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macula degeneration

Hanan Elshelmani, Sweta Rani
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common condition causing progressive visual impairment, leading to irreversible blindness. Existing diagnostic tools for AMD are limited to clinical signs in the macula and the visual assessment of the patient. The presence of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in the peripheral circulatory system with potential as diagnostic, prognostic and/or predictive biomarkers has been reported in a number of conditions/diseases. miRNAs are key regulators of several biological processes, and miRNA dysregulation has been linked with numerous diseases, most remarkably cancer...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Peter L Nesper, Brian T Soetikno, Amani A Fawzi
PURPOSE: To study choriocapillaris blood flow in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and study its correlation to vision (VA) in eyes with reticular pseudodrusen (RPD) versus those with drusen without RPD (drusen). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study METHODS: Patients with either drusen or RPD in early AMD underwent OCTA imaging of the superior, inferior, and/or nasal macula. We quantified "percent choriocapillaris area of non-perfusion" (PCAN) in eyes with RPD versus those with drusen...
October 26, 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Myriam Martin, Anna M Blom
Recognition and removal of apoptotic and necrotic cells must be efficient and highly controlled to avoid excessive inflammation and autoimmune responses to self. The complement system, a crucial part of innate immunity, plays an important role in this process. Thus, apoptotic and necrotic cells are recognized by complement initiators such as C1q, mannose binding lectin, ficolins, and properdin. This triggers complement activation and opsonization of cells with fragments of C3b, which enhances phagocytosis and thus ensures silent removal...
November 2016: Immunological Reviews
Maria V Cicinelli, Adriano Carnevali, Alessandro Rabiolo, Lea Querques, Ilaria Zucchiatti, Vincenzo Scorcia, Francesco Bandello, Giuseppe Querques
PURPOSE: To describe macular-foveal capillaries (MFC) by means of optical coherence tomography angiography and to identify the clinical spectrum of this angiographic feature. METHODS: Patients with MFC presenting at the Medical Retina & Imaging Unit of the Department of Ophthalmology, University Vita-Salute San Raffaele in Milan were recruited. Patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination that included slit-lamp examination, fundus examination, measurement of best-corrected visual acuity, fundus autofluorescence, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (Spectralis HRA + OCT; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany)...
July 12, 2016: Retina
Koji M Nishiguchi, Yu Yokoyama, Yusuke Fujii, Kosuke Fujita, Yusuke Tomiyama, Ryo Kawasaki, Toshinori Furukawa, Fumiko Ono, Nobuhiro Shimozawa, Mutsumi Togo, Michihiro Suzuki, Toru Nakazawa
Age-dependent formation of macular drusen caused by the focal accumulation of extracellular deposits beneath the retinal pigment epithelium precede the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. It is established that inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of drusen and AMD. However, development of a preemptive therapeutic strategy targeting macular drusen and AMD has been impeded by the lack of relevant animal models because most laboratory animals lack macula, an anatomic feature present only in humans and a subset of monkeys...
2016: PloS One
Anita Barikian, Haytham Salti, Ammar Safar, Ziyad R Mahfoud, Ziad F Bashshur
PURPOSE: To study the benefit of intravitreal dexamethasone implant in the management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration resistant to bevacizumab and ranibizumab. METHODS: Patients with persistent macular fluid on optical coherence tomography despite monthly treatment with at least three consecutive bevacizumab injections followed by at least three ranibizumab injections were prospectively enrolled. A single dexamethasone implant was administered followed by intravitreal ranibizumab 1 week later...
October 20, 2016: Retina
Masaaki Saito, Mariko Kano, Kanako Itagaki, Tetsuju Sekiryu
PURPOSE: To clarify the efficacy of aflibercept for treating exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: We prospectively studied 47 eyes with AMD. Forty-seven patients (mean age 72.2 years) received three consecutive monthly intravitreal aflibercept injections followed by an injection every 2 months until 12 months. The primary outcome was the 12-month visual results compared with baseline; the secondary outcomes were the prevalence of geography atrophy (GA), a dry macula at month 12, and anatomic changes on optical coherence tomography...
