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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218349/core-hydrophobicity-tuning-of-a-self-assembled-particle-results-in-efficient-lipid-reduction-and-favorable-organ-distribution
#1
Bhabatosh Banik, Ru Wen, Sean Marrache, Anil Kumar, Nagesh Kolishetti, Elizabeth W Howerth, Shanta Dhar
Atherosclerosis, the deadliest disease in the United States, arises due to the build up of plaques in the arteries as a result of excessive cholesterol deposition and an impaired cholesterol removal process. High density lipoproteins (HDL), popularly known as "good cholesterol", are naturally occurring nano-sized particles that, along with apolipoproteins, are deployed to maintain cholesterol homeostasis in the body. Both cholesterol efflux, from the fat-laden macrophages in the arteries, and intracellular lipid transport, to deliver cholesterol to the mitochondria of liver cells for metabolism, hold key responsibilities to maintain healthy lipid levels inside the body...
December 8, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217477/activation-of-hepatic-nogo-b-receptor-expression-a-new-anti-liver-steatosis-mechanism-of-statins
#2
Wenwen Zhang, Xiaoxiao Yang, Yuanli Chen, Wenquan Hu, Lipei Liu, Xiaomeng Zhang, Mengyang Liu, Lei Sun, Ying Liu, Miao Yu, Xiaoju Li, Luyuan Li, Yan Zhu, Qing Robert Miao, Jihong Han, Yajun Duan
Deficiency of hepatic Nogo-B receptor (NgBR) expression activates liver X receptor α (LXRα) in an adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα)-dependent manner, thereby inducing severe hepatic lipid accumulation and hypertriglyceridemia. Statins have been demonstrated non-cholesterol lowering effects including anti-nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Herein, we investigated if the anti-NAFLD function of statins depends on activation of NgBR expression. In vivo, atorvastatin protected apoE deficient or NgBR floxed, but not hepatic NgBR deficient mice, against Western diet (WD)-increased triglyceride levels in liver and serum...
December 4, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217413/apolipoprotein-e-containing-high-density-lipoprotein-hdl-modifies-the-impact-of-cholesterol-overloaded-hdl-on-incident-coronary-heart-disease-risk-a-community-based-cohort-study
#3
Yue Qi, Jing Liu, Wei Wang, Miao Wang, Fan Zhao, Jiayi Sun, Jun Liu, Dong Zhao
BACKGROUND: Experimental studies have shown that cholesterol-overloaded high-density lipoprotein (HDL) can promote the formation of apolipoprotein E (APOE)-containing HDL, a process correcting the atherogenic function of cholesterol-overloaded HDL. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to explore whether APOE-containing HDL can attenuate the defective impact of cholesterol-overloaded HDL on the development of coronary heart disease (CHD) in humans. METHODS: We measured APOE-HDL cholesterol (APOE-HDLC), HDL cholesterol (HDLC), and HDL particle number in 1112 participants aged 45 to 74 years at baseline in a community-based cohort study...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216722/the-influence-of-orthodontic-non-extraction-treatment-on-the-change-in-the-inclination-and-position-of-incisors-in-the-europoid-race
#4
A Koniarova, E Sedlata Juraskova, M Spidlen, D Statelova
AIM: To detect post-treatment change in the inclination and position of incisors in cases treated with orthodontic non- extraction therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The group consisted of 102 patients without extractions in lower and upper dental arch during orthodontic treatment. Cephalogram examination evaluated the position of the lower incisor to point A by Downs-pogonion line (-1 to APo) and inclination of the lower incisor to mandibular line (-1 to ML), position of the upper incisor to nasion-pogonion line (+1 to NPo), inclination of the upper incisor to nasion-sella line (+1 to NS) and the size of the inter-incisival angle between upper and central lower incisor (-1 to +1)...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216624/sildenafil-viagra%C3%A2-prevents-cox-1-txa2-pathway-mediated-vascular-hypercontractility-in-apoe-mice
#5
Marcos A S Leal, Ananda T Dias, Marcella L Porto, Bruna F Brun, Agata L Gava, Silvana S Meyrelles, José Gil-Longo, Manuel Campos-Toimil, Thiago M C Pereira, Elisardo C Vasquez
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE-/-) mouse exhibits impaired vasodilation and enhanced vasoconstriction responsiveness. The objectives of this study were: a) to determine the relative contribution of cyclooxygenases (Cox-1 and Cox-2), thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) to enhancing vascular hyperresponsiveness in this model of atherosclerosis and b) to investigate the beneficial effects of the phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor sildenafil on this endothelial dysfunction...
