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Anti cholinergics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529069/cholinergic-modulation-of-the-immune-system-presents-new-approaches-for-treating-inflammation
#1
REVIEW
Donald B Hoover
The nervous system and immune system have broad and overlapping distributions in the body, and interactions of these ubiquitous systems are central to the field of neuroimmunology. Over the past two decades, there has been explosive growth in our understanding of neuroanatomical, cellular, and molecular mechanisms that mediate central modulation of immune functions through the autonomic nervous system. A major catalyst for growth in this field was the discovery that vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) caused a prominent attenuation of the systemic inflammatory response evoked by endotoxin in experimental animals...
May 18, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505155/oxidative-stress-and-expression-of-insulin-signaling-proteins-in-the-brain-of-diabetic-rats-role-of-nigella-sativa-oil-and-antidiabetic-drugs
#2
Mahmoud Balbaa, Shaymaa A Abdulmalek, Sofia Khalil
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Insulin resistance of the brain is a specific form of type2-diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the active insulin-signaling pathway plays a neuroprotective role against damaging conditions and Alzheimer's progression. The present study identifies the mediated emerging effects of the Nigella sativa oil (NSO) on the memory enhancing process, its anti-oxidative, acetylcholinestrase (AChE) inhibition, anti-brain insulin resistance and anti-amyloidogenic activities. In addition, the possible role of some anti-diabetic drugs in the neuro-protection processes and their effect in combination with NSO and/or the insulin receptor inhibitor IOMe-AG538 were investigated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501482/ciproxifan-improves-cholinergic-transmission-attenuates-neuroinflammation-and-oxidative-stress-but-does-not-reduce-amyloid-level-in-transgenic-mice
#3
Vasudevan Mani, Siti Murnirah Jaafar, Nur Syamimi Mohd Azahan, Kalavathy Ramasamy, Siong Meng Lim, Long Chiau Ming, Abu Bakar Abdul Majeed
AIM: The present study is aimed to investigate the ability of ciproxifan, a histamine H3 receptor antagonist to inhibit β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced neurotoxicity in SK-N-SH cells and APP transgenic mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro studies was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of ciproxifan in Aβ25-35 - induced SK-N-SH cells. For the in vivo study, ciproxifan (1 and 3mg/kg, i.p.) was administrated to transgenic mice for 15days and behaviour was assessed using the radial arm maze (RAM)...
May 10, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497342/exploration-of-the-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory-activity-of-some-alkaloids-from-amaryllidaceae-family-by-molecular-docking-in-silico
#4
Willian O Castillo-Ordóñez, Elvira R Tamarozzi, Gabriel M da Silva, Andrés F Aristizabal-Pachón, Elza T Sakamoto-Hojo, Catarina S Takahashi, Silvana Giuliatti
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive condition, where dementia symptoms gradually worsen. Biochemically the disease is characterized by the presence of neuritic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, in addition to cholinergic dysfunction in the central nervous system. The role of the cholinergic neurotransmission in AD is the basis of the widely accepted cholinergic hypothesis. Some of the most relevant therapies for the treatment of the disease are based on the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor activity; however, these therapies are not effective to stop the disease progression, but only can temporarily slow down the worsening of dementia symptoms, and improve quality of life of patients and their caregivers...
