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Acute alcohol withdrawal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917245/intranasal-oxytocin-does-not-modulate-responses-to-alcohol-in-social-drinkers
#1
Ashley Vena, Andrea King, Royce Lee, Harriet de Wit
INTRODUCTION: Preclinical and clinical evidence suggest that the neuropeptide oxytocin may be of value in treating alcohol use disorder, either by reducing the rewarding effects of alcohol or reducing negative affect induced by alcohol withdrawal. However, the effect of a single dose of oxytocin on subjective and psychomotor responses to alcohol in social drinkers is not known. METHODS: The present study examined the effect of intranasal oxytocin on subjective, behavioral, and physiological responses to a moderate dose of alcohol (0...
June 19, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862098/acute-liver-failure-among-patients-on-efavirenz-based-antiretroviral-therapy
#2
Innocent Lule Segamwenge, Miriam Kaunanele Bernard
Objectives: To describe the clinical characteristics of patients presenting with fulminant liver failure after varying periods of exposure to Efavirenz containing antiretroviral medications. Methods: We report a series of 4 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who were admitted with acute liver failure (ALF) over a 6-month period. All these patients had been treated with a range of Efavirenz containing antiretroviral regimens and were negative for hepatitis A, B, and C infections as well as other opportunistic infections, all were negative for autoimmune hepatitis, and none had evidence of chronic liver disease or use of alcohol or herbal medications...
2018: Case Reports in Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29803804/forced-ethanol-ingestion-by-wistar-rats-from-a-juvenile-age-increased-voluntary-alcohol-consumption-in-adulthood-with-the-involvement-of-orexin-a
#3
Luis-Gabriel Mendoza-Ruiz, Priscila Vázquez-León, Lucía Martínez-Mota, Eduardo Ramírez San Juan, Abraham Miranda-Páez
Human adolescents who drink alcohol are more likely to become alcoholics in adulthood. Alcohol administration (intraperitoneally) or drinking (in a 2-bottle free choice paradigm) during the juvenile/adolescent age of rats promotes voluntary alcohol consumption in adulthood. On the other hand, there is growing evidence that the orexinergic system plays a role in several rewarded behaviors, including alcohol ingestion. Since it is unknown what effect is exerted in adulthood by forced oral ethanol intake and/or administration of orexin-A (OX-A) in juvenile rats, the present study aimed to evaluate this question...
February 2, 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29800507/implementation-of-an-intensive-care-unit-specific-alcohol-withdrawal-syndrome-management-protocol-reduces-the-need-for-mechanical-ventilation
#4
Jason J Heavner, Kathleen M Akgün, Mojdeh S Heavner, Claire C Eng, Matthew Drew, Peter Jackson, David Pritchard, Shyoko Honiden
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Alcohol use disorders are prevalent and put patients at risk for developing alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). Treatment of AWS with a symptom-triggered protocol standardizes management and may avoid AWS-related complications. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether implementation of an intensive care unit (ICU)-specific, symptom-triggered protocol for management of AWS was associated with improved clinical outcomes and, in particular, would reduce the risk of patients with AWS requiring mechanical ventilation...
May 25, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783922/lethal-phlegmonous-colitis
#5
John D Gilbert, Roger W Byard
A 52-year-old man died soon after admission to hospital with a severe metabolic acidosis and likely sepsis. He had a past history of alcohol abuse with withdrawal seizures. An abdominal computed tomography scan showed thickened bowel loops but no obvious ischaemic changes, and a blood culture yielded a pure growth of Escherichia coli. At autopsy, the liver showed well-established micro-nodular cirrhosis with steatosis. The peritoneal cavity contained 200 mL of turbid yellow-brown fluid, and the caecum and ascending colon were unusually thickened...