September 22, 2016: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
Joel Kaluzny, Patryk Purta, Zach Poskin, Jeremy D Rogers, Amani A Fawzi
PURPOSE: We investigated the autofluorescence (AF) signature of the microscopic features of retina with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using 488 nm excitation. METHODS: The globes of four donors with AMD and four age-matched controls were embedded in paraffin and sectioned through the macula. Sections were excited using a 488 nm argon laser, and the AF emission was captured using a laser scanning confocal microscope (496-610 nm, 6 nm resolution). The data cubes were then analyzed to compare peak emission spectra between the AMD and the controls...
2016: PloS One
Andrea Govetto, David Sarraf, Marta S Figueroa, Luisa Pierro, Mario Ippolito, Grégoire Risser, Francesco Bandello, Jean Pierre Hubschman
PURPOSE: To investigate the possible differences in choroidal thickness (CT) between non-neovascular (NNV) and neovascular (NV) age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: A retrospective, observational chart review of consecutive patients diagnosed with NNV AMD in one eye and with NV AMD in the fellow eye was carried out. NNV AMD was classified into four subgroups according to the Beckman Initiative for Macular Research AMD Classification Committee Meeting...
September 1, 2016: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Tapas Chandra Nag, Shashi Wadhwa
Earlier studies reported accumulation of mitochondrial DNA mutations in ageing and age-related macular degeneration. To know about the mitochondrial status with age, we examined immunoreactivity (IR) to markers of mitochondria (anti-mitochondrial antibody and voltage-dependent anion channel-1) and complex I-V (that mediate oxidative phosphorylation, OXPHOS) in donor human retinas (age: 19-94years; N=26; right eyes). In all samples, at all ages, IR to anti-mitochondrial antibody and voltage-dependent anion channel-1 was prominent in photoreceptor cells...
August 28, 2016: Mitochondrion
Erin K Wagner, Soumya Raychaudhuri, Mercedes B Villalonga, Anuja Java, Michael P Triebwasser, Mark J Daly, John P Atkinson, Johanna M Seddon
The genetic architecture of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) involves numerous genetic variants, both common and rare, in the coding region of complement factor H (CFH). While these variants explain high disease burden in some families, they fail to explain the pathology in all. We selected families whose AMD was unexplained by known variants and performed whole exome sequencing to probe for other rare, highly penetrant variants. We identified four rare loss-of-function variants in CFH associated with AMD...
2016: Scientific Reports
Othman Al Gwairi, Lyna Thach, Wenhua Zheng, Narin Osman, Peter J Little
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a retinal disease evident after the age of 50 that damages the macula in the centre of retina. It leads to a loss of central vision with retained peripheral vision but eventual blindness occurs in many cases. The initiation site of AMD development is Bruch's membrane (BM) where multiple changes occur including the deposition of plasma derived lipids, accumulation of extracellular debris, changes in cell morphology, and viability and the formation of drusen. AMD manifests as early and late stage; the latter involves cell proliferation and neovascularization in wet AMD...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
Stephen G Schwartz, Joshua Pasol, Byron L Lam, Harry W Flynn
Patients with post-geniculate neurologic disease and corresponding visual field loss may have ophthalmologic abnormalities detectable by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), presumably by transsynaptic retrograde retinal degeneration. Here, three such patients (ages 13 years through 75 years) illustrate thinning of the macula and ganglion cell complex corresponding to zones of visual field loss. Thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer is not notable in these patients. SD-OCT may be a useful technique in diagnosing and following patients with post-geniculate neurologic disease...
August 1, 2016: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Elisabet Granstam, Inger Westborg, Anna Barkander, Malin Börjesson, Sara Lindahl, Eva Meszaros, Anna Wojciechowska-Zajac, Philippe Wagner, Susanne Albrecht, Niklas Karlsson, Gunilla Bjärnhall, Monica Lövestam-Adrian
PURPOSE: To study the occurrence of severe visual impairment (SVI) and treatment outcome at 12 months in patients treated for wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by use of data from the Swedish Macula Register (SMR) and referrals to the regional low vision clinics in five northern counties. METHODS: Referrals to low vision clinics during 2005, 2009 and 2013 and treatment outcome at 12 months from the SMR database from 2008 until 2013 in patients >65 years of age in five northern counties were included in the survey...
