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Drowning child

James E McCarroll, Joscelyn E Fisher, Stephen J Cozza, Renè J Robichaux, Carol S Fullerton
BACKGROUND: Preventing child maltreatment fatalities is a critical goal of the U.S. society and the military services. Fatality review boards further this goal through the analysis of circumstances of child deaths, making recommendations for improvements in practices and policies, and promoting increased cooperation among the many systems that serve families. The purpose of this article is to review types of child maltreatment death, proposed classification models, risk and protective factors, and prevention strategies...
January 2017: Military Medicine
Antonio Osculati, Silvia Damiana Visonà, Laura Re, Marta Sozzi, Francesca Castelli, Luisa Andrello, Claudia Vignali
The authors present a case which brings out a unique modality of child homicide by placing the baby in a washing machine and turning it on. The murder was perpetrated by the baby's mother, who suffered from a serious depressive disorder. A postmortem RX and then a forensic autopsy were performed, followed by histologic examinations and toxicology. On the basis of the results of the autopsy, as well as the histology and the negative toxicological data, the cause of death was identified as acute asphyxia. This diagnosis was rendered in light of the absence of other causes of death, as well as the presence of typical signs of asphyxia, such as epicardial and pleural petechiae and, above all, the microscopic examinations, which pointed out a massive acute pulmonary emphysema...
December 24, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Aneta Grajda, Zbigniew Kułaga, Beata Gurzkowska, Magdalena Góźdź, Małgorzata Wojtyło, Mieczysław Litwin
OBJECTIVES: To examine the pattern and trend of deaths due to external causes among Polish children and adolescents in 1999-2012, and to compare trends in Poland's neighboring countries. METHODS: Death records were obtained from the Central Statistical Office of Poland. External causes mortality rates (MR) with 95 % confidence interval were calculated. The annual percentage change of MR was examined using linear regression. To compare MR with Belarus, Ukraine, Czech Republic and Germany, data from the European Mortality Database were used...
January 2017: International Journal of Public Health
Asit Kumar Sikary, Rajanikanta Swain, Shivani Dhaka, Sudhir K Gupta, Abhishek Yadav
In suicide pact, two or more victims mutually agree and execute to end their lives together by predetermined method, preferably by hanging, drowning, gunshot, or poisoning. The victims are usually spouses, lovers, or friends, and the reasons behind such steps are various. In this reported suicide pact, husband-wife duo jumped from the terrace of a 12-meter-high building with their wrist bound to each other. Although they jumped together, the injury patterns were completely different. The man landed on head sustaining mainly craniocerebral injuries, and the wife landed on feet sustaining long bone injuries...
November 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Yun Huang, Yue Wu, David C Schwebel, Liang Zhou, Guoqing Hu
OBJECTIVE: Using estimates from the 2013 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study, we update evidence on disparities in under-five child injury mortality between developing and developed countries from 1990 to 2013. METHODS: Mortality rates were accessed through the online visualization tool by the GBD study 2013 group. We calculated percent change in child injury mortality rates between 1990 and 2013. Data analysis was conducted separately for <1 year and 1-4 years to specify age differences in rate changes...
July 7, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Prastiya Indra Gunawan, Areta Idarto, Darto Saharso
BACKGROUND: Acanthamoeba infection is a potential life-threatening complication of drowning. The management of drowning-associated Acanthamoeba infection remains controversial. Survival reports on Acanthamoeba infection have been on case reports only. CASE DETAILS: A 2-year-old, previously healthy Indonesian boy presented with decreased consciousness and inadequate breathing, followingdrowning. The event was unsupervised with unknown estimated time of submersion...
May 2016: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
Mel Denehy, Gemma Crawford, Justine Leavy, Lauren Nimmo, Jonine Jancey
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, children under the age of 5 years are at particular risk of drowning. Responding to this need requires the development of evidence-informed drowning prevention strategies. Historically, drowning prevention strategies have included denying access, learning survival skills and providing supervision, as well as education and information which includes the use of mass media. Interventions underpinned by behavioural theory and formative evaluation tend to be more effective, yet few practical examples exist in the drowning and/or injury prevention literature...
May 20, 2016: BMJ Open
D D Batouche, K Elhalimi, N F Benatta
OBJECTIVE: To provide information specific to a catecholaminergic storm during a violent stress in children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two clinical observations in children who suffered violent trauma. RESULTS: HASH(0x4946938) FIRST CASE: a boy aged 12 years victim of a drowning in Stage 3 admitted to the pediatric intensive care 02.08.2015. He was intubated, ventilated, sedated with benzodiazepines and morphine. Cardiac exploration revealed a global hypokinesis with septal dyskinesia, a 45% FES offset a slight excess of ST, a troponin I to 31...
June 2016: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
D Bäckström, I Steinvall, F Sjöberg
INTRODUCTION: Sweden has one of the world's lowest child injury mortality rates, but injuries are still the leading cause of death among children. Child injury mortality in the country has been declining, but this decline seems to decrease recently. Our objective was therefore to further examine changes in the mortality of children's death from injury over time and to assess the contribution of various effects on mortality. The underlying hypothesis for this investigation is that the incidence of lethal injuries in children, still is decreasing and that this may be sex specific...
March 19, 2016: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Hamid Soori, Soheila Khodakarim
BACKGROUND: Unintentional injuries are one of the leading causes of death and disability among children in Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). The issue of child injuries in the EMR is a major public health concern. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to present the epidemiological pattern of children's unintentional injuries in this region and compare the results for the EMR member states and the global status based on the findings of the World Report. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a secondary analysis and focuses on unintentional injuries specifically road traffic injuries, drowning, burns, falls and poisoning, and adjusted for countries from EMR...