May 11, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488113/fermented-citrus-reticulata-ponkan-fruit-squeezed-draff-that-contains-a-large-amount-of-4-demethylnobiletin-prevents-mk801-induced-memory-impairment
#5
Ichiro Kawahata, Tatsuya Suzuki, Evelyn Gutiérrez Rico, Shuichi Kusano, Hiroshi Tamura, Yoshihiro Mimaki, Tohru Yamakuni
A previous study reported biotransformation of a citrus peel polymethoxyflavone, nobiletin, by Aspergillus enabling production of 4'-demethylnobiletin, and the product's antimutagenic activity. However, the effects of fermented citrus peel on the basal forebrain-hippocampal system remain unidentified. Citrus reticulata (ponkan) fruit squeezed draffs are generated as mass waste in beverage factories. In this study using PC12D cells and cultured central nervous system neurons, we therefore examined whether Aspergillus kawachii-fermented citrus fruit squeezed draff could affect cAMP response element (CRE)- and choline acetyltransferase gene (ChAT) promoter region-mediated transcriptional activities relevant to memory formation and cholinergic function...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487766/malathion-increases-apoptotic-cell-death-by-inducing-lysosomal-membrane-permeabilization-in-n2a-neuroblastoma-cells-a-model-for-neurodegeneration-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Ramu Venkatesan, Yong Un Park, Eunhee Ji, Eui-Ju Yeo, Sun Yeou Kim
Malathion is an organophosphate with severe neurotoxic effects. Upon acute exposure, malathion initially enhances cholinergic activity by inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, which is its major pathological mechanism. Malathion also induces non-cholinergic neuronal cell death in neurodegenerative conditions; the associated molecular mechanism is not well-characterized. To investigate the molecular mechanism of malathion-induced cell death, N2a mouse neuroblastoma cells were exposed to malathion and cell death-related parameters were examined...
2017: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474543/neuroprotective-effects-of-citrus-fruit-derived-flavonoids-nobiletin-and-tangeretin-in-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Nady Braidy, Sahar Behzad, Solomon Habtemariam, Touqeer Ahmed, Maria Daglia, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Eduardo Sobarzo-Sanchez, Seyed Fazel Nabavi
Neurodegenerative diseases, namely Alzheimer`s disease and Parkinson's disease represent a deleterious impact worldwide. Despite extensive preclinical and clinical research in neurodegenerative disorders, therapeutic strategies aimed at the prevention and chronic treatment of neurodegenerative conditions have not been successfully translated to the clinic. Therefore, the identification of novel pharmacological intervention derived from natural products is warranted. Nobiletin and tangeretin are important citrus flavonoids derived from the peel and other parts of Citrus L...
March 27, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463798/gladiolus-dalenii-lyophilisate-reverses-scopolamine-induced-amnesia-and-reduces-oxidative-stress-in-rat-brain
#8
Gwladys Temkou Ngoupaye, David Bougolla Pahaye, Judith Ngondi, Fleur Clarisse Okomolo Moto, Elisabeth Ngo Bum
Learning and memory are the most important executive functions performed by the human brain, the loss of which is a prominent feature in dementia. Gladiolus dalenii is traditionally used to treat a number of illnesses such as epilepsy and schizophrenia in Cameroon. This study aims to investigate the anti-amnesia effect of Gladiolus dalenii in scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats and its possible antioxidant properties in this model. Morris water maze, novel object location and recognition tasks were used to assess spatial and working memory...
