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Anti cholinergics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927089/an-evaluation-of-the-anti-inflammatory-antipyretic-and-analgesic-effects-of-hydroethanol-leaf-extract-of-albizia-zygia-in-animal-models
#1
Wonder Kofi Mensah Abotsi, Stanley Benjamin Lamptey, Stephen Afrane, Eric Boakye-Gyasi, Ruth Uwa Umoh, Eric Woode
CONTEXT: The leaves of Albizia zygia (DC.) J.F. Macbr. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae) are used in Ghanaian traditional medicine for the treatment of pain, inflammatory disorders and fever (including malaria). OBJECTIVES: The present study evaluated the anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic effects of the hydroethanol leaf extract of Albizia zygia (AZE) in animal models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of AZE were examined in the carrageenan-induced foot oedema model and the baker's yeast-induced pyrexia test respectively...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927065/aqueous-extract-of-securidaca-longipendunculata-oliv-and-olax-subscropioidea-inhibits-key-enzymes-acetylcholinesterase-and-butyrylcholinesterase-linked-with-alzheimer-s-disease-in-vitro
#2
Jamiu A Saliu, Ayodeji A Olabiyi
CONTEXT: Plants have historically been used to treat neurodegerative diseases which include Alzheimer's disease. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the antioxidant properties and inhibitory effect of aqueous extracts of Securidaca longipendunculata root and Olax subscropioidea leaf on the cholinergic system in rat brain in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aqueous extracts (1:20 w/v) of S. longipendunculata root and O. subscropioidea leaf was prepared and the ability of the extract to inhibit the activities of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase was evaluated as well as antioxidants as typified by 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS(•)) radical scavenging ability and Fe chelation spectophotometrically...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923376/immunomodulation-after-ischemic-stroke-potential-mechanisms-and-implications-for-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Cynthia Santos Samary, Paolo Pelosi, Pedro Leme Silva, Patricia Rieken Macedo Rocco
Brain injuries are often associated with intensive care admissions, and carry high morbidity and mortality rates. Ischemic stroke is one of the most frequent causes of injury to the central nervous system. It is now increasingly clear that human stroke causes multi-organ systemic disease. Brain inflammation may lead to opposing local and systemic effects. Suppression of systemic immunity by the nervous system could protect the brain from additional inflammatory damage; however, it may increase the susceptibility to infection...
December 7, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913968/post-ganglionic-autonomic-neuropathy-associated-with-anti-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-antibodies
#4
E Fileccia, R Rinaldi, R Liguori, A Incensi, R D'Angelo, M P Giannoccaro, V Donadio
PURPOSE: Antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-Abs) have been associated with several conditions, rarely involving the autonomic nervous system. Here, we describe two patients complaining of autonomic symptoms in whom a post-ganglionic autonomic neuropathy has been demonstrated in association with significantly elevated serum and CSF GAD-Abs levels. METHODS: Patients underwent nerve conduction studies, sympathetic skin response testing, evaluation of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system and skin biopsy...
December 2, 2016: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908752/n-propargylpiperidines-with-naphthalene-2-carboxamide-or-naphthalene-2-sulfonamide-moieties-potential-multifunctional-anti-alzheimer-s-agents
#5
Urban Košak, Damijan Knez, Nicolas Coquelle, Boris Brus, Anja Pišlar, Florian Nachon, Xavier Brazzolotto, Janko Kos, Jacques-Philippe Colletier, Stanislav Gobec
In the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, the enzymatic activities of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) are increased. While BChE is a viable therapeutic target for alleviation of symptoms caused by cholinergic hypofunction, MAO-B is a potential therapeutic target for prevention of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease. Starting with piperidine-based selective human (h)BChE inhibitors and propargylamine-based MAO inhibitors, we have designed, synthesized and biochemically evaluated a series of N-propargylpiperidines...