November 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
Sara E Thomas, Earl H Harrison
The xanthophylls, lutein and zeaxanthin, are dietary carotenoids that selectively accumulate in the macula of the eye providing protection against age-related macular degeneration. To reach the macula, carotenoids cross the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Xanthophylls and β-carotene mostly associate with HDL and LDL, respectively. HDL binds to cells via a scavenger receptor class B1 (SR-B1)-dependent mechanism, while LDL binds via the LDL receptor. Using an in-vitro, human RPE cell model (ARPE-19), we studied the mechanisms of carotenoid uptake into the RPE by evaluating kinetics of cell uptake when delivered in serum or isolated LDL or HDL...
October 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
A Mitchell, B Nokay, H Guberina, U Behlen-Wilm, M Nagel, M Kirschfink, T Wiech, A Kribben, A Bienholz
OBJECTIVE: Malignant hypertension as borne out by uncontrolled hypertension with accelerated target organ damage has a variable and often dire prognosis. Loss of kidney function is a hallmark of the condition and is frequently accompanied by thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). DESIGN AND METHOD: Here we present the case of a patient with malignant hypertension, who was successfully treated using a combination of in-label and off-label medication according to the following pathophysiological concepts: 1) Innate immunity has been identified as a player in blood pressure (BP) control, 2) the complement inhibitor eculizumab has become available for treating atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), which shares many features of malignant hypertension, 3) endothelin (ET) antagonism, although not currently approved for these indications, has been shown to be effective for treating proteinuria and as a possible adjunct for the treatment of resistant hypertension...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Richard F Spaide
PURPOSE: To investigate flow characteristics of the choriocapillaris using optical coherence tomography angiography. DESIGN: Retrospective observational case series. METHODS: Visualization of flow in individual choriocapillary vessels is below the current resolution limit of optical coherence tomography angiography instruments, but areas of absent flow signal, called flow voids, are resolvable. The central macula was imaged with the Optovue RTVue XR Avanti using a 10-μm slab thickness in 104 eyes of 80 patients who ranged in age from 24 to 99 years of age...
October 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Peter Gehlbach, Tianjing Li, Elham Hatef
BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive, late-onset disorder of the macula affecting central vision. It is the leading cause of blindness in people over 65 years in industrialized countries. Recent epidemiologic, genetic, and pathological evidence has shown that AMD shares a number of risk factors with atherosclerosis, leading to the hypothesis that statins may exert protective effects in AMD. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to examine the effectiveness of statins compared with other treatments, no treatment, or placebo in delaying the onset and progression of AMD...
August 4, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Markus N Preising, Michaela Abura, Melanie Jäger, Klaus-Heiko Wassill, Birgit Lorenz
PURPOSE: CLN3 is a rare lysosomal storage disorder. The majority of the patients suffer from neurological degeneration in the first decade of life leading to death in the second or third decade. One of the first symptoms is a rapid visual decline from retinal degeneration. The aim of this study was to correlate the retinal changes in CLN3 as seen with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) with functional data in patients in the first years after the subjective onset of ocular symptoms...
August 2, 2016: Ophthalmic Genetics
Yasser Helmy Mohamed, Kozue Ono, Hirofumi Kinoshita, Masafumi Uematsu, Eiko Tsuiki, Azusa Fujikawa, Takashi Kitaoka
Aim. To investigate the anatomical success rates of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) after primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Methods. This retrospective study was conducted between December 2008 and October 2014 at Nagasaki University Hospital. The preoperative data recorded included the lens status, location of the retinal tear, whether a tear was visualized, presence of multiple tears, macula status, presence of peripheral lattice retinal degeneration, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). The primary outcome measures were anatomical (primary and final) and functional success (visual acuity better than 6/60)...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
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