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Anti cholinergics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470537/microsomal-prostaglandin-e-synthase-1-gene-deletion-impairs-neuro-immune-circuitry-of-the-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-in-endotoxaemic-mouse-spleen
#1
Priya Revathikumar, Johanna Estelius, Utsa Karmakar, Erwan Le Maître, Marina Korotkova, Per-Johan Jakobsson, Jon Lampa
The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) is an innate neural reflex where parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves work jointly to control inflammation. Activation of CAP by vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has paved way for novel therapeutic strategies in treating inflammatory diseases. Recently, we discovered that VNS mediated splenic acetylcholine (ACh) release and subsequent immunosuppression in response to LPS associated inflammation is impaired in mice lacking microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) expression, a key enzyme responsible for prostaglandin E2 synthesis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468816/the-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-revisited
#2
REVIEW
K Murray, C Reardon
Inflammatory bowel disease negatively affects the quality of life of millions of patients around the world. Although the precise etiology of the disease remains elusive, aberrant immune system activation is an underlying cause. As such, therapies that selectively inhibit immune cell activation without broad immunosuppression are desired. Inhibition of immune cell activation preventing pro-inflammatory cytokine production through neural stimulation has emerged as one such treatment. These therapeutics are based on the discovery of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, a reflex arc that induces efferent vagal nerve signaling to reduce immune cell activation and consequently mortality during septic shock...
March 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467611/the-vagus-nerve-at-the-interface-of-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis
#3
REVIEW
Bruno Bonaz, Thomas Bazin, Sonia Pellissier
The microbiota, the gut, and the brain communicate through the microbiota-gut-brain axis in a bidirectional way that involves the autonomic nervous system. The vagus nerve (VN), the principal component of the parasympathetic nervous system, is a mixed nerve composed of 80% afferent and 20% efferent fibers. The VN, because of its role in interoceptive awareness, is able to sense the microbiota metabolites through its afferents, to transfer this gut information to the central nervous system where it is integrated in the central autonomic network, and then to generate an adapted or inappropriate response...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466775/novel-tacrine-hydroxyphenylbenzimidazole-hybrids-as-potential-multitarget-drug-candidates-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Asha Hiremathad, Rangappa S Keri, A Raquel Esteves, Sandra M Cardoso, Sílvia Chaves, M Amélia Santos
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe age-dependent neurodegenerative disorder affecting millions of people, with no cure so far. The current treatments only achieve some temporary amelioration of the cognition symptoms. The main characteristics of the patient brains include the accumulation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (outside and inside the neurons) but also cholinergic deficit, increased oxidative stress and dyshomeostasis of transition metal ions. Considering the multi-factorial nature of AD, we report herein the development of a novel series of potential multi-target directed drugs which, besides the capacity to recover the cholinergic neurons, can also target other AD hallmarks...
February 12, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452108/effect-of-brimonidine-an-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-agonist-on-human-meibomian-gland-epithelial-cells
#5
Xi Han, Yang Liu, Wendy R Kam, David A Sullivan
We recently discovered that the anti-glaucoma pharmaceuticals timolol, a β adrenergic antagonist, and pilocarpine, a cholinergic compound, negatively influence the morphology, proliferative capacity and survival of human meibomian gland epithelial cells (HMGECs). We hypothesize that another class of anti-glaucoma drugs, the α2 adrenergic agonists, also acts directly on HMGECs to affect their structure and function. We tested this hypothesis. Immortalized (i) HMGECs were cultured with brimonidine, as well as clonidine (α2 agonist), phenylephrine (α1 agonist), RX821002 (inverse α2 agonist) and MK912 (neutral α2 agonist) for up to 7 days...
