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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806329/physiological-mechanisms-in-combined-electric-acoustic-stimulation
#1
Mika Sato, Peter Baumhoff, Jochen Tillein, Andrej Kral
OBJECTIVE: Electrical stimulation is normally performed on ears that have no hearing function, i.e., lack functional hair cells. The properties of electrically-evoked responses in these cochleae were investigated in several previous studies. Recent clinical developments have introduced cochlear implantation (CI) in residually-hearing ears to improve speech understanding in noise. The present study documents the known physiological differences between electrical stimulation of hair cells and of spiral ganglion cells, respectively, and reviews the mechanisms of combined electric and acoustic stimulation in the hearing ears...
September 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796092/oral-administration-of-clinical-stage-drug-candidate-sens-401-effectively-reduces-cisplatin-induced-hearing-loss-in-rats
#2
Mathieu Petremann, Christophe Tran Van Ba, Audrey Broussy, Charlotte Romanet, Jonas Dyhrfjeld-Johnsen
HYPOTHESIS: SENS-401, an oral clinical-stage drug, may reduce cisplatin-induced hearing loss and cochlear damage in an in vivo model. BACKGROUND: Cisplatin is commonly associated with hearing loss, causing significant learning and behavioral difficulties in the pediatric cancer population, and for which there are currently no clinical solutions. SENS-401 has previously been shown to improve acoustic trauma-induced hearing loss in vivo. METHODS: The effect of SENS-401 (R-azasetron besylate) on cisplatin IC50 values was evaluated in a panel of cisplatin-sensitive cell lines (NIH:OVCAR-3, SK-N-AS, NCI-H460, FaDu)...
August 8, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776202/neurotrophin-gene-therapy-in-deafened-ears-with-cochlear-implants-long-term-effects-on-nerve-survival-and-functional-measures
#3
Bryan E Pfingst, Deborah J Colesa, Donald L Swiderski, Aaron P Hughes, Stefan B Strahl, Moaz Sinan, Yehoash Raphael
Because cochlear implants function by stimulating the auditory nerve, it is assumed that the condition of the nerve plays an important role in the efficacy of the prosthesis. Thus, considerable research has been devoted to methods of preserving the nerve following deafness. Neurotrophins have been identified as a potential contributor to neural health, but most of the research to date has been done in young animals and for short periods (less than 3 to 6 months) after the onset of treatment. The first objective of the current experiment was to examine the effects of a neurotrophin gene therapy delivery method on spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) preservation and function in the long term (5 to 14 months) in mature guinea pigs with cochlear implants...
August 3, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769753/intraoperative-electrocochleographic-characteristics-of-auditory-neuropathy-spectrum-disorder-in-cochlear-implant-subjects
#4
William J Riggs, Joseph P Roche, Christopher K Giardina, Michael S Harris, Zachary J Bastian, Tatyana E Fontenot, Craig A Buchman, Kevin D Brown, Oliver F Adunka, Douglas C Fitzpatrick
Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) is characterized by an apparent discrepancy between measures of cochlear and neural function based on auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing. Clinical indicators of ANSD are a present cochlear microphonic (CM) with small or absent wave V. Many identified ANSD patients have speech impairment severe enough that cochlear implantation (CI) is indicated. To better understand the cochleae identified with ANSD that lead to a CI, we performed intraoperative round window electrocochleography (ECochG) to tone bursts in children (n = 167) and adults (n = 163)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756190/mir-34a-bcl-2-signaling-pathway-contributes-to-age-related-hearing-loss-by-modulating-hair-cell-apoptosis
#5
Qiuhong Huang, Yiqing Zheng, Yongkang Ou, Hao Xiong, Haidi Yang, Zhigang Zhang, Suijun Chen, Yongyi Ye
MicroRNAs, such as miR-34, have been reported to influence age-related diseases. In this study, we explored the role of the miR-34a/Bcl-2 signaling pathway in age-related hearing loss (AHL). Using an AHL mouse model (C57BL/6), we found that the expression of miR-34a in the cochlea increased with age, whereas expression of Bcl-2 decreased. Increasing the amount of a miR-34a mimetic in a mouse auditory cell line (HEI-OC1) inhibited Bcl-2, leading to enhanced apoptosis; in contrast, miR-34a inhibition produced the opposite effect...