April 29, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447988/increased-recovery-time-and-decreased-lps-administration-to-study-the-vagus-nerve-stimulation-mechanisms-in-limited-inflammatory-responses
#9
Erwan Le Maître, Priya Revathikumar, Johanna Estelius, Jon Lampa
Inflammation is a local response to infection and tissue damage mediated by activated macrophages, monocytes, and other immune cells that release cytokines and other mediators of inflammation. For a long time, humoral and cellular mechanisms have been studied for their role in regulating the immune response, but recent advances in the field of immunology and neuroscience have also unraveled specific neural mechanisms with interesting therapeutic potential. The so-called cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) has been described to control innate immune responses and inflammation in a very potent manner...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442406/anti-amnesic-effect-of-extract-and-alkaloid-fraction-from-aerial-parts-of-peganum-harmala-on-scopolamine-induced-memory-deficits-in-mice
#10
Wei Liu, Yudan Zhu, Yongli Wang, Shenglan Qi, Yuwen Wang, Chao Ma, Shuping Li, Bo Jiang, Xuemei Cheng, Zhengtao Wang, Zhenyu Xuan, Changhong Wang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aerial parts of Peganum harmala Linn (APP) is used as traditional medical herb for treatment of forgetfulness in Uighur medicine in China. But, the active ingredients and underlying mechanisms are unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was undertaken to investigate the improvement effects of extract and alkaloid fraction from APP on scopolamine-induced cognitive dysfunction and to elucidate their underlying mechanisms of action, and to support its folk use with scientific evidence, and lay a foundation for its further researches...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441890/rosuvastatin-ameliorates-cognitive-impairment-in-rats-fed-with-high-salt-and-cholesterol-diet-via-inhibiting-acetylcholinesterase-activity-and-amyloid-beta-peptide-aggregation
#11
I Husain, M Akhtar, M Zainul Abdin, M Islamuddin, M Shaharyar, A K Najmi
Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide aggregation and cholinergic neurodegeneration are involved in the development of cognitive impairment. Therefore, in this article, we examined rosuvastatin (RSV), an oral hypolipidemic drug, to determine its potential as a dual inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and Aβ peptide aggregation for the treatment of cognitive impairment. Molecular docking study was done to examine the affinity of RSV with Aβ1-42 and AChE in silico. We also employed neurobehavioral activity tests, biochemical estimation, and histopathology to study the anti-Aβ1-42 aggregation capability of RSV in vivo...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436303/choline-supplementation-during-pregnancy-protects-against-gestational-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammatory-responses
#12
Min Zhang, Xinjia Han, Juejie Bao, Jinying Yang, Shao-Qing Shi, Robert E Garfield, Huishu Liu
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the effects and mechanisms of choline, an essential nutrient and a selective α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) agonist, on the prevention of symptoms and the effects on the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways (CAP) in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in a rat model. METHODS: Inflammation was induced by LPS treatment (1.0 μg LPS/kg body weight) on gestational day (GD) 14. Nonpregnant and pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were placed on a normal choline diet (1...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434923/deciphering-the-mechanism-of-huang-lian-jie-du-decoction-on-the-treatment-of-sepsis-by-formula-decomposition-and-metabolomics-enhancement-of-cholinergic-pathways-and-inhibition-of-hmgb-1-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#13
Dingqiao Xu, Yan Lv, Junsong Wang, Minghua Yang, Lingyi Kong
Sepsis is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in surgical patients. Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Decoction (HLJDD), a well-known Chinese herb formula, has long been used for the treatment of sepsis. In this investigation, by leaving one herb out each time, the four component herbs of HLJDD were reformulated to four HLJDD variants Form1-4, corresponding to the removal of Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex, Scutellariae Radix, Gardeniae Fructu and Coptidis Rhizoma, respectively. Metabolomics approach combined with histological inspection, biochemical measurement and molecular biology was used to investigate the treatment effects of HLJDD and its four variants on cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis, which were compared to decipher the formulating principles of HLJDD...
April 21, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421634/vagus-nerve-stimulation-a-new-promising-therapeutic-tool-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#14
B Bonaz, V Sinniger, S Pellissier
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), that is Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis, affects about 1.5 million persons in the USA and 2.2 million in Europe. The pathophysiology of IBD involves immunological, genetic and environmental factors. The treatment is medico-surgical but suspensive. Anti-TNFα agents have revolutionized the treatment of IBD but have side effects. In addition, a non-negligible percentage of patients with IBD stop or take episodically their treatment. Consequently, a nondrug therapy targeting TNFα through a physiological pathway, devoid of major side effects and with a good cost-effectiveness ratio, would be of interest...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416076/sweat-allergy-extrinsic-or-intrinsic
#15
REVIEW
Takaaki Hiragun, Makiko Hiragun, Kaori Ishii, Takanobu Kan, Michihiro Hide
Sweat is an exacerbation factor in atopic dermatitis (AD) in all age groups. A body core temperature elevation with sweating triggers cholinergic urticaria (CholU). We recently reported that AD symptoms are improved by tannic acid-containing spray, which suppresses the basophil histamine release induced by semi-purified sweat antigen in vitro, and by showering, which removes antigens in sweat from the skin surface. Sweat contains small amount of proteins including proteases, protease inhibitors, and anti-microbial peptides...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413987/alzheimer-s-disease-like-early-phase-brain-pathogenesis-self-curing-amelioration-of-neurodegeneration-from-pro-inflammatory-wounding-to-anti-inflammatory-healing
#16
Jiang He, Tao Liao, Guo-Xin Zhong, Ji-Da Zhang, Yan-Ping Chen, Qi Wang, Qing-Ping Zeng
The etiological initiators of neuroinflammation remain inclusive, and effective interventions to block neurodegeneration are unavailable. Surprisingly, we found collagen II-combined complete Freund's adjuvant (CC) that usually induces rheumatoid arthritis (RA) also drives Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like neurodegeneration in mice. CC not only upregulates the cerebral pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 8 (IL-8), but also downregulates the cerebral interleukin 10 (IL-10), an anti-inflammatory cytokine, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a rate-limiting enzyme for biosynthesis of the anti-inflammatory neurotransmitter dopamine...