February 13, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425796/doxycycline-prevents-and-reverses-schizophrenic-like-behaviors-induced-by-ketamine-in-mice-via-modulation-of-oxidative-nitrergic-and-cholinergic-pathways
#6
Benneth Ben-Azu, Itivere Adrian Omogbiya, Adegbuyi Oladele Aderibigbe, Solomon Umukoro, Abayomi Mayowa Ajayi, Ezekiel O Iwalewa
The involvement of oxidative/nitrosative stress, cholinergic and inflammatory pathways have been reported to contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, a debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder. Our previous studies have shown that doxycycline (DOX), a notable member of tetracyclines with proven antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, attenuated psychotic-like behaviors induced by apomophine and ketamine (KET) in mice. This present study was designed to further evaluate in detail the ability of DOX and its combination with risperidone (RIS) to prevent and reverse KET-induced schizophrenic-like behaviors and the role of oxidative/nitrosative and cholinergic pathways in mice...
February 6, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423193/alzheimer-s-disease-hypothesis-and-related-therapies
#7
REVIEW
Xiaoguang Du, Xinyi Wang, Meiyu Geng
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder and the most common cause for dementia. There are many hypotheses about AD, including abnormal deposit of amyloid β (Aβ) protein in the extracellular spaces of neurons, formation of twisted fibers of tau proteins inside neurons, cholinergic neuron damage, inflammation, oxidative stress, etc., and many anti-AD drugs based on these hypotheses have been developed. In this review, we will discuss the existing and emerging hypothesis and related therapies...
2018: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414243/the-underlying-physiological-mechanisms-whereby-anti-cholinergics-alleviate-asthma
#8
Morgan Gazzola, Samuel Mailhot-Larouche, Clémentine Beucher, Ynuk Bossé
The mechanisms whereby anti-cholinergics improve asthma outcomes, such as lung function, symptoms and rate of exacerbation, can be numerous. The most obvious is by affecting the contraction of airway smooth muscle (ASM). The acetylcholine released from the cholinergic nerves is the most important bronchoconstrictor that sets the baseline degree of contractile activation of ASM in healthy individuals. Although the degree of ASM's contractile activation can also be fine-tuned by a plethora of other bronchoconstrictors and bronchodilators in asthma, blocking the ceaseless effect of acetylcholine on ASM by anti-cholinergics reduces, at any given moment, the overall degree of contractile activation...
February 7, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406911/anti-cholinergic-medications-for-bladder-dysfunction-worsen-cognition-in-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Sarah A Morrow, Heather Rosehart, Alp Sener, Blayne Welk
Bladder dysfunction is common in persons with MS (PwMS), often due to detrusor muscle overactivity. Anticholinergic medications are considered the first line treatment for bladder dysfunction and are known to worsen cognition in healthy older adults and in persons with dementia. Yet, it is not known if these medications have the same effect on PwMS. Thus, the Objective of this prospective matched-cohort study was to determine if anticholinergic medications affect objective measures of cognition in PwMS. We recruited PwMS starting either oxybutynin or tolterodine (cases)...
February 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405440/ebselen-inhibits-the-activity-of-acetylcholinesterase-globular-isoform-g4-in-vitro-and-attenuates-scopolamine-induced-amnesia-in-mice
#10
Franciele Martini, Ana Paula Pesarico, César Augusto Brüning, Gilson Zeni, Cristina Wayne Nogueira
There is a well-known relationship between the cholinergic system and learning, memory and other common cognitive processes. The process for researching and developing new drugs has lead researchers to repurpose older ones. This study investigated the effects of ebselen on the activity of acethylcholinesterase (AChE) isoforms in vitro and in an amnesia model induced by scopolamine in Swiss mice. In vitro, ebselen at concentrations equal or higher than 10 µM inhibited the activity of cortical and hippocampal G4/AChE, but not G1/AChE isoform...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399541/cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-and-the-liver
#11
REVIEW
Khalil Hajiasgharzadeh, Behzad Baradaran
The hepatic vagus branches innervate the liver and serve an important role in liver-brain connection. It appears that brain modulates inflammatory responses by activation of vagal efferent fibers. This activation and subsequent acetylcholine releases from vagus nerve terminals leads to inhibition of inflammatory cytokines through α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) which located on the surface of different cell types such as liver Kupffer cells. This protective role of vagus-α7nAChR axis in liver diseases has been shown in several experimental studies...
