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Guilherme V T Ribeiro, Alberto L Teixido, Newton P U Barbosa, Fernando A O Silveira
Sampling biases permeate ecological research and result in knowledge gaps that have vital consequences for conservation planning. The consequences of knowledge gaps on species identity and distribution (the Wallacean and Linnean shortfalls, respectively) have become apparent recently, but we know little about the extent that research biases and knowledge gaps on traits that influence species' niches (the Hutchinsonian shortfall) affect conservation policy. To examine whether knowledge of species' traits based on seed ecology is geographically, phylogenetically, and ecologically biased, we retrieved research data on seed germination, seed dormancy, seed dispersal, seed banks, seed predation, and seed removal from a database of 847 papers, 1648 species, and 5322 cases...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Fam Te Poel, Susanne E Baumgartner, Tilo Hartmann, Martin Tanis
The current study is the first to longitudinally investigate the reciprocal relationship between online health information seeking and health anxiety, i.e., cyberchondria. Expectations were that health anxious individuals who go online to find health information, experience an increase in health anxiety, which in turn will reinforce online seeking. A 4-wave longitudinal survey study among 5322 respondents aged 16-93 was conducted. Our results showed that individuals who are more health anxious than others, search online for health information more...
October 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Scott T Micek, Bethany Chew, Nicholas Hampton, Marin H Kollef
BACKGROUND: Non-ventilated hospital-acquired pneumonia (NVHAP) is a serious nosocomial infection increasingly attributed to antibiotic-resistant bacteria. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study comparing patients with and without NVHAP from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2014 at Barnes-Jewish Hospital, a 1300-bed urban academic medical center in St. Louis, Missouri. RESULTS: 174 consecutive patients with NVHAP were enrolled. A random sample of 696 control patients matched on age, gender, race, and hospital admission date were selected from a total of 5322 potential matched controls...
April 18, 2016: Chest
Megan M Morsheimer, Jack Rychik, Lisa Forbes, Kathryn Dodds, David J Goldberg, Kathleen Sullivan, Jennifer R Heimall
BACKGROUND: Congenital cardiac anomalies are associated with immunologic perturbations. Surgical thymectomy, thoracic duct manipulation, and protein- losing enteropathy (PLE), a condition related to stressed Fontan hemodynamics, presumably contribute to low peripheral absolute lymphocyte counts (ALCs) and quantitative immunoglobulins. Clinical significance of lymphopenia and hypogammaglobulinemia in single-ventricle survivors requires additional study. OBJECTIVE: Although immunologic laboratory anomalies are common in this population, we hypothesize that clinically significant immunodeficiency requiring intervention is rarely required...
May 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Vandanapu Naveen, Bhuma Vengamma, Alladi Mohan, Velam Vanajakshamma
BACKGROUND: Sparse published data are available regarding the prognostic importance of plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively studied 74 consecutive patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke within 24 hours of onset. All of them underwent laboratory and imaging evaluation and were treated as per guidelines. In all subjects, plasma NT-proBNP levels were measured at initial admission and again on day 7...
October 2015: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Seif O Shaheen, Corrie Macdonald-Wallis, Debbie A Lawlor, A John Henderson
Few epidemiological studies have investigated the role of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in the aetiology of childhood respiratory and atopic outcomes.In the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children we examined associations of maternal gestational hypertension, hypertension before pregnancy and pre-eclampsia with wheezing at 18 months, wheezing and asthma at 7 years and lung function at 8-9 years, after controlling for potential confounders (n=5322-8734, depending on outcome).Gestational hypertension was not associated with any of the outcomes...
January 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
D M Li, C Y Zhao, X R Liu, X F Liu, Y J Lin, J W Liu, H M Chen, F B L
Paphiopedilum orchids (Orchidaceae) have attracted much attention from botanists and horticulturists because of their peculiar leaves and beautiful flowers. Furthermore, the dry roots of Paphiopedilum plants have well-known medicinal uses. However, it is unknown how sensitive and plastic the root genes are to environmental changes or how these environmental changes regulate the biosynthesis of active ingredients. In this study, we chose Paphiopedilum concolor for root sequencing, as it is widely used as a parent in breeding experiments...
