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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442406/anti-amnesic-effect-of-extract-and-alkaloid-fraction-from-aerial-parts-of-peganum-harmala-on-scopolamine-induced-memory-deficits-in-mice
#1
Wei Liu, Yudan Zhu, Yongli Wang, Shenglan Qi, Yuwen Wang, Chao Ma, Shuping Li, Bo Jiang, Xuemei Cheng, Zhengtao Wang, Zhenyu Xuan, Changhong Wang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aerial parts of Peganum harmala Linn (APP) is used as traditional medical herb for treatment of forgetfulness in Uighur medicine in China. But, the active ingredients and underlying mechanisms are unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was undertaken to investigate the improvement effects of extract and alkaloid fraction from APP on scopolamine-induced cognitive dysfunction and to elucidate their underlying mechanisms of action, and to support its folk use with scientific evidence, and lay a foundation for its further researches...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441890/rosuvastatin-ameliorates-cognitive-impairment-in-rats-fed-with-high-salt-and-cholesterol-diet-via-inhibiting-acetylcholinesterase-activity-and-amyloid-beta-peptide-aggregation
#2
I Husain, M Akhtar, M Zainul Abdin, M Islamuddin, M Shaharyar, A K Najmi
Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide aggregation and cholinergic neurodegeneration are involved in the development of cognitive impairment. Therefore, in this article, we examined rosuvastatin (RSV), an oral hypolipidemic drug, to determine its potential as a dual inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and Aβ peptide aggregation for the treatment of cognitive impairment. Molecular docking study was done to examine the affinity of RSV with Aβ1-42 and AChE in silico. We also employed neurobehavioral activity tests, biochemical estimation, and histopathology to study the anti-Aβ1-42 aggregation capability of RSV in vivo...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436303/choline-supplementation-during-pregnancy-protects-against-gestational-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammatory-responses
#3
Min Zhang, Xinjia Han, Juejie Bao, Jinying Yang, Shao-Qing Shi, Robert E Garfield, Huishu Liu
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the effects and mechanisms of choline, an essential nutrient and a selective α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) agonist, on the prevention of symptoms and the effects on the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways (CAP) in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in a rat model. METHODS: Inflammation was induced by LPS treatment (1.0 μg LPS/kg body weight) on gestational day (GD) 14. Nonpregnant and pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were placed on a normal choline diet (1...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434923/deciphering-the-mechanism-of-huang-lian-jie-du-decoction-on-the-treatment-of-sepsis-by-formula-decomposition-and-metabolomics-enhancement-of-cholinergic-pathways-and-inhibition-of-hmgb-1-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#4
Dingqiao Xu, Yan Lv, Junsong Wang, Minghua Yang, Lingyi Kong
Sepsis is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in surgical patients. Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Decoction (HLJDD), a well-known Chinese herb formula, has long been used for the treatment of sepsis. In this investigation, by leaving one herb out each time, the four component herbs of HLJDD were reformulated to four HLJDD variants Form1-4, corresponding to the removal of Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex, Scutellariae Radix, Gardeniae Fructu and Coptidis Rhizoma, respectively. Metabolomics approach combined with histological inspection, biochemical measurement and molecular biology was used to investigate the treatment effects of HLJDD and its four variants on cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis, which were compared to decipher the formulating principles of HLJDD...
April 20, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421634/vagus-nerve-stimulation-a-new-promising-therapeutic-tool-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#5
B Bonaz, V Sinniger, S Pellissier
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), that is Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis, affects about 1.5 million persons in the USA and 2.2 million in Europe. The pathophysiology of IBD involves immunological, genetic and environmental factors. The treatment is medico-surgical but suspensive. Anti-TNFα agents have revolutionized the treatment of IBD but have side effects. In addition, a non-negligible percentage of patients with IBD stop or take episodically their treatment. Consequently, a nondrug therapy targeting TNFα through a physiological pathway, devoid of major side effects and with a good cost-effectiveness ratio, would be of interest...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416076/sweat-allergy-extrinsic-or-intrinsic
#6
REVIEW
Takaaki Hiragun, Makiko Hiragun, Kaori Ishii, Takanobu Kan, Michihiro Hide
Sweat is an exacerbation factor in atopic dermatitis (AD) in all age groups. A body core temperature elevation with sweating triggers cholinergic urticaria (CholU). We recently reported that AD symptoms are improved by tannic acid-containing spray, which suppresses the basophil histamine release induced by semi-purified sweat antigen in vitro, and by showering, which removes antigens in sweat from the skin surface. Sweat contains small amount of proteins including proteases, protease inhibitors, and anti-microbial peptides...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413987/alzheimer-s-disease-like-early-phase-brain-pathogenesis-self-curing-amelioration-of-neurodegeneration-from-pro-inflammatory-wounding-to-anti-inflammatory-healing
#7
Jiang He, Tao Liao, Guo-Xin Zhong, Ji-Da Zhang, Yan-Ping Chen, Qi Wang, Qing-Ping Zeng
The etiological initiators of neuroinflammation remain inclusive, and effective interventions to block neurodegeneration are unavailable. Surprisingly, we found collagen II-combined complete Freund's adjuvant (CC) that usually induces rheumatoid arthritis (RA) also drives Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like neurodegeneration in mice. CC not only upregulates the cerebral pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 8 (IL-8), but also downregulates the cerebral interleukin 10 (IL-10), an anti-inflammatory cytokine, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a rate-limiting enzyme for biosynthesis of the anti-inflammatory neurotransmitter dopamine...