December 7, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216449/apoe4-accelerates-early-seeding-of-amyloid-pathology
#6
Chia-Chen Liu, Na Zhao, Yuan Fu, Na Wang, Cynthia Linares, Chih-Wei Tsai, Guojun Bu
Accumulation and aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the brain is an initiating step in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene is the strongest genetic risk factor for late-onset AD. Although there is strong evidence showing that apoE4 enhances amyloid pathology, it is not clear what the critical stage(s) is during amyloid development in which apoE4 has the strongest impact. Using apoE inducible mouse models, we show that increased expression of astrocytic apoE4, but not apoE3, during the seeding stage of amyloid development enhanced amyloid deposition and neuritic dystrophy in amyloid model mice...
December 6, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216448/age-dependent-effects-of-apoe-reduction-using-antisense-oligonucleotides-in-a-model-of-%C3%AE-amyloidosis
#7
Tien-Phat V Huynh, Fan Liao, Caroline M Francis, Grace O Robinson, Javier Remolina Serrano, Hong Jiang, Joseph Roh, Mary Beth Finn, Patrick M Sullivan, Thomas J Esparza, Floy R Stewart, Thomas E Mahan, Jason D Ulrich, Tracy Cole, David M Holtzman
The apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is the strongest genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease. Previous studies suggest that reduction of apoE levels through genetic manipulation can reduce Aβ pathology. However, it is not clear how reduction of apoE levels after birth would affect amyloid deposition. We utilize an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) to reduce apoE expression in the brains of APP/PS1-21 mice homozygous for the APOE-ε4 or APOE-ε3 allele. ASO treatment starting after birth led to a significant decrease in Aβ pathology when assessed at 4 months...
December 6, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216194/partitioning-no-take-marine-reserve-ntmr-and-benthic-habitat-effects-on-density-of-small-and-large-bodied-tropical-wrasses
#8
Garry R Russ, Jake R Lowe, Justin R Rizzari, Brock J Bergseth, Angel C Alcala
No-take marine reserves (NTMRs) are increasingly implemented for fisheries management and biodiversity conservation. Yet, assessing NTMR effectiveness depends on partitioning the effects of NTMR protection and benthic habitat on protected species. Such partitioning is often difficult, since most studies lack well-designed sampling programs (i.e. Before-After-Control-Impact-Pair designs) spanning long-term time scales. Spanning 31 years, this study quantifies the effects of NTMR protection and changes to benthic habitat on the density of tropical wrasses (F...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215900/apoe-e4-genotype-and-lifestyle-interaction-on-cognitive-performance-results-of-the-life-adult-study
#9
Francisca S Rodriguez, Matthias L Schroeter, Katrin Arélin, A Veronica Witte, Ronny Baber, Ralph Burkhardt, Christoph Engel, Markus Löffler, Joachim Thiery, Arno Villringer, Tobias Luck, Steffi G Riedel-Heller
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that the e4-allele of the APOE gene is associated with a higher risk of developing dementia. Our study investigated whether well-known associations between lifestyle factors and cognitive functioning may be stronger in individuals who carry the dementia risk variant of the APOE gene and whether this association is amplified with older age. METHOD: Data analysis comprised 7,526 participants (aged 40- to 79-years-old) from the population-based LIFE-Adult-study...