April 17, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410331/the-role-of-erbin-in-gts-21-regulating-inflammtory-responses-in-mdp-stimulated-macrophages
#17
Xiao-Jing Wu, Xu-Ming Yang, Xue-Min Song, Yang Xu, Jian-Guo Li, Yan-Lin Wang, Zong-Ze Zhang, Lin-Li Le, Hui Liang, Yin Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of Erbin protein and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2/receptor-interacting serine/threonine protein kinases (NOD2/RICK) in GTS-21 activating cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. METHODS: Experiments were randomly divided into four groups: normal control (NC) group, muramyl dipeptide (MDP) group, 10 μg/mL MDP, GTS-21 (GTS) group, 10 μg/mL MDP plus 50 μg/mL GTS-21 (α7 nAChRs agonist), Erbin shRNA interference (sh-Erbin) group: sh-Erbin RNA plus 10 μg/mL MDP and 50 μg/mL GTS-21...
May 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400502/cholinergic-agonists-reduce-blood-pressure-in-a-mouse-model-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#18
Amber S Fairley, Keisa W Mathis
Increased inflammation arising from an abnormal immune response can damage healthy tissue and lead to disease progression. An important example of this is the accumulation of inflammatory mediators in the kidney, which can subsequently lead to hypertension and renal injury. The origin of this inflammation may involve neuro-immune interactions. For example, the novel vagus nerve-to-spleen mechanism known as the "cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway" controls inflammation upon stimulation. However, if this pathway is dysfunctional, inflammation becomes less regulated and chronic inflammatory diseases such as hypertension may develop...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392244/the-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-an-innovative-treatment-strategy-for-neurological-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Bin Han, Xiuping Li, Junwei Hao
Acetylcholine (ACh), as a classical neurotransmitter, regulates the neuronal network in response to internal and external stimuli. In recent decades, the biology of ACh has been endowed with unparalleled new insights, especially with respect to cholinergic anti-inflammatory properties in non-neuronal cells. In fact, a mechanism frequently referred to as the "cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway" has been termed to describe interactions between the central nervous system (CNS) and the immune system via vagus nerve...
April 6, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386326/activation-of-the-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-receptor-promotes-lipopolysaccharide-induced-conversion-of-m1-microglia-to-m2
#20
Qichun Zhang, Ying Lu, Huimin Bian, Liwei Guo, Huaxu Zhu
The α7 subtype of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) plays an essential role in the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway that regulates macrophage/microglia function in inflammation. Similar to M1 and M2 macrophages, M1 and M2 microglia exhibit pro-inflammation and anti-inflammation properties, respectively. In the present study, we analyzed function-associated phenotypes to detect the transformation of microglia with activation of α7 nAChRs. We used lentivirus-mediated shRNA to knockdown the expression of α7 nAChR in BV-2 microglia incubated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS, 0...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
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