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Acute alcohol withdrawal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196024/clinical-and-morphological-features-of-paraduodenal-pancreatitis-an-italian-experience-with-120-patients
#1
Nicolò de Pretis, Fabiana Capuano, Antonio Amodio, Mattia Pellicciari, Luca Casetti, Riccardo Manfredi, Giuseppe Zamboni, Paola Capelli, Riccardo Negrelli, Pietro Campagnola, Arnaldo Fuini, Armando Gabbrielli, Claudio Bassi, Luca Frulloni
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical and radiological features and clinical outcomes of paraduodenal pancreatitis (PP). METHODS: A final diagnosis of PP was based on surgical specimens in resected patients and on imaging in nonoperated patients. Clinical, radiological, and pathological data were collected and reevaluated. RESULTS: We studied 120 patients, 97.5% of whom were drinkers and 97.5% were smokers. Symptoms at clinical onset were acute pancreatitis in 78 patients (65%) and continuous pain in 68 patients (55...
February 14, 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190432/acute-neurotoxicology-of-drugs-of-abuse
#2
S J Traub, M D Levine
Many substances can affect the central nervous system, and may cause patients to become critically ill. Acute central neurotoxicologic syndromes associated with drugs of abuse are usually caused by an overdose of sedative-hypnotic agents (including alcohol) or opioids, withdrawal from sedative-hypnotic agents, or an overdose of anticholinergic or sympathomimetic agents. Clinical findings are often syndromic, making physical examination the most important diagnostic tool in the approach to the patient with an unknown ingestion...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174112/epigenetic-basis-of-the-dark-side-of-alcohol-addiction
#3
REVIEW
Subhash C Pandey, Evan Kyzar, Huaibo Zhang
Alcoholism is a complex brain disease characterized by three distinct stages of the addiction cycle that manifest as neuroadaptive changes in the brain. One such stage of the addiction cycle is alcohol withdrawal and the negative affective states that promote drinking and maintain addiction. Repeated alcohol use, genetic predisposition to alcoholism and anxiety, and alcohol exposure during crucial developmental periods all contribute to the development of alcohol-induced withdrawal and negative affective symptoms...
February 4, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118494/strain-dependent-effects-of-acute-alcohol-on-synaptic-vesicle-recycling-and-post-tetanic-potentiation-in-medial-glutamate-inputs-to-the-mouse-basolateral-amygdala
#4
Dominic A Gioia, Brian A McCool
BACKGROUND: Inbred mouse strains are differentially sensitive to the acute effects of ethanol and are useful tools for examining how unique genomes differentially affect alcohol-related behaviors and physiology. DBA/2J mice have been shown to be sensitive to the acute anxiolytic effects of alcohol as well as the anxiogenic effects of withdrawal from chronic alcohol exposure, while B6 mice are resistant to both. Considering that the basolateral amygdala is an important brain region for the acute and chronic effects of ethanol on fear and anxiety related behaviors, we hypothesized that there would be strain-dependent differences in the acute effects of ethanol in BLA slices...
January 24, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111764/emerging-role-of-epigenetic-mechanisms-in-alcohol-addiction
#5
Tiffani D M Berkel, Subhash C Pandey
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a complex disorder with an array of persistent behavioral and neurochemical manifestations. Both genetic and environmental factors are known to contribute to the development of AUD, and recent studies on alcohol exposure and subsequent changes in gene expression suggest the importance of epigenetic mechanisms. In particular, histone modifications and DNA methylation have emerged as important regulators of gene expression and associated phenotypes of AUD. Given the therapeutic potential of epigenetic targets, this review aims to summarize the role of epigenetic regulation in our current understanding of AUD by evaluating known epigenetic signatures of brain regions critical to addictive behaviors in both animal and human studies throughout various stages of AUD...
January 23, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110168/ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-uhplc-ms-ms-for-determination-of-ghb-precursors-and-metabolites-in-different-specimens-application-to-clinical-and-forensic-cases
#6
Francesco Paolo Busardò, Chrystalla Kyriakou, Emilia Marchei, Roberta Pacifici, Daniel Sejer Pedersen, Simona Pichini
Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) acts as a precursor and metabolite of the inhibitory central nervous system (CNS) neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Sodium salt of GHB has been used as a medication for narcolepsy and alcohol withdrawal. Moreover, GHB and its precursor gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), are illegal recreational drugs of abuse. A procedure based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been developed and validated in plasma, urine, cerebrospinal fluid and hair for acute and chronic exposure to GHB and in seized preparations coming from black market...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108359/synaptic-targets-chronic-alcohol-actions
#7
REVIEW
Marisa Roberto, Florence P Varodayan
Alcohol acts on numerous cellular and molecular targets to regulate neuronal communication within the brain. Chronic alcohol exposure and acute withdrawal generate prominent neuroadaptations at synapses, including compensatory effects on the expression, localization and function of synaptic proteins, channels and receptors. The present article reviews the literature describing the synaptic effects of chronic alcohol exposure and their relevance for synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. This review is not meant to be comprehensive, but rather to highlight the effects that have been observed most consistently and that are thought to contribute to the development of alcohol dependence and the negative aspects of withdrawal...
