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John V Parry, Philippa Easterbrook, Anita R Sands
BACKGROUND: Initial serological testing for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is conducted using either rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) or laboratory-based enzyme immunoassays (EIA)s for detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) or antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV), typically on serum or plasma specimens and, for certain RDTs, capillary whole blood. WHO recommends the use of standardized testing strategies - defined as a sequence of one or more assays to maximize testing accuracy while simplifying the testing process and ideally minimizing cost...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
Yoshifumi Ogami, Naoya Murakita, Koji Fukudome
The sensor response has been reported to become highly nonlinear when the acceleration added to a thermal accelerator is very large, so the same response can be observed for two accelerations with different magnitudes and opposite signs. Some papers have reported the frequency response for the horizontal acceleration to be a first-order system, while others have reported it to be a second-order system. The response for the vertical acceleration has not been studied. In this study, computational experiments were performed to examine the step and frequency responses of a three-axis thermal accelerometer...
November 14, 2017: Sensors
Corneel Vandelanotte, Gregory S Kolt, Cristina M Caperchione, Trevor N Savage, Richard R Rosenkranz, Anthony J Maeder, Anetta Van Itallie, Rhys Tague, Christopher Oldmeadow, W Kerry Mummery, Mitch J Duncan
BACKGROUND: The translation of Web-based physical activity intervention research into the real world is lacking and becoming increasingly important. OBJECTIVE: To compare usage and effectiveness, in real-world settings, of a traditional Web 1.0 Web-based physical activity intervention, providing limited interactivity, to a Web 2.0 Web-based physical activity intervention that includes interactive features, such as social networking (ie, status updates, online "friends," and personalized profile pages), blogs, and Google Maps mash-ups...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Vladimír Tuka, Martina Daňková, Karel Riegel, Martin Matoulek
Movement is the basic attribute of life. It is not surprising that the return to regular physical activity is a very effective and cheap means of preventing and treating most non-cummunicable diseases. Therefore, every physician should be able to prescribe a suitable physical activity. The minimum amount of physical activity with proven effects in primary prevention of chronic diseases is relatively low: 150 minutes of moderate physical activity or 75 minutes of high intensity exercise per week or a combination of the two...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Samantha Hajna, Nancy A Ross, Kaberi Dasgupta
The relative benefits of meeting the current moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) and 'active' step count recommendations are unknown. Using robust linear regressions, we compared cardiometabolic marker differences (blood pressure, lipid levels, Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), hemoglobin A1C, C-reactive protein (CRP), and body mass index (BMI)) across MVPA (150min/week) and step (10,000 steps/day) thresholds and between step categories (low active: 5000 to 7499, somewhat active: 7500 to 9999, and active: ≥10,000 steps/day vs...
November 7, 2017: Preventive Medicine
Brian E Lacy, Brennan Spiegel
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in both men and women in the United States, and screening for CRC is a national health-care priority. In this issue, investigators from the CONFIRM study group report on the aims and study design of a large, multicenter, randomized prospective study of whether screening colonoscopy is superior to an annual fecal immunochemical test (FIT). CONFRIM hopes to enroll 50,000 individuals, aged 50-75 years, from 46 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers and monitor them for 10 years...
November 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Bowen Liu, Bharath Ramsundar, Prasad Kawthekar, Jade Shi, Joseph Gomes, Quang Luu Nguyen, Stephen Ho, Jack Sloane, Paul Wender, Vijay Pande
We describe a fully data driven model that learns to perform a retrosynthetic reaction prediction task, which is treated as a sequence-to-sequence mapping problem. The end-to-end trained model has an encoder-decoder architecture that consists of two recurrent neural networks, which has previously shown great success in solving other sequence-to-sequence prediction tasks such as machine translation. The model is trained on 50,000 experimental reaction examples from the United States patent literature, which span 10 broad reaction types that are commonly used by medicinal chemists...
October 25, 2017: ACS Central Science
Christian Liebsch, Julia Zimmermann, Nicolas Graf, Christoph Schilling, Hans-Joachim Wilke, Annette Kienle
Biomechanical in vitro tests analysing screw loosening often include high standard deviations caused by high variabilities in bone mineral density and pedicle geometry, whereas standardized mechanical models made of PU foam often do not integrate anatomical or physiological boundary conditions. The purpose of this study was to develop a most realistic mechanical model for the standardized and reproducible testing of pedicle screws regarding the resistance against screw loosening and the holding force as well as to validate this model by in vitro experiments...
October 25, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Lindsey B De Lott, Kevin A Kerber, Paul P Lee, Devin L Brown, James F Burke
Importance: Diplopia is believed to be a common eye-related symptom. However, to date, there are no available population-based estimates, which are necessary to understand the impact of this disabling symptom on the health care system and to identify steps to optimize patient care. Objective: To describe diplopia presentations in US ambulatory and emergency department (ED) settings. Design, Setting, and Participants: Ambulatory and ED visits in the United States by patients with diplopia were analyzed in this prespecified secondary analysis of National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey data collected for a 10-year period (2003-2012)...
October 26, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
X R Hu, D J Dai, H D Wang, C Q Zhang
Botrytis cinerea, a typical "high-risk" pathogenic fungus that rapidly develops resistance to fungicides, affects more than 1,000 species of 586 plant genera native to most continents and causes great economic losses. Therefore, a rapid and sensitive assay of fungicide resistance development in B. cinerea populations is crucial for scientific management. In this study, we established a Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) system for the monitoring and evaluation of the risk of development of B. cinerea resistance to QoI fungicides; the method uses two LAMP assays...
