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malaria and diabetes

Wei Chang, Gabriel Chamie, Daniel Mwai, Tamara D Clark, Harsha Thirumurthy, Edwin D Charlebois, Maya Petersen, Jane Kabami, Emmanuel Ssemmondo, Kevin Kadede, Dalsone Kwarisiima, Norton Sang, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Craig R Cohen, Moses Kamya, Diane V Havlir, James G Kahn
BACKGROUND: In 2013-2014, we achieved 89% adult HIV testing coverage using a hybrid testing approach in 32 communities in Uganda and Kenya (SEARCH: NCT01864603). To inform scalability, we sought to determine: (1) overall cost and efficiency of this approach; and (2) costs associated with point-of-care (POC) CD4 testing, multidisease services, and community mobilization. METHODS: We applied microcosting methods to estimate costs of population-wide HIV testing in 12 SEARCH trial communities...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Non-fatal outcomes of disease and injury increasingly detract from the ability of the world's population to live in full health, a trend largely attributable to an epidemiological transition in many countries from causes affecting children, to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) more common in adults. For the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we estimated the incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for diseases and injuries at the global, regional, and national scale over the period of 1990 to 2015...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures. METHODS: We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
Qurrat-Ul- Ain, Haroon Khan, Mohammad S Mubarak, Aini Pervaiz
An alkaloid is a class of naturally occurring organic nitrogen-containing compounds that are frequently found in the plant kingdom. Many alkaloids are valuable medicinal agents that can be utilized to treat various diseases including malaria, diabetics, cancer, cardiac dysfunction etc. Similarly, platelet aggregation beyond the purpose of homeostasis is the underlying cause of blood clotting related diseases. This review presents a thorough understanding of alkaloids as antiplatelet agents with a possible mechanism of action based on the literature of the last decade...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Kokou Idoh, Amegnona Agbonon, Yao Potchoo, Messanvi Gbeassor
INTRODUCTION: Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd) Schumach. & Thonn (Lamiaceae) is used in African traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria, hypertension, obesity, jaundice and diabetes however there is lack of experimental data on its possible toxicity. This study investigated the acute and 28 days sub-chronic toxicity of C. capitatum in Wistar rats. METHODS: In acute toxicity tests, a single administration of the hydroethanolic C. capitatum leaf extract (5 g/kg) was given orally to 5 female rats...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Rodrigo Rodriguez-Fernandez, Nawi Ng, Dwidjo Susilo, John Prawira, Michael J Bangs, Rachel M Amiya
BACKGROUND: As the global shift toward non-communicable diseases overlaps with the unfinished agenda of confronting infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries, epidemiological links across both burdens must be recognized. This study examined the non-communicable disease-infectious disease overlap in the specific comorbidity rates for key diseases in an occupational cohort in Papua, Indonesia. METHODS: Diagnosed cases of ischaemic heart disease, stroke, hypertension, diabetes (types 1 and 2), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, cancer, HIV and AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria were extracted from 22,550 patient records (21,513 men, 1037 women) stored in identical electronic health information systems from two clinic sites in Papua, Indonesia...
2016: BMC Public Health
Manisha Shrivastava, Nehal Shah, Seema Navaid, Kalpana Agarwal, Gourav Sharma
CONTEXT: Blood donor selection criteria based on science and regulatory rules influence donor as well recipient safety and demographics. AIM: To evaluate and analyze the blood donor deferral pattern and its causes among blood donors in a tertiary care hospital blood bank and to review its influence on blood safety. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Hospital based blood bank, retrospective analysis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The data available as donor deferral record over a period of 13 years from 2001 to 2013 was analyzed...
July 2016: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
Elizabeth E Oyenusi, Abiola O Oduwole, A Stefan Aronson, Björn G Jonsson, Kerstin Albertsson-Wikland, Olisamedua F Njokanma
OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to determine the prevalence of hyperglycemia in sick children admitted into the emergency rooms and to investigate its relationship with adverse outcomes. METHODS: A prospective study involving 2 tertiary hospitals in Lagos. Study subjects included all children aged beyond 1 month. An Accu-Chek Active glucometer was used for the bedside blood glucose determination. Hyperglycemia was defined as blood glucose greater than 7.8 mmol/L. RESULTS: A total of 1045 patients were recruited with hyperglycemia being recorded in 135 patients (prevalence rate of 12...
September 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Brian DellaValle, Casper Hempel, Trine Staalsoe, Flemming Fryd Johansen, Jørgen Anders Lindholm Kurtzhals
BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria from Plasmodium falciparum infection is major cause of death in the tropics. The pathogenesis of the disease is complex and the contribution of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) in the brain is incompletely understood. Insulinotropic glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetics have potent neuroprotective effects in animal models of neuropathology associated with ROS/RNS dysfunction. This study investigates the effect of the GLP-1 analogue, liraglutide against the clinical outcome of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) and Plasmodium falciparum growth...
2016: Malaria Journal
Ebun Ladipo Bamgboye
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. This, along with other noncommunicable diseases like hypertension, diabetes, and heart diseases, poses a double burden on a region that is still struggling to cope with the scourge of communicable diseases like malaria, tuberculosis, HIV, and more recently Ebola. Causes of CKD in the region are predominantly glomerulonephritis and hypertension, although type 2 diabetes is also becoming a significant cause as is the retroviral disease...
