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Min Ma, Fuwei Pi, Jiasheng Wang, Jian Ji, Xiulan Sun
Humans are most likely to be exposed to microcystins (MCs) combined with other water pollutants rather than to individual compounds through the consumption of contaminated drinking water or through recreational activities, such as swimming. However, the combined effects of MC-LR, estradiol (EST), and ractopamine (RAC) have not been extensively researched. The goal of this study was to investigate the combined effects of these compounds. For this purpose, cytotoxicity was evaluated in HepG2 cells treated with single or combined doses of MC-LR, EST, and RAC based on concentration addition (CA), independent action (IA), and Chou-Talalay's combination-index (CI) methods...
October 23, 2016: Chemosphere
(no author information available yet)
Background Long-term treatment with supplemental oxygen has unknown efficacy in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and resting or exercise-induced moderate desaturation. Methods We originally designed the trial to test whether long-term treatment with supplemental oxygen would result in a longer time to death than no use of supplemental oxygen among patients who had stable COPD with moderate resting desaturation (oxyhemoglobin saturation as measured by pulse oximetry [Spo2], 89 to 93%)...
October 27, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Rene Daer, Josh P Cutts, David A Brafman, Karmella A Haynes
In order to efficiently edit eukaryotic genomes, it is critical to test the impact of chromatin dynamics on CRISPR/Cas9 function and develop strategies to adapt the system to eukaryotic contexts. So far, research has extensively characterized the relationship between the CRISPR endonuclease Cas9 and the composition of the RNA-DNA duplex that mediates the system's precision. Evidence suggests that chromatin modifications and DNA packaging can block eukaryotic genome editing by custom-built DNA endonucleases like Cas9; however, the underlying mechanism of Cas9 inhibition is unclear...
October 26, 2016: ACS Synthetic Biology
Uri Landes, Alon Barsheshet, Ariel Finkelstein, Victor Guetta, Abid Assali, Amir Halkin, Hanna Vaknin-Assa, Amit Segev, Tamir Bental, Jeremy Ben-Shoshan, Israel M Barbash, Ran Kornowski
BACKGROUND: About a decade past the first transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), data are limited regarding temporal trends accompanying its evolution from novel technology to mainstream therapy. We evaluated these trends in a large multicenter TAVI registry. HYPOTHESIS: TAVI is changing and improving with time. METHODS: Patients who underwent TAVI between January 2008 and December 2014 at 3 high-volume Israeli centers were divided into 5 time quintiles according to procedure date...
October 26, 2016: Clinical Cardiology
Decio Brunoni, Silvana Maria Blascovi-Assis, Ana Alexandra Caldas Osório, Alessandra Gotuzo Seabra, Cibelle Albuquerque de la Higuera Amato, Maria Cristina Triguero Veloz Teixeira, Marina Monzani da Rocha, Luiz Renato Rodrigues Carreiro
The present study aimed to present an overview of recent national and international research on the Zika virus (ZIKV), as well as to explore possible action plans focused on children, their families and the health teams involved.Therefore, the study proposes the implementation of tracking systems in order to identify, describe and characterize the potential correlates of prenatal exposure to ZIKV, divided into three lines of action: 1. Diagnostic and etiological evaluation as well as screening of developmental problems in children confirmed or suspected of prenatal ZIKV infection...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Florian V Eppink, Matthew Winden, Will C C Wright, Suzie Greenhalgh
In support of natural resource and ecosystem service policy, monetary value estimates are often presented to decision makers along with other types of information. There is some evidence that, presented with such 'mixed' information, people prioritise monetary over non-monetary information. We conduct a discrete choice experiment among New Zealand decision makers in which we manipulate the information presented to participants. We find that providing explicit monetary information strengthens the pursuit of economic benefits as well as the avoidance of environmental damage...