July 26, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735085/minocycline-attenuates-streptomycin-induced-cochlear-hair-cell-death-by-inhibiting-protein-nitration-and-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-activation
#6
Ping Wang, Haonan Li, Shuyuan Yu, Peng Jin, Abdurahman Hassan, Bo Du
This study aimed to elucidate the protective effect of minocycline against streptomycin-induced damage of cochlear hair cells and its mechanism. Cochlear membranes were isolated from newborn Wistar rats and randomly divided into control, 500μmol/L streptomycin, 100μmol/L minocycline, and streptomycin and minocycline treatment groups. Hair cell survival was analyzed by detecting the expression of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) in cochlear hair cells by immunofluorescence and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of 3-NT and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and poly (ADP-Ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3 activation were evaluated by western blotting...
July 19, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725177/characterization-of-lgr5-progenitor-cell-transcriptomes-after-neomycin-injury-in-the-neonatal-mouse-cochlea
#7
Shasha Zhang, Yuan Zhang, Pengfei Yu, Yao Hu, Han Zhou, Lingna Guo, Xiaochen Xu, Xiaocheng Zhu, Muhammad Waqas, Jieyu Qi, Xiaoli Zhang, Yan Liu, Fangyi Chen, Mingliang Tang, Xiaoyun Qian, Haibo Shi, Xia Gao, Renjie Chai
Lgr5+ supporting cells (SCs) are enriched hair cell (HC) progenitors in the cochlea. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that HC injury can spontaneously activate Lgr5+ progenitors to regenerate HCs in the neonatal mouse cochlea. Promoting HC regeneration requires the understanding of the mechanism of HC regeneration, and this requires knowledge of the key genes involved in HC injury-induced self-repair responses that promote the proliferation and differentiation of Lgr5+ progenitors. Here, as expected, we found that neomycin-treated Lgr5+ progenitors (NLPs) had significantly greater HC regeneration ability, and greater but not significant proliferation ability compared to untreated Lgr5+ progenitors (ULPs) in response to neomycin exposure...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717876/structural-and-ultrastructural-changes-to-type-i-spiral-ganglion-neurons-and-schwann-cells-in-the-deafened-guinea-pig-cochlea
#8
Andrew K Wise, Remy Pujol, Thomas G Landry, James B Fallon, Robert K Shepherd
Sensorineural hearing loss is commonly caused by damage to cochlear sensory hair cells. Coinciding with hair cell degeneration, the peripheral fibres of type I spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) that normally form synaptic connections with the inner hair cell gradually degenerate. We examined the time course of these degenerative changes in type I SGNs and their satellite Schwann cells at the ultrastructural level in guinea pigs at 2, 6, and 12 weeks following aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss. Degeneration of the peripheral fibres occurred prior to the degeneration of the type I SGN soma and was characterised by shrinkage of the fibre followed by retraction of the axoplasm, often leaving a normal myelin lumen devoid of axoplasmic content...
July 17, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712672/noise-induced-cochlear-synaptopathy-in-rhesus-monkeys-macaca-mulatta
#9
M D Valero, J A Burton, S N Hauser, T A Hackett, R Ramachandran, M C Liberman
Cochlear synaptopathy can result from various insults, including acoustic trauma, aging, ototoxicity, or chronic conductive hearing loss. For example, moderate noise exposure in mice can destroy up to ∼50% of synapses between auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) and inner hair cells (IHCs) without affecting outer hair cells (OHCs) or thresholds, because the synaptopathy occurs first in high-threshold ANFs. However, the fiber loss likely impairs temporal processing and hearing-in-noise, a classic complaint of those with sensorineural hearing loss...
July 8, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703809/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-a-prototypic-chemopreventative-agent-for-protection-against-cisplatin-based-ototoxicity
#10
Vikrant Borse, Raheem F H Al Aameri, Kelly Sheehan, Sandeep Sheth, Tejbeer Kaur, Debashree Mukherjea, Srinivasan Tupal, Michelle Lowy, Sumana Ghosh, Asmita Dhukhwa, Puspanjali Bhatta, Leonard P Rybak, Vickram Ramkumar
Cisplatin-induced ototoxicity is one of the major factors limiting cisplatin chemotherapy. Ototoxicity results from damage to outer hair cells (OHCs) and other regions of the cochlea. At the cellular level, cisplatin increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to cochlear inflammation and apoptosis. Thus, ideal otoprotective drugs should target oxidative stress and inflammatory mechanisms without interfering with cisplatin's chemotherapeutic efficacy. In this study, we show that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a prototypic agent exhibiting these properties of an effect otoprotective agent...