January 1, 2018: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755316/single-ethanol-withdrawal-regulates-extrasynaptic-%C3%AE-gaba-a-receptors-via-pkc%C3%AE-activation
#6
Juan Chen, Yang He, Yan Wu, Hang Zhou, Li-Da Su, Wei-Nan Li, Richard W Olsen, Jing Liang, Yu-Dong Zhou, Yi Shen
Alcohol (ethanol, EtOH) is one of the most widely abused drugs with profound effects on brain function and behavior. GABAA receptors (GABAA Rs) are one of the major targets for EtOH in the brain. Temporary plastic changes in GABAA Rs after withdrawal from a single EtOH exposure occur both in vivo and in vitro , which may be the basis for chronic EtOH addiction, tolerance and withdrawal symptoms. Extrasynaptic δ-GABAA R endocytosis is implicated in EtOH-induced GABAA R plasticity, but the mechanisms by which the relative abundance and localization of specific GABAA Rs are altered by EtOH exposure and withdrawal remain unclear...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753371/cardiovascular-events-in-alcoholic-syndrome-with-alcohol-withdrawal-history-results-from-the-national-inpatient-sample
#7
Parasuram Krishnamoorthy, Aditi Kalla, Vincent M Figueredo
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies suggest reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) events with moderate alcohol consumption. However, heavy and binge drinking may be associated with higher CVD risk. Utilizing the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, we studied the association between a troublesome alcohol history (TAH), defined as those with diagnoses of both chronic alcohol syndrome and acute withdrawal history and CVD events. METHODS: Patients >18 years with diagnoses of both chronic alcohol syndrome and acute withdrawal using the International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Edition-Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes 303...
May 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709248/identifying-risk-profiles-in-liver-transplant-candidates-and-implications-for-induction-immunosuppression
#8
REVIEW
Umberto Cillo, Wolf O Bechstein, Gabriela Berlakovich, Philipp Dutkowski, Frank Lehner, Silvio Nadalin, Faouzi Saliba, Hans J Schlitt, Johann Pratschke
Changes in recipient and donor characteristics are redefining the role of induction in liver transplant recipients. Older recipients are more common, with greater concomitant comorbidity. Moderate or severe renal dysfunction is now estimated to affect 40% of liver transplant recipients. Donors are also becoming older, and other factors such as more frequent non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) compromise the quality of some grafts. Rejection rates are now relatively low (~10%) but some patients have a markedly increased risk such as younger recipients and those undergoing re-transplantation...
April 13, 2018: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705654/the-seizure-precipitating-effect-of-alcohol-a-prospective-observational-cross-over-study
#9
Christian Samsonsen, Harald Myklebust, Tåle Strindler, Geir Bråthen, Grethe Helde, Eylert Brodtkorb
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between alcohol use and seizures in acutely hospitalized patients. We wished to study the extent of the problem as well as the clinical characteristics of people with various forms of alcohol-related seizures, including their drinking pattern. METHOD: After admission, a semi-structured interview took place with 134 consecutive patients (epilepsy 92, single seizures 42). Alcohol use was assessed by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and by the number of alcohol units consumed during 6 days prior to the seizure...
July 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689295/behavioral-and-biochemical-effects-of-ethanol-withdrawal-in-zebrafish
#10
Suianny Nayara da Silva Chaves, Gabriel Rocha Felício, Bruna Patrícia Dutra Costa, Witallo Etevaldo Araújo de Oliveira, Monica Gomes Lima-Maximino, Diógenes Henrique de Siqueira Silva, Caio Maximino
Chronic alcohol use induces adaptations and toxicity that can induce symptoms of anxiety, autonomic hyperarousal, and epileptic seizures when alcohol is removed (withdrawal syndrome). Zebrafish has recently gained wide attention as a behavioral model to study the neurobehavioral effects of acute and chronic alcohol use, including withdrawal. The literature, however, is very contradictory on findings regarding withdrawal effects, with some studies reporting increased anxiety, while others report no effect. A meta-analytic approach was taken to find the sources of this heterogeneity, and ethanol concentration during exposure and exposure duration were found to be the main sources of variation...