2016: PloS One
Chao Wu, Xinyue Ye, Fu Ren, You Wan, Pengfei Ning, Qingyun Du
Housing is among the most pressing issues in urban China and has received considerable scholarly attention. Researchers have primarily concentrated on identifying the factors that influence residential property prices and how such mechanisms function. However, few studies have examined the potential factors that influence housing prices from a big data perspective. In this article, we use a big data perspective to determine the willingness of buyers to pay for various factors. The opinions and geographical preferences of individuals for places can be represented by visit frequencies given different motivations...
2016: PloS One
Joanna P MacEwan, Felicia M Forma, Jason Shafrin, Ainslie Hatch, Darius N Lakdawalla, Jean-Pierre Lindenmayer
BACKGROUND: Poor medication adherence contributes to negative treatment response, symptom relapse, and hospitalizations in schizophrenia. Many health plans use claims-based measures like medication possession ratios or proportion of days covered (PDC) to measure patient adherence to antipsychotics. Classifying patients solely on the basis of a single average PDC measure, however, may mask clinically meaningful variations over time in how patients arrive at an average PDC level. OBJECTIVE: To model patterns of medication adherence evolving over time for patients with schizophrenia who initiated treatment with an oral atypical antipsychotic and, based on these patterns, to identify groups of patients with different adherence behaviors...
November 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Jason Shafrin, Taylor T Schwartz, Darius N Lakdawalla, Felicia M Forma
BACKGROUND: Nonadherence to antipsychotic medication among patients with schizophrenia results in poor symptom management and increased health care and other costs. Despite its health impact, medication adherence remains difficult to accurately assess. New technologies offer the possibility of real-time patient monitoring data on adherence, which may in turn improve clinical decision making. However, the economic benefit of accurate patient drug adherence information (PDAI) has yet to be evaluated...
November 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Lisa Sandersjöö, Andreas Jonsson, John Löfblom
Proteases are involved in fundamental biological processes and are important tools in both biotechnological and biomedical research. An important property of proteases is to discriminate among potential substrates. Here, we present a new method for substrate profiling of proteases. The substrates are displayed between two anti-idiotypic affinity domains on the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus carnosus. The first domain functions as a reporter tag and has affinity for a labeled reporter protein, whereas the second domain blocks the reporter tag from interacting with the reporter protein...
October 26, 2016: Biotechnology Journal
A Arias, O A Peters, I L Broyles
AIM: To develop, implement and evaluate an innovative curriculum in biostatistics in response to the needs of fostering critical thinking in graduate health care education for evidence-based practice and life-long learning education. METHODOLOGY: The curriculum was designed for first-year residents in a postgraduate endodontic program using a six-step approach to curriculum development to provide sufficient understanding to critically evaluate biomedical publications, to design the best research strategy to address a specific problem and to analyse data by appropriate statistical test selection...
October 26, 2016: International Endodontic Journal
Anna Týčová, Vojtěch Ledvina, Karel Klepárník
This review focuses on the latest development of microseparation electromigration methods in capillaries and microfluidic devices coupled with MS for detection and identification of important analytes. It is a continuation of the review article on the same topic by Kleparnik (Electrophoresis 2015, 36, 159-178). A wide selection of 161 relevant articles covers the literature published from June 2014 till May 2016. New improvements in the instrumentation and methodology of MS interfaced with capillary or microfluidic versions of zone electrophoresis, isotachophoresis, and isoelectric focusing are described in detail...
October 26, 2016: Electrophoresis
V Shapaval, T Møretrø, A Wold Åsli, H P Suso, J Schmitt, D Lillehaug, A Kohler
Microbiological source tracking (MST) for food industry is a rapid growing area of research and technology development. In the paper at hand, a new library-independent approach for microbial source tracking is presented. It is based on a high-throughput liquid micro-cultivation and FTIR spectroscopy. In the approach, FTIR spectra obtained from microorganisms isolated along the production line and a product are compared to each other. We tested and evaluated the new source tracking approach by simulating a source tracking situation...