January 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108358/neurochemical-and-metabolic-effects-of-acute-and-chronic-alcohol-in-the-human-brain-studies-with-positron-emission-tomography
#8
REVIEW
Nora D Volkow, Corinde E Wiers, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Dardo Tomasi, Gene-Jack Wang, Ruben Baler
The use of Positron emission tomography (PET) to study the effects of acute and chronic alcohol on the human brain has enhanced our understanding of the mechanisms underlying alcohol's rewarding effects, the neuroadaptations from chronic exposure that contribute to tolerance and withdrawal, and the changes in fronto-striatal circuits that lead to loss of control and enhanced motivation to drink that characterize alcohol use disorders (AUD). These include studies showing that alcohol's reinforcing effects may result not only from its enhancement of dopaminergic, GABAergic and opioid signaling but also from its caloric properties...
January 18, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107511/environmental-enrichment-blunts-ethanol-consumption-after-restraint-stress-in-c57bl-6-mice
#9
Priscila Marianno, Karina Possa Abrahao, Rosana Camarini
Elevated alcohol intake after abstinence is a key feature of the addiction process. Some studies have shown that environmental enrichment (EE) affects ethanol intake and other reinforcing effects. However, different EE protocols may vary in their ability to influence alcohol consumption and stress-induced intake. The present study evaluated whether short (3 h) or continuous (24 h) EE protocols affect ethanol consumption after periods of withdrawal. Mice were challenged with stressful stimuli (24 h isolation and restraint stress) to evaluate the effects of stress on drinking...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098946/negative-association-between-mr-spectroscopic-glutamate-markers-and-gray-matter-volume-after-alcohol-withdrawal-in-the-hippocampus-a-translational-study-in-humans-and-rats
#10
Ulrich Frischknecht, Derik Hermann, Nuran Tunc-Skarka, Guo-Ying Wang, Markus Sack, Julia van Eijk, Traute Demirakca, Claudia Falfan-Melgoza, Bertram Krumm, Sandra Dieter, Rainer Spanagel, Falk Kiefer, Karl F Mann, Wolfgang H Sommer, Gabriele Ende, Wolfgang Weber-Fahr
BACKGROUND: Both chronic alcohol consumption and alcohol withdrawal lead to neural tissue damage which partly recovers during abstinence. This study investigated withdrawal-associated changes in glutamatergic compounds, markers of neuronal integrity, and gray matter volumes during acute alcohol withdrawal in the hippocampus, a key region in development and maintenance of alcohol dependence in humans and rats. METHODS: Alcohol-dependent patients (N = 39) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR spectroscopy (MRS) measurements within 24 hours after the last drink and after 2 weeks of abstinence...
February 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989609/limbic-circuitry-activation-in-ethanol-withdrawal-is-regulated-by-a-chromosome-1-locus
#11
Kari J Buck, Gang Chen, Laura B Kozell
Physiological dependence and associated withdrawal episodes are thought to constitute a motivational force sustaining alcohol use/abuse and contributing to relapse in alcoholics. Although no animal model exactly duplicates alcoholism, models for specific factors, including the withdrawal syndrome, are useful for identifying potential genetic and neural determinants of liability in humans. We previously identified highly significant quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with large effects on predisposition to withdrawal after chronic and acute alcohol exposure in mice and mapped these loci to the same region of chromosome 1 (Alcdp1 and Alcw1, respectively)...
February 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911381/a-novel-approach-for-the-administration-of-medications-and-fluids-in-emergency-scenarios-and-settings
#12
Akilesh Honasoge, Neal Lyons, Kathleen Hesse, Braden Parker, Robert Mokszycki, Kelly Wesselhoff, Rolla Sweis, Erik B Kulstad
The available routes of administration commonly used for medications and fluids in the acute care setting are generally limited to oral, intravenous, or intraosseous routes, but in many patients, particularly in the emergency or critical care settings, these routes are often unavailable or time-consuming to access. A novel device is now available that offers an easy route for administration of medications or fluids via rectal mucosal absorption (also referred to as proctoclysis in the case of fluid administration and subsequent absorption)...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865151/effects-of-the-benzodiazepine-gabaa-%C3%AE-1-preferring-antagonist-3-isopropoxy-%C3%AE-carboline-hydrochloride-3-isopbc-on-alcohol-seeking-and-self-administration-in-baboons
#13
August F Holtyn, V V N Phani Babu Tiruveedhula, Michael Rajesh Stephen, James M Cook, Elise M Weerts
BACKGROUND: The major inhibitory neurotransmitter, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), modulates many of the behavioral effects of alcohol, including sedation, tolerance, and withdrawal. The α1 subunit of the benzodiazepine GABAA receptor is the most widely expressed alpha subunit in the brain, and has been implicated in the reinforcing- and abuse-related effects of alcohol. The aim of the present study was to examine whether treatment with a benzodiazepine GABAA α1-preferring ligand, 3-isopropoxy-β-carboline hydrochloride (3-ISOPBC), selectively decreases alcohol seeking and consumption...