2015: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Mingsheng Chen, Guixia Fang, Lidan Wang, Zhonghua Wang, Yuxin Zhao, Lei Si
BACKGROUND: Improving the equitable distribution of government healthcare subsidies (GHS), particularly among low-income citizens, is a major goal of China's healthcare sector reform in China. OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the distribution of GHS in China between socioeconomic populations at two different points in time, examines the comparative distribution of healthcare benefits before and after healthcare reforms in Northwest China, compares the parity of distribution between urban and rural areas, and explores factors that influence equitable GHS distribution...
2015: PloS One
Jonathan C Hsu, Paul D Varosy, Craig S Parzynski, Sarwat I Chaudhry, Thomas A Dewland, Jeptha P Curtis, Gregory M Marcus
BACKGROUND: Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) procedures performed later in the day and on weekends/holidays may be associated with adverse events due to a variety of factors including operator fatigue, handoffs, reduced staffing, and limited resource availability. We sought to determine whether patients implanted with ICDs in the afternoon/evening and on weekends/holidays are at increased risk for adverse events. METHODS: We studied 148,004 first-time ICD recipients in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry-ICD Registry implanted between April 2010 and March 2012...
January 2015: American Heart Journal
Lifeng Zhai, Ni Hong, Meixin Zhang, Guoping Wang
Botryosphaeria dothidea is a pathogen that causes many important diseases of deciduous fruit trees worldwide. In this study, a double-stranded (ds) RNA of 5322 base pairs (bp) in length from strain GY25 of B. dothidea was isolated and sequenced. The dsRNA potentially contained two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs). The predicted gene product of ORF1 had the highest amino acid sequence similarity, 37 % (E-value, 8e(-101)), to the capsid protein of Rosellinia necatrix victorivirus 1 (RnV1), and ORF2 had the highest similarity, 44 % (E-value, 0...
February 2015: Archives of Virology
Antonina Giammanco, Valerie Blanc, Grace Montenegro, Coen Klos, Yan Xie, Susan Kennedy, Jianyang Luo, Sung-Hee Chang, Timothy Hla, Ilke Nalbantoglu, Sekhar Dharmarajan, Nicholas O Davidson
HuR is a ubiquitous nucleocytoplasmic RNA-binding protein that exerts pleiotropic effects on cell growth and tumorigenesis. In this study, we explored the impact of conditional, tissue-specific genetic deletion of HuR on intestinal growth and tumorigenesis in mice. Mice lacking intestinal expression of HuR (Hur (IKO) mice) displayed reduced levels of cell proliferation in the small intestine and increased sensitivity to doxorubicin-induced acute intestinal injury, as evidenced by decreased villus height and a compensatory shift in proliferating cells...
September 15, 2014: Cancer Research
Dahai Yu, David Simmons
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) and risk of hospitalisation among patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: 4704 patients with type 2 diabetes from 18 general practices in Cambridgeshire were included. BP was assessed in 2008-2009. The primary outcome was cardiovascular hospital admissions in 2009-2011. Adjusted relative risks for each BP measurement group were estimated using Cox models. Further dose-response relationships between BP and risks were explored using restricted cubic spline models...
September 15, 2014: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
JiSun Choi, Diane K Boyle
BACKGROUND: The hospital nursing practice environment has been found to be crucial for better nurse and patient outcomes. Yet little is known about the professional nursing practice environment at the unit level where nurses provide 24-hour bedside care to patients. OBJECTIVES: To examine differences in nursing practice environments among 11 unit types (critical care, step-down, medical, surgical, combined medical-surgical, obstetric, neonatal, pediatric, psychiatric, perioperative, and emergency) and by Magnet status overall, as well as four specific aspects of the practice environment...
November 2014: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Glyn Elwyn, Isabelle Scholl, Caroline Tietbohl, Mala Mann, Adrian G K Edwards, Catharine Clay, France Légaré, Trudy van der Weijden, Carmen L Lewis, Richard M Wexler, Dominick L Frosch
BACKGROUND: Two decades of research has established the positive effect of using patient-targeted decision support interventions: patients gain knowledge, greater understanding of probabilities and increased confidence in decisions. Yet, despite their efficacy, the effectiveness of these decision support interventions in routine practice has yet to be established; widespread adoption has not occurred. The aim of this review was to search for and analyze the findings of published peer-reviewed studies that investigated the success levels of strategies or methods where attempts were made to implement patient-targeted decision support interventions into routine clinical settings...