November 19, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878051/anticholinergics-for-overactive-bladder-temporal-trends-in-prescription-and-treatment-persistence
#6
Christopher J D Wallis, Colin Lundeen, Nicole Golda, Hilary Brotherhood, Peter Pommerville, Lesley Carr
INTRODUCTION: We sought to understand the contemporary pharmacologic management of overactive bladder (OAB) in a single-payer system. We examined temporal trends in the use of anticholinergic medications and assessed whether the likelihood of patients changing their anticholinergic therapy was predicted by their current therapy. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, population-based analysis of prescription records from the PharmaNet database in BC, Canada. We identified patients treated with one or more anticholinergic prescriptions between 2001 and 2009...
August 2016: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864661/molecular-anti-inflammatory-mechanisms-of-retinoids-and-carotenoids-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-review-of-current-evidence
#7
REVIEW
Niyaz Mohammadzadeh Honarvar, Ahmad Saedisomeolia, Mina Abdolahi, Amir Shayeganrad, Gholamreza Taheri Sangsari, Babak Hassanzadeh Rad, Gerald Muench
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is considered as one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorders characterized by progressive loss of mental function and ability to learn. AD is a multifactorial disorder. Various hypotheses are suggested for the pathophysiology of AD including "Aβ hypothesis," "tau hypothesis," and "cholinergic hypothesis." Recently, it has been demonstrated that neuroinflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of AD. Neuroinflammation causes synaptic dysfunction and neuronal death within the brain...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845241/synergistic-effect-of-tanshinone-iia-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-preventing-learning-and-memory-deficits-via-anti-apoptosis-attenuating-tau-phosphorylation-and-enhancing-the-activity-of-central-cholinergic-system-in-vascular-dementia
#8
Deyan Kong, Qian Liu, Guangxu Xu, Zhenhua Huang, Ning Luo, Yuanheng Huang, Keshu Cai
Vascular dementia (VaD) is one of common causes of dementia following Alzheimer's disease. However, up to date, there has been no effective treatment for VaD yet. Cellular therapy with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and some extract ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines are expected to improve learning and memory function in VaD model. In this study, we applied tanshinone II A (TSA) and MSCs in the rat model of VaD to evaluate the synergistic effect of TSA and MSCs on preventing cognitive deficits as well as explore the underlying mechanism...
November 11, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843463/the-comparison-between-effect-of-chloralhydrate-and-diphenhydramine-on-sedating-for-electroencephalography
#9
Afagh Hassanzadeh Rad, Vahid Aminzadeh
OBJECTIVE: Electroencephalography (EEG) is the most effective diagnostic tool in distinguishing epileptic seizure. Chloral hydrate (CH) is a sedative hypnotic drug, commonly used as a method of sedation in children aged<3 yr. Furthermore, diphenhydramine (DH) is a first generation antihistaminic drug (H1 receptor blocker) with anti-cholinergic effect. In this study, we aimed to compare the effects of CH and DH on sedating for EEG. MATERIALS & METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients' records of aged 15-72 months undergone an EEG and required sedation...
2016: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825347/non-neuronal-cholinergic-system-contributes-to-corticosteroid-resistance-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients
#10
Javier Milara, Angela Cervera, Alfredo de Diego, Celia Sanz, Gustavo Juan, Amadeu Gavaldà, Montserrat Miralpeix, Esteban Morcillo, Julio Cortijo
BACKGROUND: Inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) with long-acting beta-2 agonists is a well-documented combination therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) based on its additive anti-inflammatory properties. By contrast, the recommendation of ICS in combination with long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) is not evidence-based. In this study, neutrophils obtained from COPD patients were used to compare the anti-inflammatory effects of aclidinium bromide (a long-acting muscarinic antagonist) with corticosteroids and their potential additive effect...