January 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864953/deaths-in-unlicensed-alcohol-rehabilitation-facilities
#14
Keng-Chih Su, Lawrence Nguyen, Christopher Rogers
Non-English-speaking people do not always seek medical care through established institutions. This paper reports a series of deaths in unlicensed alcohol rehabilitation facilities serving Spanish-speaking men. These facilities are informal groups of alcohol abusing men who live together. New members receive various treatments, including administration of ethanol or isopropanol, restraint, and seclusion. We reviewed 42 deaths in unlicensed alcohol rehabilitation facilities in Los Angeles County during the years 2003-2014...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862011/effective-reduction-of-acute-ethanol-withdrawal-by-the-tetracycline-derivative-tigecycline-in-female-and-male-dba-2j-mice
#15
Joseph M Martinez, Jessica A Groot, David C Curtis, Clayton L Allison, Patrick C Marquardt, Ashley N Holmes, David S Edwards, David R M Trotter, Peter J Syapin, Deborah A Finn, Susan E Bergeson
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a spectrum disorder characterized by mild to severe symptoms, including potential withdrawal signs upon cessation of consumption. Approximately five hundred thousand patients with AUD undergo clinically relevant episodes of withdrawal annually (New Engl J Med, 2003, 348, 1786). Recent evidence indicates potential for drugs that alter neuroimmune pathways as new AUD therapies. We have previously shown the immunomodulatory drugs, minocycline and tigecycline, were effective in reducing ethanol (EtOH) consumption in both the 2-bottle choice and drinking-in-the-dark paradigms...
December 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829960/ketoacidosis-in-a-non-diabetic-adult-with-chronic-etoh-consumption
#16
Catherine-Audrey Boutin, Mikhael Laskine
Although much more rare than its diabetic counterpart, ketoacidosis secondary to alcohol withdrawal in the context of fasting has its own complex pathophysiology and can easily mimic the acute insulin deficiency presentation. We present here a rare case of a non-diabetic alcoholic patient who presented in ketoacidosis after a period of reduced intake.
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814792/atp1a2-contributes-modestly-to-alcohol-related-behaviors
#17
Stephanie M Gritz, Colin Larson, Richard A Radcliffe
Atp1a2 has been previously studied for anxiety, learning and motor function disorders, and fear. Since Atp1a2 has been shown to be involved in anxiety and this behavior is a known risk factor for developing alcoholism, we have been investigating Atp1a2 for its potential role in responses to alcohol. This study utilized Atp1a2 knockout mice; Atp1a2 heterozygous mice, with half the amount of protein compared to wild-type mice, were used because Atp1a2 homozygous null mice die shortly after birth. The alcohol-related behavioral experiments performed were loss of righting reflex (LORR), acute alcohol withdrawal measured by handling-induced convulsions (HIC), drinking in the dark (DID), open-field activity (OFA), and elevated plus-maze (EPM)...
November 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798128/a-functional-switch-in-tonic-gaba-currents-alters-the-output-of-central-amygdala-corticotropin-releasing-factor-receptor-1-neurons-following-chronic-ethanol-exposure
#18
Melissa A Herman, Candice Contet, Marisa Roberto
: The corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) system in the central amygdala (CeA) has been implicated in the effects of acute ethanol and the development of alcohol dependence. We previously demonstrated that CRF receptor 1 (CRF1) neurons comprise a specific component of the CeA microcircuitry that is selectively engaged by acute ethanol. To investigate the impact of chronic ethanol exposure on inhibitory signaling in CRF1+ CeA neurons, we used CRF1:GFP mice subjected to chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) inhalation and examined changes in local inhibitory control, the effects of acute ethanol, and the output of these neurons from the CeA...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787460/implementing-an-alcohol-withdrawal-protocol-a-quality-improvement-project
#19
Cynthia Holt, Valorie Dearmon, Sherry M Lawrence, Chrystal L Lewis, Christine E Skotzko
This quality improvement project evaluates the effectiveness of implementing an evidence-based alcohol withdrawal protocol in an acute care setting. Patient outcomes, length of stay, and nurses' knowledge and satisfaction with care are compared pre- and postimplementation. Implementation resulted in significant reduction of restraint use, transfers to critical care, 1:1 observation, and length of stay, whereas no reduction was seen in rapid response calls. Nurses' knowledge post-alcohol withdrawal protocol education increased and satisfaction with patient care improved...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Nursing Care Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766083/behavioral-neuroadaptation-to-alcohol-from-glucocorticoids-to-histone-acetylation
#20
Nicole Mons, Daniel Beracochea
A prime mechanism that contributes to the development and maintenance of alcoholism is the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and the release of glucocorticoids (cortisol in humans and primates, corticosterone in rodents) from the adrenal glands. In the brain, sustained, local elevation of glucocorticoid concentration even long after cessation of chronic alcohol consumption compromises functional integrity of a circuit, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the hippocampus (HPC), and the amygdala (AMG)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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