December 7, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215758/plin5-deficiency-promotes-atherosclerosis-progression-through-accelerating-inflammation-apoptosis-and-oxidative-stress
#10
Peng-Li Zhou, Min Li, Xin-Wei Han, Yong-Hua Bi, Wen-Guang Zhang, Zheng-Yang Wu, Gang Wu
Excessive plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels promote the progression of several prevalent cardiovascular risk factors, including atherosclerosis, which is a leading death cause. Perilipin 5 (Plin5), an important perilipin protein, is abundant in tissues with very active lipid catabolism, and is involved in the regulation of oxidative stress. Although, in?ammation and oxidative stress play a critical role in atherosclerosis development, the underlying mechanisms are complex and not completely understood...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215674/bioinspired-dynamic-microcapsules
#11
N F D AlDala'een, W N K W Mohamad, N Alias, A M Ali, J Shaikh Mohammed
There is an increasing interest in bioinspired dynamic materials. Abundant illustrations of protein domains exist in nature, with remarkable ligand binding characteristics and structures that undergo conformational changes. For example, calmodulin (CaM) can have three conformational states, which are the unstructured Apo-state, Ca2+-bound ligand-exposed binding state, and compact ligand-bound state. CaM's mechanical response to biological cues is highly suitable for engineering dynamic materials. The distance between CaM globular terminals in the Ca2+-bound state is 5 nm and in the ligand-bound state is 1...
December 7, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215310/apolipoprotein-e4-mediates-insulin-resistance-associated-cerebrovascular-dysfunction-and-the-post-prandial-response
#12
Lance A Johnson, Eileen Ruth Torres, Sydney Weber Boutros, Esha Patel, Tunde Akinyeke, Nabil J Alkayed, Jacob Raber
Metabolic dysfunction, commonly a result of diets high in saturated fats and sugar, is associated with impaired cognitive function and an increased risk of age-related cognitive decline (ACD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Compared to the E3 isoform of apolipoprotein (apoE), the E4 isoform is a major genetic risk factor for ACD, AD, and for developing cognitive impairments following various environmental challenges, including dietary challenges such as a high-fat diet (HFD). Both insulin resistance (IR) and E4 are associated with metabolic and vascular impairments...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213291/apolipoprotein-e-polymorphism-and-the-risk-of-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-a-south-indian-population
#13
Arati Suvatha, Sibin Madathan Kandi, Dhananjaya Ishwara Bhat, Narasinga Rao, Vikas Vazhayil, Chetan Ghati Kasturirangan
Background: The rupture of a brain aneurysm causes bleeding in the subarachnoid space. This is known as aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). We evaluated the association of apolipoprotein E (APOE) polymorphism and the risk of aSAH in a South Indian population. Methods: The study was performed on 200 subjects with aSAH and 253 healthy control subjects. Blood samples (5 ml) were used to isolate DNA and genotyping was performed for rs7412 and rs429358 using a Taqman allelic discrimination assay...
2017: Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212317/targeted-measurements-of-o-and-n-glycopeptides-show-that-proteins-in-hdl-particles-are-enriched-with-specific-glycosylation-compared-to-plasma
#14
Muchena J Kailemia, Wanghui Wei, Khoa Nguyen, Elizabeth Beals, Lisa Sawrey-Kubicek, Christopher Rhodes, Chenghao Zhu, Romina Sacchi, Angela M Zivkovic, Carlito B Lebrilla
High density lipoprotein (HDL) particles are believed to be protective due to their inverse correlation with the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. However, recent studies show that in some conditions such as heart disease and diabetes, HDL particles can become dysfunctional. Great attention has been directed toward HDL particle composition because the relative abundances of HDL constituents determine HDL's functional properties. A key factor to consider when studying the structure and composition of plasma particles is the protein glycosylation...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212314/rapid-changes-in-serum-lipid-profiles-during-combination-therapy-with-daclatasvir-and-asunaprevir-in-patients-infected-with-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1b
#15
Takeshi Chida, Kazuhito Kawata, Kazuyoshi Ohta, Erika Matsunaga, Jun Ito, Shin Shimoyama, Satoru Yamazaki, Hidenao Noritake, Tetsuro Suzuki, Takafumi Suda, Yoshimasa Kobayashi
Background/Aims: Changes in lipid profiles in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) during direct-acting antiviral therapy have been reported in recent years. However, the clinical aspects of disturbed lipid metabolism in chronic HCV infection have not been fully elucidated. Methods: Dynamic changes in serum total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein levels in patients infected with HCV genotype 1b were examined during combination therapy with daclatasvir (DCV) and asunaprevir (ASV)...