November 8, 2016: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809746/phytochemicals-in-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease-a-systematic-review
#11
Grazia D’Onofrio, Daniele Sancarlo, Qingwei Ruan, Zhuowei Yu, Francesco Panza, Antonio Daniele, Antonio Greco, Davide Seripa
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common age-related neurodegenerative disease. Recently, a growing body of evidence suggested the use of phytochemicals to delay the onset and the progression of AD. OBJECTIVE: To review the role of phytochemicals that have the potential to treat AD. METHOD: A systematic review was conducted from existing literature that draws on phytochemicals used in the treatment of AD patients. Selection criteria included: 1) age≥60 years; 2) diagnosis of AD according to the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association criteria, and 3) acceptable clinical measures of cognitive impairment, disability, quality of life, and global clinical assessments...
November 2, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801921/a-case-of-ileus-and-st-segment-elevation
#12
Osama Siddique, Somwail Rasla, Seth Clark, Aravind Kokkirala
ST segment elevation is associated with non-cardiac pathologies but is not as well reported as myocardial infarction. We present a case of a 63-year-old man who was admitted for an overdose on cyclobenzaprine with signs of anti-cholinergic toxicity. He developed signs of ileus on imaging and became progressively obtunded. He was noted to have ST segment elevations on electrocardiogram (EKG) with no troponin elevation. Patient required urgent catheterization which showed normal coronary arteries. His bowel was decompressed subsequently resulting in resolution of the ST segment changes...
November 1, 2016: Rhode Island Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793617/galanthamine-decreases-genotoxicity-and-cell-death-induced-by-%C3%AE-amyloid-peptide-in-sh-sy5y-cell-line
#13
Willian O Castillo, Andrés F Aristizabal-Pachon, Ana P de Lima Montaldi, Elza T Sakamoto-Hojo, Catarina S Takahashi
Biochemically, Alzheimeŕs disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of abnormal deposition of beta amyloid peptide (Aβ(1-42)), which is generated by proteolytic processing from its precursor, the amyloid precursor protein (APP) in a non-physiological pathway. The presence of Aβ(1-42) in the brain is strongly correlated with cognitive impairment, cholinergic deficiency, bioenergetics disruption, cell death and DNA damage. Galanthamine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) used to symptomatic treatment of Alzheimeŕs disease (AD)...
October 25, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791020/essential-protective-role-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-2-in-neurodegeneration
#14
Yun Dong, Roman Fischer, Petrus J W Naudé, Olaf Maier, Csaba Nyakas, Maëlle Duffey, Eddy A Van der Zee, Doortje Dekens, Wanda Douwenga, Andreas Herrmann, Eric Guenzi, Roland E Kontermann, Klaus Pfizenmaier, Ulrich L M Eisel
Despite the recognized role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in inflammation and neuronal degeneration, anti-TNF therapeutics failed to treat neurodegenerative diseases. Animal disease models had revealed the antithetic effects of the two TNF receptors (TNFR) in the central nervous system, whereby TNFR1 has been associated with inflammatory degeneration and TNFR2 with neuroprotection. We here show the therapeutic potential of selective inhibition of TNFR1 and activation of TNFR2 by ATROSAB, a TNFR1-selective antagonistic antibody, and EHD2-scTNFR2, an agonistic TNFR2-selective TNF, respectively, in a mouse model of NMDA-induced acute neurodegeneration...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790217/cholinergic-stimulation-prevents-the-development-of-autoimmune-diabetes-evidence-for-the-modulation-of-th17-effector-cells-via-an-ifn%C3%AE-dependent-mechanism
#15
Junu A George, Ghada Bashir, Mohammed M Qureshi, Yassir A Mohamed, Jamil Azzi, Basel K Al-Ramadi, Maria J Fernández-Cabezudo
Type I diabetes (T1D) results from T cell-mediated damage of pancreatic β-cells and loss of insulin production. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway represents a physiological link connecting the central nervous and immune systems via vagus nerve, and functions to control the release of proinflammatory cytokines. Using the multiple low-dose streptozotocin (MLD-STZ) model to induce experimental autoimmune diabetes, we investigated the potential of regulating the development of hyperglycemia through administration of paraoxon, a highly specific acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI)...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789613/grafted-neural-precursors-integrate-into-mouse-striatum-differentiate-and-promote-recovery-of-function-through-release-of-erythropoietin-in-mptp-treated-mice
#16
Stephana Carelli, Toniella Giallongo, Cristina Viaggi, Zuzana Gombalova, Elisa Latorre, Massimiliano Mazza, Francesca Vaglini, Anna Maria Di Giulio, Alfredo Gorio
Erythropoietin-releasing neural precursor cells (Er-NPCs) are a subclass of subventricular zone-derived neural progenitors, capable of surviving for 6 hr after death of donor. They present higher neural differentiation. Here, Er-NPCs were studied in animal model of Parkinson's disease. Dopaminergic degeneration was caused by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine intraperitoneal administration in C57BL/6 mice. The loss of function was evaluated by specific behavioral tests. Er-NPCs (2.5 × 10(5)) expressing the green fluorescent protein were administered by stereotaxic injection unilaterally in the left striatum...