2013: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
Judith H Lichtman, Erica C Leifheit-Limson, Sara B Jones, Yun Wang, Larry B Goldstein
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services proposes to use 30-day hospital readmissions after ischemic stroke as part of the Hospital Inpatient Quality Reporting Program for payment determination beginning in 2016. The proportion of poststroke readmissions that is potentially preventable is unknown. METHODS: Thirty-day readmissions for all Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries aged≥65 years discharged alive with a primary diagnosis of ischemic stroke (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification 433, 434, 436) between December 2005 and November 2006 were analyzed...
December 2013: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Ningling Sun, Hongyi Wang, Yuemin Sun, Xiaoping Chen, Hao Wang, Lianyou Zhao, Jinping Wang, Zhiming Zhu
To analyze the clinical significance of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in the assessment of abnormal glucose metabolism in Chinese patients with hypertension. In this cross-sectional study of 10,173 hypertensive adult patients from eight sites in China, data on patient, clinical and disease characteristics were collected, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels were measured. A subset of 5322 patients also underwent an OGTT. Abnormal glucose metabolism (impaired glucose regulation (IGR) or diabetes mellitus (DM)) was detected in 31...
January 2014: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Almut G Winterstein, Caitlin A Knox, Paul Kubilis, Christian Hampp
IMPORTANCE Recommendations concerning the appropriate age threshold for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) prophylaxis in moderate-preterm infants are highly debated. OBJECTIVE To determine the age at which moderate-preterm infants' risk of RSV hospitalization has decreased to the risk observed in low-risk term infants. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective cohort study of Florida and Texas Medicaid fee-for-service billing records matched to birth certificates from Medicaid beneficiaries aged 0 to 12 months with a sibling younger than 5 years and without other indications for RSV prophylaxis between January 1, 1999, and December 31, 2004...
December 2013: JAMA Pediatrics
Leah R Jager, Jeffrey T Leek
The accuracy of published medical research is critical for scientists, physicians and patients who rely on these results. However, the fundamental belief in the medical literature was called into serious question by a paper suggesting that most published medical research is false. Here we adapt estimation methods from the genomics community to the problem of estimating the rate of false discoveries in the medical literature using reported $P$-values as the data. We then collect $P$-values from the abstracts of all 77 430 papers published in The Lancet, The Journal of the American Medical Association, The New England Journal of Medicine, The British Medical Journal, and The American Journal of Epidemiology between 2000 and 2010...
January 2014: Biostatistics
José Boggia, Lutgarde Thijs, Yan Li, Tine W Hansen, Masahiro Kikuya, Kristina Björklund-Bodegård, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Jørgen Jeppesen, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Eamon Dolan, Tatiana Kuznetsova, Katarzyna Stolarz-Skrzypek, Valérie Tikhonoff, Sofia Malyutina, Edoardo Casiglia, Yuri Nikitin, Lars Lind, Emma Schwedt, Edgardo Sandoya, Kalina Kawecka-Jaszcz, Jan Filipovsky, Yutaka Imai, Jiguang Wang, Hans Ibsen, Eoin O'Brien, Jan A Staessen
No previous study addressed whether in the general population estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR [Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula]) adds to the prediction of cardiovascular outcome over and beyond ambulatory blood pressure. We recorded health outcomes in 5322 subjects (median age, 51.8 years; 43.1% women) randomly recruited from 11 populations, who had baseline measurements of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP(24)) and eGFR. We computed hazard ratios using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression...
January 2013: Hypertension
C Stephan, A Hill, W Sawyer, Y van Delft, C Moecklinghoff
BACKGROUND: Individual randomized trials of first-line antiretroviral treatment do not consistently show an association between higher baseline HIV-1 RNA and lower efficacy. METHODS: A MEDLINE search identified 21 HIV clinical trials with published analyses of antiretroviral efficacy by baseline HIV-1 RNA, using a standardized efficacy endpoint of HIV-1 RNA suppression <50 copies/mL at week 48. RESULTS: Among 21 clinical trials identified, eight evaluated only nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based combinations, eight evaluated only protease inhibitor-based regimens and five compared different treatment classes...
May 2013: HIV Medicine
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