June 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676057/the-effects-of-acute-alcohol-withdrawal-on-sleep
#11
Christopher J Hodges, Rowan P Ogeil, Dan I Lubman
OBJECTIVES: Although sleep disturbances are prominent during alcohol withdrawal, less is known about the specific components of sleep that are disturbed prior to and during acute detoxification. This study aimed to determine whether specific sleep components are affected prior to and during acute detoxification and their relationship to psychological distress. METHODS: Twenty-nine participants were recruited from a residential detoxification service in Melbourne, Australia, and completed both subjective methods of sleep and distress, in addition to wearing an actigraphy device...
May 2018: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617711/predictors-of-alcohol-withdrawal-readmissions
#12
Siva Harsha Yedlapati, Scott H Stewart
Aims: Hospital readmissions serve as a major benchmark for the quality of care and alcohol withdrawal (AW) may lead to multiple hospitalizations and readmissions. We sought to evaluate readmission rates and predictors of having AW-related readmissions in a nationally representative sample. Short summary: In a nationally representative sample, AW readmission within 30 days and multiple readmissions during the year were high and were particularly predicted by discharge against medical advice (AMA), comorbid psychosis, comorbid depression, poor socioeconomic status, comorbid drug abuse and alcohol-related medical disease...
March 30, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572015/differential-effects-of-single-versus-repeated-minocycline-administration-lack-of-significant-interaction-with-chronic-alcohol-history
#13
Kathryn M Harper, Darin J Knapp, Meredith A Park, George R Breese
Neuroimmune cytokines are increased with alcohol withdrawal and may mediate clinical responses associated with alcoholism. Because minocycline regulates the level of cytokines, it has been suggested as a therapeutic for disorders associated with alcohol. Male Wistar rats were exposed to chronic intermittent alcohol (CIA) comprising three 5-day cycles of ethanol liquid diet separated by 2 days of withdrawal. Rats were tested on social interaction, a measure of anxiety-like behavior, followed immediately by collection of amygdala tissue to measure CCL2 and TNFα or collection of the blood to measure corticosterone (CORT)...
May 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556175/ventral-tegmental-area-gaba-neurons-are-resistant-to-gaba-a-receptor-mediated-inhibition-during-ethanol-withdrawal
#14
Ashley C Nelson, Stephanie B Williams, Stephanie S Pistorius, Hyun J Park, Taylor J Woodward, Andrew J Payne, J Daniel Obray, Samuel I Shin, Jennifer K Mabey, Scott C Steffensen
The neural mechanisms underlying alcohol dependence are not well-understood. GABAergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are a relevant target for ethanol. They are inhibited by ethanol at physiologically-relevant levels in vivo and display marked hyperexcitability during withdrawal. In the present study, we examined the effects of the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol on VTA neurons ex vivo following withdrawal from acute and chronic ethanol exposure. We used standard cell-attached mode electrophysiology in the slice preparation to evaluate the effects of muscimol on VTA GABA neuron firing rate following exposure to acute and chronic ethanol in male CD-1 GAD-67 GFP mice...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549852/elevated-monoamine-oxidase-a-activity-and-protein-levels-in-rodent-brain-during-acute-withdrawal-after-chronic-intermittent-ethanol-vapor-exposure
#15
Brittany A Matthews, Junchao Tong, Sophia Attwells, Xin Xu, Anh Le, Stephen J Kish, Jeffrey H Meyer
BACKGROUND: A key component of alcohol dependence (AD), a severe form of alcohol use disorder, is the negative emotional state during withdrawal. Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) is an important enzyme that metabolizes monoamines and creates oxidative stress. Elevations in MAO-A level, especially in the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex (PFC and ACC), are associated with low mood states, including the dysphoria of early alcohol withdrawal in humans. The aim of the present study was to determine whether chronic alcohol vapor exposure causes an upregulation of MAO-A activity or level in the PFC and ACC of rodents during acute withdrawal...