October 26, 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Christopher S Fowler, Barrett A Lee, Stephen A Matthews
Although the trend toward greater ethnoracial diversity in the United States has been documented at a variety of geographic scales, most research tracks diversity one scale at a time. Our study bridges scales, asking how the diversity and segregation patterns of metropolitan areas are influenced by shifts in the racial/ethnic composition of their constituent places. Drawing on 1980-2010 decennial census data, we use a new visual tool to compare the distributions of place diversity for 50 U.S. metro areas over three decades...
October 25, 2016: Demography
Sébastien Rapinel, Laurence Hubert-Moy, Bernard Clément, Edward Maltby
Wetland functional assessment is commonly conducted based on field observations, and thus, is generally limited to small areas. However, there is often a need for wetland managers to obtain information on wetland functional performance over larger areas. For this purpose, we are proposing a new field-based functional assessment procedure in which wetland functions are evaluated and classified into hydrogeomorphic units according to a multi-criteria analysis approach. Wetland-related geographic information system layers derived from Earth observation data (LiDAR, multispectral and radar data) are used in this study for a large-scale functional evaluation...
November 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Feng Q He, Markus Ollert
Identification of key genes for a given physiological or pathological process is an essential but still very challenging task for the entire biomedical research community. Statistics-based approaches, such as genome-wide association study (GWAS)- or quantitative trait locus (QTL)-related analysis have already made enormous contributions to identifying key genes associated with a given disease or phenotype, the success of which is however very much dependent on a huge number of samples. Recent advances in network biology, especially network inference directly from genome-scale data and the following-up network analysis, opens up new avenues to predict key genes driving a given biological process or cellular function...
October 26, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Yuxin Tian, Weirui Liu, Yi Lu, Yan Wang, Xiaoyi Chen, Shaojuan Bai, Yicheng Zhao, Ting He, Fengxue Lao, Yinghui Shang, Yu Guo, Gaimei She
Cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives (CASEDs) are a class of natural product with one or several phenylacrylic moieties linked with the non-anomeric carbon of a glycosyl skeleton part through ester bonds. Their notable anti-depressant and brains protective activities have made them a topic of great interest over the past several decades. In particular the compound 3',6-disinapoylsucrose, the index component of Yuanzhi (a well-known Traditional Chinese Medicine or TCM), presents antidepressant effects at a molecular level, and has become a hotspot of research on new lead drug compounds...
October 24, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Valentina Iacopino, Daniele Mascia, Americo Cicchetti
BACKGROUND: In recent decades, the role of technology in health care organizations has become increasingly relevant because it enhances health care outcomes and the achievement of clinical goals. Extant research demonstrates that the effectiveness of a medical innovation depends largely on health care professionals' perceptions of its usefulness and impact on their activities and practices. We also know that interaction among social actors contributes to the shaping of their judgments and opinions regarding innovation...
October 25, 2016: Health Care Management Review
Benjamin Puccio, James P Pooley, John S Pellman, Elise C Taverna, R Cameron Craddock
BACKGROUND: Skull-stripping is the procedure of removing non-brain tissue from anatomical MRI data. This procedure can be useful for calculating brain volume and for improving the quality of other image processing steps. Developing new skull-stripping algorithms and evaluating their performance requires gold standard data from a variety of different scanners and acquisition methods. We complement existing repositories with manually corrected brain masks for 125 T1-weighted anatomical scans from the Nathan Kline Institute Enhanced Rockland Sample Neurofeedback Study...
October 25, 2016: GigaScience
Jamie Ross, Fiona Stevenson, Rosa Lau, Elizabeth Murray
BACKGROUND: There is a significant potential for e-health to deliver cost-effective, quality health care, and spending on e-health systems by governments and healthcare systems is increasing worldwide. However, there remains a tension between the use of e-health in this way and implementation. Furthermore, the large body of reviews in the e-health implementation field, often based on one particular technology, setting or health condition make it difficult to access a comprehensive and comprehensible summary of available evidence to help plan and undertake implementation...
October 26, 2016: Implementation Science: IS
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