April 17, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410331/the-role-of-erbin-in-gts-21-regulating-inflammtory-responses-in-mdp-stimulated-macrophages
#8
Xiao-Jing Wu, Xu-Ming Yang, Xue-Min Song, Yang Xu, Jian-Guo Li, Yan-Lin Wang, Zong-Ze Zhang, Lin-Li Le, Hui Liang, Yin Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of Erbin protein and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2/receptor-interacting serine/threonine protein kinases (NOD2/RICK) in GTS-21 activating cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. METHODS: Experiments were randomly divided into four groups: normal control (NC) group, muramyl dipeptide (MDP) group, 10 μg/mL MDP, GTS-21 (GTS) group, 10 μg/mL MDP plus 50 μg/mL GTS-21 (α7 nAChRs agonist), Erbin shRNA interference (sh-Erbin) group: sh-Erbin RNA plus 10 μg/mL MDP and 50 μg/mL GTS-21...
May 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400502/cholinergic-agonists-reduce-blood-pressure-in-a-mouse-model-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#9
Amber S Fairley, Keisa W Mathis
Increased inflammation arising from an abnormal immune response can damage healthy tissue and lead to disease progression. An important example of this is the accumulation of inflammatory mediators in the kidney, which can subsequently lead to hypertension and renal injury. The origin of this inflammation may involve neuro-immune interactions. For example, the novel vagus nerve-to-spleen mechanism known as the "cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway" controls inflammation upon stimulation. However, if this pathway is dysfunctional, inflammation becomes less regulated and chronic inflammatory diseases such as hypertension may develop...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392244/the-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-an-innovative-treatment-strategy-for-neurological-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Bin Han, Xiuping Li, Junwei Hao
Acetylcholine (ACh), as a classical neurotransmitter, regulates the neuronal network in response to internal and external stimuli. In recent decades, the biology of ACh has been endowed with unparalleled new insights, especially with respect to cholinergic anti-inflammatory properties in non-neuronal cells. In fact, a mechanism frequently referred to as the "cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway" has been termed to describe interactions between the central nervous system (CNS) and the immune system via vagus nerve...
April 6, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386326/activation-of-the-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-receptor-promotes-lipopolysaccharide-induced-conversion-of-m1-microglia-to-m2
#11
Qichun Zhang, Ying Lu, Huimin Bian, Liwei Guo, Huaxu Zhu
The α7 subtype of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) plays an essential role in the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway that regulates macrophage/microglia function in inflammation. Similar to M1 and M2 macrophages, M1 and M2 microglia exhibit pro-inflammation and anti-inflammation properties, respectively. In the present study, we analyzed function-associated phenotypes to detect the transformation of microglia with activation of α7 nAChRs. We used lentivirus-mediated shRNA to knockdown the expression of α7 nAChR in BV-2 microglia incubated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS, 0...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379329/median-nerve-stimulation-prevents-atrial-electrical-remodelling-and-inflammation-in-a-canine-model-with-rapid-atrial-pacing
#12
Qingyan Zhao, Shudi Zhang, Hongyi Zhao, Shujuan Zhang, Zixuan Dai, Yongsheng Qian, Youjing Zhang, Xi Wang, Yanhong Tang, Congxin Huang
Aims: Studies have shown that stellate ganglion nerve activity has association with atrial electrical remodelling and atrial fibrillation (AF) inducibility, while median nerve stimulation (MNS) decreases cardiac sympathetic drive. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that MNS suppresses atrial electrical remodelling and AF vulnerability. Methods and results: The atrial effective refractory period (AERP) and AF inducibility at baseline and after 3 h of rapid atrial pacing were determined in dogs undergoing MNS (n = 7), MNS+ application of methyllycaconitine (n = 7) or sham procedure (n = 6)...
March 31, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371641/recent-progress-in-the-identification-of-selective-butyrylcholinesterase-inhibitors-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
REVIEW
Qi Li, Hongyu Yang, Yao Chen, Haopeng Sun
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorders with notable factor of dysfunction in cholinergic system. Low ACh level can be observed in the pathogenesis of AD. Several AChE inhibitors have already been used for clinical treatments. However, other than normal conditions, ACh is mostly hydrolyzed by BuChE in progressed AD. Account for an increased level of BuChE and decreased level of AChE in the late stage of AD, development of selective BuChE inhibitor is of vital importance...