April 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520058/histone-deacetylases-mediate-gaba-a-receptor-expression-physiology-and-behavioral-maladaptations-in-rat-models-of-alcohol-dependence
#16
John Peyton Bohnsack, Benjamin A Hughes, Todd K O'Buckley, Kamyra Edokpolor, Joyce Besheer, A Leslie Morrow
Alcohol use disorders are chronic debilitating diseases characterized by severe withdrawal symptoms that contribute to morbidity and relapse. GABAA receptor (GABAA R) adaptations have long been implicated in the chronic effects of alcohol and contribute to many withdrawal symptoms associated with alcohol dependence. In rodents, GABAA R hypofunction results from decreases in Gabra1 expression, although the underlying mechanism controlling Gabra1 expression after chronic ethanol exposure is still unknown. We found that chronic ethanol exposure using either ethanol gavage or two-bottle choice voluntary access paradigms decreased Gabra1 expression and increased Hdac2 and Hdac3 expression...
June 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517626/weekend-effect-in-acute-pancreatitis-related-hospital-admissions-in-the-united-states-an-analysis-of-the-nationwide-inpatient-sample
#17
Prabin Sharma, Rodrigo Aguilar, Mark Abi Nader, Shaheryar Siddiqui, Ramkaji Baniya, Sanjeeb Sudarshan Bhandari, Carmen Elena Cervantes, Ricardo Correa, Amir Masoud
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the difference in overall outcomes between weekend admissions for acute pancreatitis (AP) and weekday admissions. METHODS: Between 2005 and 2012, data were extracted from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample on adult patients with AP. Exclusion criteria were applied for chronic pancreatitis and other pancreatic and biliary malignancies. In-hospital mortality, length of stay, hospitalization costs, comorbidities, complications, and intervention rates were compared between the weekend and weekday admissions...
April 2018: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506915/current-practice-in-provision-of-alcohol-assessment-and-support-for-patients-following-alcohol-related-facial-fractures
#18
Kai H Lee, Michael Qiu, Jiandong Sun
OBJECTIVES: The algorithm for maxillofacial trauma management is well defined; however, provision of alcohol assessment for patients after trauma is not widely practiced. This study aims to investigate the rate of alcohol assessment achieved within the demographic characteristics of patients with facial trauma and the circumstances where this intervention was implemented. STUDY DESIGN: This study retrospectively examined the Victorian Admitted Episodes Data Set (VAED) from 2004 to 2013...
February 1, 2018: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493462/minocycline-in-alcohol-withdrawal-induced-anxiety-and-alcohol-relapse-in-rats
#19
Snehalata V Gajbhiye, Raakhi K Tripathi, Anup Uttam Petare, Anirudha Vyankatesh Potey, Arun Shankar
INTRODUCTION: Anxiety and negative sensations due to alcohol withdrawal are factors leading to alcohol relapse and addiction. Minocycline, an antibiotic, can decrease alcohol consumption in rats, however, its effects on alcohol withdrawal anxiety and relapse have not been studied. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Part 1: Forced alcohol drinking in gradually increasing concentration was administered till day 22 in rats. Effect of drugs on anxiety was assessed using elevated plus maze (EPM) and two chambered box apparatus, after removal of alcohol...
February 27, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463912/preclinical-evaluation-of-the-kappa-opioid-receptor-antagonist-cerc-501-as-a-candidate-therapeutic-for-alcohol-use-disorders
#20
E Domi, E Barbier, E Augier, G Augier, D Gehlert, R Barchiesi, A Thorsell, L Holm, M Heilig
Prior work suggests a role of kappa-opioid signaling in the control of alcohol drinking, in particular when drinking is escalated due to alcohol-induced long-term neuroadaptations. Here, we examined the small molecule selective kappa antagonist CERC-501 in rat models of alcohol-related behaviors, with the objective to evaluate its potential as a candidate therapeutic for alcohol use disorders. We first tested the effect of CERC-501 on acute alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behavior. CERC-501 was then tested on basal as well as escalated alcohol self-administration induced by 20% alcohol intermittent access...
February 5, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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