October 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Win Khaing, Sakda Arj-Ong Vallibhakara, Visasiri Tantrakul, Orawin Vallibhakara, Sasivimol Rattanasiri, Mark McEvoy, John Attia, Ammarin Thakkinstian
Vitamin D supplementation effects with or without calcium in pregnancy for reducing risk of preeclampsia and gestational or pregnancy induced hypertension are controversial. Literature was systematically searched in Medline, Scopus and Cochrane databases from inception to July 2017. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in English were selected if they had any pair of interventions (calcium, vitamin D, both, or placebo). Systematic review with two-step network-meta-analysis was used to indirectly estimate supplementary effects...
October 18, 2017: Nutrients
Aliasghar A Kiadaliri, Björn E Rosengren, Martin Englund
OBJECTIVES: To investigate temporal trend in fall mortality among adults (aged ≥20 years) in southern Sweden using multiple cause of death data. METHODS: We examined all death certificates (DCs, n=2 01 488) in adults recorded in the Skåne region during 1998-2014. We identified all fall deaths using International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 codes (W00-W19) and calculated the mortality rates by age and sex. Temporal trends were evaluated using joinpoint regression and associated causes were identified by age-adjusted and sex-adjusted observed/expected ratios...
October 22, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Michael G Saper, Lauren A Pierpoint, Wei Liu, R Dawn Comstock, John D Polousky, James R Andrews
BACKGROUND: Shoulder and elbow injuries are common in young athletes, especially high school baseball players. Understanding the risk factors associated with baseball injuries is an essential first step in the development of injury prevention strategies. PURPOSE: To provide a comprehensive understanding of the epidemiology of shoulder and elbow injuries among high school baseball players in the United States. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiological study...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Tim Stangner, Hanqing Zhang, Tobias Dahlberg, Krister Wiklund, Magnus Andersson
Wide field-of-view imaging of fast processes in a microscope requires high light intensities motivating the use of lasers as light sources. However, due to their long spatial coherence length, lasers are inappropriate for such applications, as they produce coherent noise and parasitic reflections, such as speckle, degrading image quality. Therefore, we provide a step-by-step guide for constructing a speckle-free and high-contrast laser illumination setup using a rotating ground glass diffuser driven by a stepper motor...
July 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Masanori Kakuta, Shuji Suzuki, Kazuki Izawa, Takashi Ishida, Yutaka Akiyama
Sequence similarity searches have been widely used in the analyses of metagenomic sequencing data. Finding homologous sequences in a reference database enables the estimation of taxonomic and functional characteristics of each query sequence. Because current metagenomic sequencing data consist of a large number of nucleotide sequences, the time required for sequence similarity searches account for a large proportion of the total time. This time-consuming step makes it difficult to perform large-scale analyses...
October 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
João C Ferreira, Patrícia T Pires, Álvaro F de Azevedo, Sofia Arantes-Oliveira, Mário J Silva, Paulo R de Melo
AIM: The study aimed to analyze the morphology of the dentin-resin interface yielded by two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive systems with different solvents and compositions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 32 dentine disks were prepared and randomly assigned to four groups of one-bottle etch-and-rinse adhesive systems containing different solvents: group I, Adper Scotchbond-IXT™ (ethanol/water); group II, XP-Bond™ (tertiary butanol); group III, Prime and Bond NT(®) (acetone); and group IV, One Coat bond® (5% water)...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
Riccardo Gotti, Davide Gatti, Piotr Masłowski, Marco Lamperti, Michele Belmonte, Paolo Laporta, Marco Marangoni
We propose a novel approach to cavity-ring-down-spectroscopy (CRDS) in which spectra acquired with a frequency-agile rapid-scanning (FARS) scheme, i.e., with a laser sideband stepped across the modes of a high-finesse cavity, are interleaved with one another by a sub-millisecond readjustment of the cavity length. This brings to time acquisitions below 20 s for few-GHz-wide spectra composed of a very high number of spectral points, typically 3200. Thanks to the signal-to-noise ratio easily in excess of 10 000, each FARS-CRDS spectrum is shown to be sufficient to determine the line-centre frequency of a Doppler broadened line with a precision of 2 parts over 10(11), thus very close to that of sub-Doppler regimes and in a few-seconds time scale...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Haiyang Zhang, Shujuan Ma, Yating Yao, Yanan Li, Ya Li, Junjie Ou, Mingliang Ye, Yinmao Wei
A facile approach was developed to prepare hybrid monoliths with different functions via two-step photo-initiated reactions. Firstly, acrylopropyl polyhedral oligomertic silsesquioxane (acryl-POSS) and propargyl acrylate (PA) were used as precursors to synthesize alkynyl-functionalized hybrid monoliths via photo-initiated free radical polymerization. Secondly, the hybrid monoliths were modified with 1-octadecanethiol (ODT) and sodium 3-mercapto-1-propanesulfonate (SMPS) via photo-initiated thiol-yne click reaction to prepare reversed-phase (RP) and strong cation-exchange (SCX) hybrid monoliths, respectively...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Judith A Jones, Michael Monopoli
With 10,000 baby boomers turning 65 every day, many will be on fixed incomes and will lose dental insurance upon retirement. This article presents why a dental benefit in Medicare might save the US government money, and who would likely benefit. It details an approach to estimating costs of inclusion of a dental benefit in Medicare, and compares the proposed approach to existing proposals. Additionally, the ensuing steps needed to advance the conversation to include oral health in healthcare for the aged will be discussed...
October 2017: Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry
Marijke C Leliveld, Hans Risselada
Despite the vast body of research on charitable giving and its drivers, no research has investigated the longitudinal dynamics of individual donation decisions. We analyzed unique data with nearly 300,000 real donation decisions made by more than 20,000 individuals for a period of 10 months. Each decision entailed a choice of what to do with money received for completing a survey (on average, €0.67 per survey): keep it or donate to charity. We found that most of the participants (89%) always chose to keep the money...
September 2017: Science Advances
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