January 2016: International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science
Nan Li, Jiabi Qin, Fang Yang
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the main causes and characteristics for death among children under 5 years old so as to provide the basis for taking strategic measures for child survival, development, protection.
 METHODS: The data of 5 747 dead children, who were under 5 years old in different cities of Hunan Province in 2013, were retrospectively analyzed. Descriptive statistic methods were used to analyze the causes and characteristics of death among the children. Chi-square test was used to analyze the differences of mortality rate...
March 28, 2016: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
Yan-Hua Xu, Xin-Wen Huang, Ru-Lai Yang
OBJECTIVE: By analyzing the under 5 mortality rate (U5MR) and its contributors in Zhejiang Province of China from 2000 to 2009, we tried to understand the trend of U5MR change in Zhejiang Province and thus propose strategies to reduce child mortality. METHODS: Thirty cities/counties/districts from Zhejiang Province were selected using stratified cluster sampling approach. Children under five years in these areas were enrolled as the subjects. The U5MR and its contributors were analyzed in terms of age, migration status of mothers, and other indicators using classic descriptive methods and Chi square test...
January 2013: Translational pediatrics
Melissa C Mercado, Linda Quan, Elizabeth Bennett, Julie Gilchrist, Benjamin A Levy, Candice L Robinson, Kristen Wendorf, Maria Aurora Gangan Fife, Mark R Stevens, Robin Lee
BACKGROUND: Drowning is the second leading cause of unintentional injury death among US children. Multiple studies describe decreased drowning risk among children possessing some swim skills. Current surveillance for this protective factor is self/proxy-reported swim skill rather than observed inwater performance; however, children's self-report or parents' proxy report of swim skill has not been validated. This is the first US study to evaluate whether children or parents can validly report a child's swim skill...
August 2016: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Viêt Nguyen Thanh, Juliette Clément, Bertrand Thélot, Jean-Baptiste Richard, Béatrice Lamboy, Pierre Arwidson
Child injuries represent an important public health problem. The aim of this paper is to review the current scientific knowledge on interventions designed to prevent child injuries. The current state of knowledge in this area was assessed by means of a specific method involving a review of literature reviews and a classification of health promotion interventions identified in these reviews (rapid reviews). We found a large number of effective or promising programmes devoted to the prevention of the most common child injuries: drowning, burns, falls, poisoning, electrocution, sports and leisure injuries...
July 2015: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
Eman Fawzy Halawa, Abeer Barakat, Hoda Ibrahim Ibrahim Rizk, Eman Mohamed Ibraheim Moawad
BACKGROUND: Injuries are a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. We aimed to determine the magnitude and characteristics of child injuries in Egypt and to identify the associated risk factors. METHODS: A community-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted over 27 Egyptian governorates from June to October, 2011. The target population was 1977 households with children aged 0-18 years who had experienced accidental injuries. RESULTS: In the 6-month period before the investigation, 1576 injuries were reported in 1472 children from a sample population of 1399 households (response rate 70...
2015: BMC Public Health
Burcu Bursal Duramaz, Hamdi Murat Yıldırım, Hasan Serdar Kıhtır, Osman Yeşilbaş, Esra Şevketoğlu
AIM: This study aimed to determine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of pediatric forensic cases to contribute to the literature and to preventive health care services. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pediatric forensic cases hospitalized in our pediatric intensive care unit below the age of 17 years were reviewed retrospectively (January 2009-June 2014) . The patients were evaluated in two groups as physical traumas (Group A) and poisonings (Group B). The patients' age, gender, complaints at presentation, time of presentation and referral (season, time) and, mortality rates were determined...
September 2015: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
Hidefumi Nakamura, Makiko Osawa, Terumichi Yokoyama, Katsumi Yoshida, Atsushi Suzuki
Following the first period of the multicenter, open-label, single-armed N01223 trial, the second period of the N01223 trial was conducted to evaluate long-term safety, along with the efficacy of adjunctive levetiracetam treatment (individualized dose range, 20-60 mg/kg/day or 1,000-3,000 mg/day) in Japanese pediatric patients with uncontrolled partial-onset seizures (POS). Of the 62 children who completed the first period, 55 children [age: 10.4 ± 3.4 years (mean ± standard deviation)] were elected to enter the second period for a maximum of 39 months...
November 2015: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Alan A Garner, Claire L Barker, Andrew D Weatherall
BACKGROUND: Drowning patients may benefit from the advanced airway management capabilities that can be provided by physician staffed helicopter emergency medical services. The aim of this study is to describe paediatric drowning patients treated by such a service examining tasking systems, initial physiology at the incident scene, survival and neurological outcome. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of paediatric drowning victims over a 5- year period. Case identification system, patient age, site of drowning, presence or absence of cardiac output, first Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and interventions were collected from prehospital notes, and survival and neurological outcomes from hospital and rehabilitation notes...
November 6, 2015: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Sabina Bhoil, Rohit Bhoil
The reversal sign is an ominous finding seen on computed tomographic images of the brain as an inversion of the normal attenuation relationship between grey and white matter. This article describes the pathophysiology of the reversal sign, which indicates irreversible neural tissue damage, and includes a brief case study of a child who drowned and later developed this sign. The child died two hours after presenting to the emergency department. Emergency healthcare professionals should be aware of this sign, which is significant in terms of diagnosis, management and prognosis...
November 2015: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
Eric F Reichman, Brenda J Lanan
There are numerous immediate and delayed complications associated with endotracheal intubation. Tracheal rupture is a rare complication whose diagnosis is often delayed. This can result in significant morbidity and mortality. We present a case of therapeutic misadventure resulting in a significant tracheal rupture in a child intubated by helicopter emergency medical services after a near-drowning. This is followed by a review of endotracheal intubation related tracheal rupture.
November 2015: Pediatric Emergency Care
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