March 27, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342907/active-placebo-control-groups-of-pharmacological-interventions-were-rarely-used-but-merited-serious-consideration-a-methodological-overview
#14
Jakob Solgaard Jensen, Andreas Ørsted Bielefeldt, Asbjørn Hróbjartsson
OBJECTIVES: Active placebos are control interventions that mimic the side-effects of the experimental interventions in randomised trials and are sometimes used to reduce the risk of unblinding. We wanted to assess how often randomised clinical drug trials implement active placebo control groups; to provide a catalogue, and a characterisation, of such trials; and to analyse methodological arguments for and against use of active placebo. STUDY DESIGN: An overview consisting of three thematically linked sub-studies...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323287/experimental-medication-treatment-approaches-for-depression
#15
REVIEW
D F Ionescu, G I Papakostas
Depression is one of the most common psychiatric conditions. Symptoms can lead to significant disability, which result in impairments in overall quality of life. Though there are many approved antidepressant treatments for depression-including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants and monoamine oxidase inhibitors-about a third of patients do not respond to these medications. Therefore, it is imperative for drug discovery to continue towards the development of novel and rapidly acting compounds, especially for patients with treatment-resistant depression...
March 21, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298895/two-phase-modulation-of-formula-see-text-entry-and-cl-formula-see-text-exchanger-in-submandibular-glands-cells-by-dexmedetomidine
#16
Minjeong Ji, Chul-Kyu Park, Jin Woo Lee, Kook Yang Park, Kuk Hui Son, Jeong Hee Hong
Dexmedetomidine (Dex), a highly selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist, attenuates inflammatory responses induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and induces sedative and analgesic effects. Administration of Dex also reduces salivary secretion in human subjects and inhibits osmotic water permeability in rat cortical collecting ducts. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the effects of Dex on salivary glands fluid secretion. We demonstrated the α2-adrenoceptor expression in the basolateral membrane of mouse submandibular glands (SMG)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288124/c1-neurons-mediate-a-stress-induced-anti-inflammatory-reflex-in-mice
#17
Chikara Abe, Tsuyoshi Inoue, Mabel A Inglis, Kenneth E Viar, Liping Huang, Hong Ye, Diane L Rosin, Ruth L Stornetta, Mark D Okusa, Patrice G Guyenet
C1 neurons, located in the medulla oblongata, mediate adaptive autonomic responses to physical stressors (for example, hypotension, hemorrhage and presence of lipopolysaccharides). We describe here a powerful anti-inflammatory effect of restraint stress, mediated by C1 neurons: protection against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Restraint stress or optogenetic C1 neuron (C1) stimulation (10 min) protected mice from ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). The protection was reproduced by injecting splenic T cells that had been preincubated with noradrenaline or splenocytes harvested from stressed mice...
May 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274151/pharmacophore-based-design-and-discovery-of-meptazinol-carbamates-as-dual-modulators-of-cholinesterase-and-amyloidogenesis
#18
Qiong Xie, Zhaoxi Zheng, Biyun Shao, Wei Fu, Zheng Xia, Wei Li, Jian Sun, Wei Zheng, Weiwei Zhang, Wei Sheng, Qihong Zhang, Hongzhuan Chen, Hao Wang, Zhuibai Qiu
Multifunctional carbamate-type acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors with anti-amyloidogenic properties like phenserine are potential therapeutic agents for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We reported here the design of new carbamates using pharmacophore model strategy to modulate both cholinesterase and amyloidogenesis. A five-feature pharmacophore model was generated based on 25 carbamate-type training set compounds. (-)-Meptazinol carbamates that superimposed well upon the model were designed and synthesized, which exhibited nanomolar AChE inhibitory potency and good anti-amyloidogenic properties in in vitro test...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272324/dl0410-ameliorates-memory-and-cognitive-impairments-induced-by-scopolamine-via-increasing-cholinergic-neurotransmission-in-mice
#19
Wenwen Lian, Jiansong Fang, Lvjie Xu, Wei Zhou, De Kang, Wandi Xiong, Hao Jia, Ai-Lin Liu, Guan-Hua Du
Deficiency of the cholinergic system is thought to play a vital role in cognitive impairment of dementia. DL0410 was discovered as a dual inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinestease (BuChE), with potent efficiency in in-vitro experiments, but its in vivo effect on the cholinergic model has not been evaluated, and its action mechanism has also not been illustrated. In the present study, the capability of DL0410 in ameliorating the amnesia induced by scopolamine was investigated, and its effect on the cholinergic system in the hippocampus and its binding mode in the active site of AChE was also explored...
March 6, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271317/cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-does-not-contribute-to-prevention-of-ulcerative-colitis-by-novel-indoline-carbamates
#20
Helena Shifrin, Odelia Mouhadeb, Nathan Gluck, Chen Varol, Marta Weinstock
Indoline carbamates, AN680 and AN917 decrease cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6 in peritoneal macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and in mouse tissues after LPS injection. They prevent nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and activator protein 1. Only AN917 inhibits cholinesterase (ChE) at relevant concentrations. ChE inhibitors decrease NF-κB by activating α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChR). The current study compared the effect of rivastigmine, a ChE inhibitor, AN680 and AN917 on ulcerative colitis induced in mice by ingestion of dextran sodium sulfate (4...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
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