October 2016: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774814/recent-progress-in-repositioning-alzheimer-s-disease-drugs-based-on-a-multitarget-strategy
#17
M Amélia Santos, Karam Chand, Sílvia Chaves
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a serious progressive neurological disorder, characterized by impaired cognition and profound irreversible memory loss. The multifactorial nature of AD and the absence of a cure so far have stimulated medicinal chemists worldwide to follow multitarget drug-design strategies based on repositioning approved drugs. This review describes a summary of recently published works focused on tailoring new derivatives of US FDA-approved acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, in addition to huperzine (a drug approved in China), either by hybridization with other pharmacophore elements (to hit more AD targets), or by combination of two FDA-approved drugs...
October 24, 2016: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769579/molecular-structure-and-differential-function-of-choline-kinases-chk%C3%AE-and-chk%C3%AE-in-musculoskeletal-system-and-cancer
#18
Xi Chen, Heng Qiu, Chao Wang, Yu Yuan, Jennifer Tickner, Jiake Xu, Jun Zou
Choline, a hydrophilic cation, has versatile physiological roles throughout the body, including cholinergic neurotransmission, memory consolidation and membrane biosynthesis and metabolism. Choline kinases possess enzyme activity that catalyses the conversion of choline to phosphocholine, which is further converted to cytidine diphosphate-coline (CDP-choline) in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC). PC is a major constituent of the phospholipid bilayer which constitutes the eukaryotic cell membrane, and regulates cell signal transduction...
October 8, 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765842/adrenodemedullation-activates-the-ca2-dependent-proteolysis-in-soleus-muscles-from-rats-exposed-to-cold
#19
Leandro H Manfredi, D Lustrino, Juliano Machado, Wilian Assis Silveira, Neusa Maria Zanon, Luiz C Navegantes, Isis do Carmo Kettelhut
Previous studies have shown that catecholamines in vivo and in vitro inhibit the activity of Ca(2+)-dependent proteolysis in skeletal muscles under basal conditions. In the present study we sought to investigate the role of catecholamines in regulating the Ca(2+)-dependent proteolysis in soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from rats acutely exposed to cold. Overall proteolysis, the activity of proteolytic systems as well as protein levels and gene expression of different components of calpain system were investigated in rats submitted to adrenodemedullation (ADMX) and exposed to cold for 24 h...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753973/os-11-06-the-effect-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation-on-arterial-hypertension-using-active-implantable-device
#20
Sekib Sokolovic, Samir Mehmedagic
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this paper was to present the effects of the vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) on a blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in arterial hypertension patient. DESIGN AND METHOD: The pilot study (SPM-005) was designed to evaluate the eficiancy and safety profile of the neurostimulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways using the active implantable device for the vagus nerve stimulation in rheumatoid arthritis patient. We investigated the VNS on the BP and HR in 68 years old female patient with a long-standing arterial hypertension and the lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide in a therapy...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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