July 13, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701711/amplification-mode-differs-along-the-length-of-the-mouse-cochlea-as-revealed-by-connexin-26-deletion-from-specific-gap-junctions
#11
Victoria A Lukashkina, Tetsuji Yamashita, Jian Zuo, Andrei N Lukashkin, Ian J Russell
The sharp frequency tuning and exquisite sensitivity of the mammalian cochlea is due to active forces delivered by outer hair cells (OHCs) to the cochlear partition. Force transmission is mediated and modulated by specialized cells, including Deiters' cells (DCs) and pillar cells (PCs), coupled by gap-junctions composed of connexin 26 (Cx26) and Cx30. We created a mouse with conditional Cx26 knock-out (Cx26 cKO) in DCs and PCs that did not influence sensory transduction, receptor-current-driving-voltage, low-mid-frequency distortion-product-otoacoustic-emissions (DPOAEs), and passive basilar membrane (BM) responses...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692592/reduction-in-temporary-and-permanent-audiological-injury-through-internal-jugular-vein-compression-in-a-rodent-blast-injury-model
#12
Brian Sindelar, Michael Shinners, Sydney Sherman, Kristine Erickson, Vimal Patel, Paul Kubilis, John D Finan, Julian E Bailes
HYPOTHESIS: Internal jugular vein (IJV) compression influences not only intracranial but also intracochlear physiology and has demonstrated preclinical effectiveness in reducing acute audiological injury in a rodent blast model. However, the long-term effects in this model are unknown. BACKGROUND: Blast wave-induced audiological injury from an improvised explosive device is a leading cause of morbidity among service members in theater but there are limitations to the current protective measures...
September 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688549/curcumin-protects-against-acoustic-trauma-in-the-rat-cochlea
#13
Harun Soyalıç, Fikret Gevrek, Serhat Karaman
OBJECTIVES: In this study we evaluated the therapeutic utility of curcumin in a rodent model of acoustic trauma using histopathology, immunohistochemical, and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAEs) measurements. METHODS: 28 Wistar albino rats were included in the study and randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups. The first group (group 1) served as the control and was exposed to acoustic trauma alone. Group 2 was the curcumin group. Group 3 was the curcumin plus acoustic trauma group...
August 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686716/gsr-is-not-essential-for-the-maintenance-of-antioxidant-defenses-in-mouse-cochlea-possible-role-of-the-thioredoxin-system-as-a-functional-backup-for-gsr
#14
Chul Han, Mi-Jung Kim, Dalian Ding, Hyo-Jin Park, Karessa White, Logan Walker, Tongjun Gu, Masaru Tanokura, Tatsuya Yamasoba, Paul Linser, Richard Salvi, Shinichi Someya
Glutathione reductase (GSR), a key member of the glutathione antioxidant defense system, converts oxidized glutathione (GSSG) to reduced glutathione (GSH) and maintains the intracellular glutathione redox state to protect the cells from oxidative damage. Previous reports have shown that Gsr deficiency results in defects in host defense against bacterial infection, while diquat induces renal injury in Gsr hypomorphic mice. In flies, overexpression of GSR extended lifespan under hyperoxia. In the current study, we investigated the roles of GSR in cochlear antioxidant defense using Gsr homozygous knockout mice that were backcrossed onto the CBA/CaJ mouse strain, a normal-hearing strain that does not carry a specific Cdh23 mutation that causes progressive hair cell degeneration and early onset of hearing loss...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680501/methods-of-hearing-preservation-during-cochlear-implantation
#15
REVIEW
Ahmed Khater, Mohammad Waheed El-Anwar
Introduction  Recent advances in surgical techniques and electrode design have made residual hearing preservation during cochlear implantation (CI) possible, achievable, and desirable. Objectives  The objective of this study was to review the literature regarding methods used for hearing preservation during CI surgery. Data Synthesis  We performed a search in the LILACS, MEDLINE, SciELO, PubMed databases, and Cochrane Library, using the keywords CI, hearing preservation, CI electrode design, and CI soft surgery...