December 2017: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389905/ablation-of-the-right-cardiac-vagus-nerve-reduces-acetylcholine-content-without-changing-the-inflammatory-response-during-endotoxemia
#12
Konstanze Plaschke, Thuc Quyen Monica Do, Florian Uhle, Thorsten Brenner, Markus A Weigand, Jürgen Kopitz
Acetylcholine is the main transmitter of the parasympathetic vagus nerve. According to the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) concept, acetylcholine has been shown to be important for signal transmission within the immune system and also for a variety of other functions throughout the organism. The spleen is thought to play an important role in regulating the CAP. In contrast, the existence of a "non-neuronal cardiac cholinergic system" that influences cardiac innervation during inflammation has been hypothesized, with recent publications introducing the heart instead of the spleen as a possible interface between the immune and nervous systems...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381472/chromatographic-fingerprint-analysis-antioxidant-properties-and-inhibition-of-cholinergic-enzymes-acetylcholinesterase-and-butyrylcholinesterase-of-phenolic-extracts-from-irvingia-gabonensis-aubry-lecomte-ex-o-rorke-baill-bark
#13
Oluwafemi Adeleke Ojo, Adebola Busola Ojo, Basiru Olaitan Ajiboye, Babatunji Emmanuel Oyinloye, Ayodele Jacob Akinyemi, Mary Abiola Okesola, Aline Augusti Boligon, Marli Matiko Anraku de Campos
BACKGROUND: Irvingia gabonensis stem bark is a medicinal plant used in most parts of Africa to manage a number of ailments including neurodegenerative diseases that occur without scientific basis. This work characterized the phenolic composition, evaluated the cholinergic enzymes (acetylcholinesterase, AChE and butyrylcholinesterase, BChE) inhibition, and assessed the antioxidant activity of phenolic extracts from I. gabonensis (Aubry-Lecomte ex O'Rorke) Baill bark. METHODS: Total phenol and flavonoids content was evaluated in addition to antioxidant activity as shown by Fe2+ chelation, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability, and 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging ability...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367088/sinomenine-inhibits-fibroblast-like-synoviocyte-proliferation-by-regulating-%C3%AE-7nachr-expression-via-erk-egr-1-pathway
#14
Lang Yi, Yan-Jun Lyn, Chong Peng, Rui-Li Zhu, Sha-Sha Bai, Liang Liu, Pei-Xun Wang, Hua Zhou, Yan Dong
Fibroblast like synoviocyte (FLS) is a crucial in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and involved in inflammation and joint destruction. Sinomenine (SIN), an alkaloid derived from the plant Sinomenium acutum, has anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect and been used for RA treatment in China. Alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChR), as the key receptor in cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) to inhibit inflammation, has been detected in RA patients synovium, but its role is still unclear...
January 20, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366413/myotropic-effects-of-cholinergic-muscarinic-agonists-and-antagonists-in-the-beetle-tenebrio-molitor-l
#15
Szymon Chowanski, Grzegorz Rosinski
In mammals, the cholinergic nervous system plays a crucial role in neuronal regulation of physiological processes. It acts on cells by two types of receptors - nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. Both signal transmission pathways also operate in the central and peripheral cholinergic nervous system of insects. METHODS: In our pharmacological experiments, we studied the effects of two muscarinic agonists (carbachol, pilocarpine) and two muscarinic antagonists (atropine, scopolamine) on the muscle contractile activity of visceral organs in the beetle, Tenebrio molitor...