December 8, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212261/cordycepin-stimulates-autophagy-in-macrophages-and-prevents-atherosclerotic-plaque-formation-in-apoe-mice
#16
Xin Li, Yue Zhou, Xue Zhang, Xiaoxue Cao, Chongming Wu, Peng Guo
Autophagy in macrophages plays a key role in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis and has become a potential therapeutic target. Here we show that cordycepin (Cpn), a natural derivative of adenosine, markedly reduced atherosclerotic plaque and ameliorated associated symptoms such as dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and inflammation in ApoE-/- mice. Supplementation of Cpn dose-dependently inhibited oxLDL-elicited foam cell formation and modulated intracellular cholesterol homeostasis by inhibiting cholesterol uptake and promoting cholesterol efflux in RAW264...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208753/compartment-resolved-proteomic-analysis-of-mouse-aorta-during-atherosclerotic-plaque-formation-reveals-osteoclast-specific-protein-expression
#17
Michael Wierer, Matthias Prestel, Herbert Schiller, Guangyao Yan, Christoph Schaab, Sepiede Azghandi, Julia Werner, Thorsten Kessler, Rainer Malik, Marta Murgia, Zouhair Aherrahrou, Heribert Schunkert, Martin Dichgans, Matthias Mann
Atherosclerosis leads to vascular lesions that involve major rearrangements of the vascular proteome, especially of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Using single aortas from ApoE knock out mice, we quantified formation of plaques by single-run, high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics. To probe localization on a proteome-wide scale we employed quantitative detergent solubility profiling. This compartment- and time-resolved resource of atherogenesis comprised 5,117 proteins, 182 of which changed their expression status in response to vessel maturation and atherosclerotic plaque development...
December 4, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207695/association-of-glycated-haemoglobin-and-serum-apolipoproteins-with-diabetic-retinopathy-an-indian-overview
#18
Bhasker Mukherjee, Sandeep Shankar, Rehan Ahmed, Kanchan Singh, Kapil Bhatia
Introduction: India is presently facing an epidemic of diabetes mellitus and the risks of chronic complications from the disease are associated with the duration of the disease as well as the degree of hyperglycaemia. Diabetic retinopathy is a known microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus and is the most common cause of blindness in the western countries.Apolipoproteins are the protein component of lipoproteins. Apart from acting as structural proteins, they also act as cofactors to various enzymes...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207114/elderly-apolipoprotein-e%C3%A2-%C3%A2-mice-with-advanced-atherosclerotic-lesions-in-the-aorta-do-not-develop-alzheimer-s-disease-like-pathologies
#19
Reut Shnerb Ganor, Dror Harats, Ginette Schiby, Kinneret Rosenblatt, Irit Lubitz, Aviv Shaish, Ophira Salomon
Atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Western societies. These diseases share common risk factors, which are exhibited in old age, including hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and apolipoprotein (Apo) ε4 allele. We previously demonstrated that factor XI (FXI) deficiency in mice reduced the atherosclerotic plaque area in coronary sinuses and the aortic arch. This led us to investigate whether FXI deficiency in elderly ApoE knockout (KO) mice would decrease pathological alterations compatible with atherosclerosis and AD...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206648/relationship-between-plasma-protein-s-levels-and-apolipoprotein-c-ii-in-japanese-middle-aged-obese-women-and-young-nonobese-women
#20
Yukiko Otsuka, Maiko Ueda, Eri Nakazono, Tomohide Tsuda, Xiuri Jin, Kenta Noguchi, Shihoko Sata, Hitomi Miyazaki, Shimako Abe, Katsumi Imai, Masako Iwamoto, Takashi Masuda, Ririko Moriguchi, Shuji Nakano, Hiroko Tsuda
: Protein S, a nonenzymatic cofactor to activated protein C, presents in two forms in plasma, free form and in a complex with C4b-binding protein. The aim of this study was to determine the association of plasma protein S levels with the variables related to cardiovascular disease risk. The relationships between plasma protein S levels with lipids, inflammation markers, and adiposity were first examined on middle-aged obese women (n = 62), then on young nonobese women (n = 160) to verify the findings in the obese women...
December 4, 2017: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
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