support adolescents with asthma and promote adolescent self-management skills. METHODS: We conducted a mixed-methods study from 2013 to 2014 employing a user-centered design philosophy to acquire feedback from a convenience sample of 20 parents and 6 clinicians...
December 6, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919840/development-fabrication-and-evaluation-of-a-novel-biomimetic-human-breast-tissue-derived-breast-implant-surface
#18
S Barr, E W Hill, A Bayat
: Breast implant use has tripled in the last decade with over 320,000 breast implant based reconstructions and augmentations performed in the US per annum. Unfortunately a considerable number of women will experience capsular contracture, the irrepressible and disfiguring, tightening and hardening of the fibrous capsule that envelops the implant. Functionalising implant surfaces with biocompatible tissue-specific textures may improve in vivo performance. A novel biomimetic breast implant is presented here with anti-inflammatory in vitro abilities...
December 2, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918013/3d-cuboidal-vanadium-diselenide-embedded-reduced-graphene-oxide-hybrid-structures-with-enhanced-supercapacitor-properties
#19
Subba R Marri, Satyajit Ratha, Chandra Sekhar Rout, J N Behera
The electrochemical supercapacitor performance of a VSe2-reduced graphene oxide (RGO) hybrid has been reported for the first time. The hybrid was synthesized via a one-step hydrothermal route at different concentrations of graphene oxide, i.e. 0.15, 0.3, and 0.75 wt%. Enhanced supercapacitor performances were observed in the case of the hybrid obtained at 0.3 wt% of GO. It showed a specific capacitance of ∼680 F g(-1) at a mass normalised current of 1 A g(-1) which was ∼6 and ∼5 fold higher than those of bare VSe2 and bare RGO, respectively...
December 20, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916337/nutritionday-10-years-of-growth
#20
REVIEW
Karin Schindler, Claude Pichard, Isabella Sulz, Dorothee Volkert, Melanie Streicher, Pierre Singer, Olle Ljungqvist, Andre Van Gossum, Peter Bauer, Michael Hiesmayr
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Despite high prevalence at hospital admission, disease related malnutrition (DRM) remains under recognized and undertreated. DRM is associated with increased morbidity, hospital readmission rate, and burden for the healthcare system. The compelling need to increase awareness and knowledge through an international survey has triggered the launch of the nutritionDay (ND) concept. METHODS: ND is a worldwide annual systematic collection and analysis of data in hospital wards, intensive care units and nursing homes...
November 11, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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