January 24, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355756/gla-supplementation-regulates-phd2-mediated-hypoxia-and-mitochondrial-apoptosis-in-dmba-induced-mammary-gland-carcinoma
#16
Subhadeep Roy, Manjari Singh, Atul Rawat, Uma Devi, Swetlana Gautam, Rajnish Kumar Yadav, Jitendra Kumar Rawat, Md Nazam Ansari, Abdulaziz S Saeedan, Dinesh Kumar, Gaurav Kaithwas
The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of gamma linolenic acid (GLA) on mitochondrial mediated death apoptosis, hypoxic microenvironment and cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway against 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) induced mammary gland carcinoma. The effects of GLA were evaluated morphologically and biochemically against DMBA induced mammary gland carcinoma. The metabolic study was done for evaluation of biomarkers using 1H NMR. The present study was also verified through immunoblotting and qRT-PCR studies for the evaluation of various pathways...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355563/taraxerol-as-a-possible-therapeutic-agent-on-memory-impairments-and-alzheimer-s-disease-effects-against-scopolamine-and-streptozotocin-induced-cognitive-dysfunctions
#17
Talita Elisa Berté, Ana Paula Dalmagro, Priscila Laiz Zimath, Ana Elisa Gonçalves, Christiane Meyre-Silva, Cristiani Bürger, Carla J Weber, Diogo Adolfo Dos Santos, Valdir Cechinel-Filho, Márcia M de Souza
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with cognitive impairment and cholinergic neuronal death, characteristic of the effect of time on biochemical neuronal function. The use of medicinal plants as an alternative form of prevention, or even as a possible treatment of AD, is therefore interesting areas of research, since the standard drugs have many side effects. Taraxerol (TRX) is a triterpene that has been isolated from several plant species, and its various pharmacological properties have already been identified, such the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity in vitro...
January 17, 2018: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348191/multi-modal-encoding-of-novelty-reward-and-learning-in-the-primate-nucleus-basalis-of-meynert
#18
Clarissa Martinez-Rubio, Angelique C Paulk, Eric J McDonald, Alik S Widge, Emad N Eskandar
Associative learning is crucial for daily function, involving a complex network of brain regions. One region, the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM), is a highly interconnected, largely cholinergic structure implicated in multiple aspects of learning. We show that single neurons in the NBM of non-human primates (NHPs; N=2 males; Macaca mulatta) encode learning a new association through spike rate modulation. Yet, the power of low-frequency local field potential (LFP) oscillations decreases in response to novel, not-yet-learned stimuli but then increase as learning progresses...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332585/new-tacrines-as-anti-alzheimer-s-disease-agents-ii-the-benzo-chromenopyranotacrines
#19
Maria J Oset-Gasque, Jose Marco-Contelles
Tacrine was the first drug approved by FDA (US) for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease suffering patients. Nowadays, this agent has been withdrawn from the clinics due to secondary effects, among them, and the most important, its hepatotoxicity. However, the research on new tacrine analogues devoid of these therapeutically undesirable effects, but benefiting of their high and well known positive cholinergic power, has produced a number of new non-hepatotoxic tacrines. In this context, in our laboratory, in the last years we have prepared a new heterocyclic tacrines by changing the benzene ring present in tacrine by appropriate heterocyclic motifs...
January 12, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331768/the-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-an-innovative-treatment-strategy-for-respiratory-diseases-and-their-comorbidities
#20
REVIEW
Mitsuhiro Yamada, Masakazu Ichinose
Over the past few decades, it has been clarified that the nervous system and immune system have overlapping distributions and their interactions are critical in the regulation of immunological and inflammatory responses. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, including the parasympathetic nerve systems and humoral factors orchestrate the immune responses to protect the body during infection and tissue injury. Recent investigations have attempted to clarify how the parasympathetic nerve systems attenuate the systemic inflammatory responses and identified the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) as a crucial target for attenuating the release of inflammatory cytokines from inflammatory cells including macrophages and dendritic cells...
January 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
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