July 2017: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679269/model-based-estimation-of-the-frequency-tuning-of-the-inner-hair-cell-stereocilia-from-neural-tuning-curves
#16
Alessandro Altoè, Ville Pulkki, Sarah Verhulst
This study proposes that the frequency tuning of the inner-hair-cell (IHC) stereocilia in the intact organ of Corti can be derived from the responses of the auditory fibers (AFs) using computational tools. The frequency-dependent relationship between the AF threshold and the amplitude of the stereocilia vibration is estimated using a model of the IHC-mediated mechanical to neural transduction. Depending on the response properties of the considered AF, the amplitude of stereocilia deflection required to drive the simulated AF above threshold is 1...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672008/nanofibrous-scaffolds-for-the-guidance-of-stem-cell-derived-neurons-for-auditory-nerve-regeneration
#17
Sandra Hackelberg, Samuel J Tuck, Long He, Arjun Rastogi, Christina White, Liqian Liu, Diane M Prieskorn, Ryan J Miller, Che Chan, Benjamin R Loomis, Joseph M Corey, Josef M Miller, R Keith Duncan
Impairment of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) of the auditory nerve is a major cause for hearing loss occurring independently or in addition to sensory hair cell damage. Unfortunately, mammalian SGNs lack the potential for autonomous regeneration. Stem cell based therapy is a promising approach for auditory nerve regeneration, but proper integration of exogenous cells into the auditory circuit remains a fundamental challenge. Here, we present novel nanofibrous scaffolds designed to guide the integration of human stem cell-derived neurons in the internal auditory meatus (IAM), the foramen allowing passage of the spiral ganglion to the auditory brainstem...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669599/inactivation-of-stat3-signaling-impairs-hair-cell-differentiation-in%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-developing-mouse-cochlea
#18
Qianqian Chen, Yizhou Quan, Naitao Wang, Chengying Xie, Zhongzhong Ji, Hao He, Renjie Chai, Huawei Li, Shankai Yin, Y Eugene Chin, Xunbin Wei, Wei-Qiang Gao
Although STAT3 signaling is demonstrated to regulate sensory cell differentiation and regeneration in the zebrafish, its exact role is still unclear in mammalian cochleae. Here, we report that STAT3 and its activated form are specifically expressed in hair cells during mouse cochlear development. Importantly, conditional cochlear deletion of Stat3 leads to an inhibition on hair cell differentiation in mice in vivo and in vitro. By cell fate analysis, inactivation of STAT3 signaling shifts the cell division modes from asymmetric to symmetric divisions from supporting cells...
July 11, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663725/mice-lacking-the-alpha9-subunit-of-the-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-exhibit-deficits-in-frequency-difference-limens-and-sound-localization
#19
Amanda Clause, Amanda M Lauer, Karl Kandler
Sound processing in the cochlea is modulated by cholinergic efferent axons arising from medial olivocochlear neurons in the brainstem. These axons contact outer hair cells in the mature cochlea and inner hair cells during development and activate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors composed of α9 and α10 subunits. The α9 subunit is necessary for mediating the effects of acetylcholine on hair cells as genetic deletion of the α9 subunit results in functional cholinergic de-efferentation of the cochlea. Cholinergic modulation of spontaneous cochlear activity before hearing onset is important for the maturation of central auditory circuits...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656549/kanamycin-damages-early-postnatal-but-not-adult-spiral-ganglion-neurons
#20
Kelei Gao, Dalian Ding, Hong Sun, Jerome Roth, Richard Salvi
Although aminoglycoside antibiotics such as kanamycin are widely used clinically to treat life-threatening bacterial infections, ototoxicity remains a significant dose-limiting side effect. The prevailing view is that the hair cells are the primary ototoxic target of aminoglycosides and that spiral ganglion neurons begin to degenerate weeks or months after the hair cells have died due to lack of neurotrophic support. To test the early developmental aspects of this issue, we compared kanamycin-induced hair cell and spiral ganglion pathology in rat postnatal day 3 cochlear organotypic cultures with adult whole cochlear explants...
June 27, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
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