August 10, 2016: Clinical Nephrology
Wei Chang, Gabriel Chamie, Daniel Mwai, Tamara D Clark, Harsha Thirumurthy, Edwin D Charlebois, Maya Petersen, Jane Kabami, Emmanuel Ssemmondo, Kevin Kadede, Dalsone Kwarisiima, Norton Sang, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Craig R Cohen, Moses Kamya, Diane V Havlir, James G Kahn
BACKGROUND: In 2013-14, we achieved 89% adult HIV testing coverage using a hybrid testing approach in 32 communities in Uganda and Kenya (SEARCH: NCT01864603). To inform scalability, we sought to determine: 1) overall cost and efficiency of this approach; and 2) costs associated with point-of-care (POC) CD4 testing, multi-disease services, and community mobilization. METHODS: We applied micro-costing methods to estimate costs of population-wide HIV testing in 12 SEARCH Trial communities...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
P Kuecuekbalaban, S Schmidt, H Muehlan
Aim of the study: The aim of the current study was to provide an overview of medical-diagnostic self-tests which can be purchased without a medical prescription on German language websites. Method: From September 2014 to March 2015, a systematic internet research was conducted with the following search terms: self-test, self-diagnosis, home test, home diagnosis, quick test, rapid test. Results: 513 different self-tests for the diagnostics of 52 diverse diseases or health risks were identified, including chronic diseases (e...
June 29, 2016: Das Gesundheitswesen
Remyasri Nair, Nithish M Bhandary, Ashton D D'Souza
AIMS: To investigate initial Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score of patients in Intensive Care Unit (ICU), who were diagnosed with infectious disease, as an indicator of multiple organ dysfunction and to examine if initial SOFA score is a better mortality predictor compared to Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hospital-based study done in medical ICU, from June to September 2014 with a sample size of 48. Patients aged 18 years and above, diagnosed with infectious disease were included...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Samuel Acquah, Johnson Nyarko Boampong, Benjamin Ackon Eghan Jnr
Information on the extent to which oxidative stress and inflammation occur in the presence of falciparum malaria and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the same individual is limited. This study sought to investigate the extent of inflammation and oxidative stress in adult uncomplicated malaria by measuring fasting levels of lipid peroxides, C-reactive protein (CRP), and total antioxidant power (TAP) before and during falciparum malaria, in 100 respondents with type 2 diabetes and 100 age-matched controls in the Cape Coast metropolis of Ghana...
2016: BioMed Research International
Jacek Dutkiewicz, Barbara Mackiewicz, Marta Kinga Lemieszek, Marcin Golec, Janusz Milanowski
Pantoea agglomerans, a gammaproteobacterium of plant origin, possesses many beneficial traits that could be used for the prevention and/or treatment of human and animal diseases, combating plant pathogens, promotion of plant growth and bioremediation of the environment. It produces a number of antibiotics (herbicolin, pantocins, microcin, agglomerins, andrimid, phenazine, among others) which could be used for combating plant, animal and human pathogens or for food preservation. Japanese researchers have demonstrated that the low-molecular-mass lipopolysaccharide of P...
June 2, 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
Resmi Premji, Nira Roopnarinesingh, Joshua Cohen, Sabyasachi Sen
Central diabetes insipidus is an uncommon feature of malaria. A previously healthy 72-year-old man presented with fever, rigors, and altered mental status after a recent trip to Liberia, a country known for endemic falciparum malaria. Investigations confirmed plasmodium falciparum parasitemia. Within one week after admission, the serum sodium rose to 166 mEq/L and the urine output increased to 7 liters/day. Other labs were notable for a high serum osmolality, low urine osmolality, and low urine specific gravity...
2016: Case Reports in Endocrinology
Wawan Sujarwo, Ary P Keim, Giulia Caneva, Chiara Toniolo, Marcello Nicoletti
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Neem (Azadirachta indica; Meliaceae) is widely known for its cold pressed seed oil, mainly used as insecticide, but also for cosmetic, medicinal and agricultural uses. The seed oil is widely employed in the Indian subcontinent, and the leaves seem to have a lower relevance, but the ethnobotanical information of Bali (Indonesia) considers the utilisation of leaves for medicinal properties. AIM OF THE STUDY: We report ethnopharmacological information about current uses of neem, in particular of the leaves, besides the insecticidal one, we discuss on the historical background of their uses...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Olufemi A Fasanmade, Samuel Dagogo-Jack
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a noncommunicable disease that has attained great significance in the sub-Saharan region, with Nigeria being the most affected. Many persons with the condition suffer a reduced life expectancy and quality of life. Diabetes places an extra burden on the individuals and families affected, especially for the majority of patients unable to access quality health care. OBJECTIVE: To describe the elements of diabetes management in Nigeria, areas for improvement, and proposed strategies to optimize care...
November 2015: Annals of Global Health
Nazzy Pakpour, Kong Wai Cheung, Shirley Luckhart
BACKGROUND: More than half of the world's population is at risk of malaria and simultaneously, many malaria-endemic regions are facing dramatic increases in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Studies in murine malaria models have examined the impact of malaria infection on type 2 diabetes pathology, it remains unclear how this chronic metabolic disorder impacts the transmission of malaria. In this report, the ability type 2 diabetic rodents infected with malaria to transmit parasites to Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes is quantified...
2016: Malaria Journal
Waqas Ahmad, Ibrahim Jantan, Syed N A Bukhari
Tinospora crispa (L.) Hook. f. & Thomson (Menispermaceae), found in the rainforests or mixed deciduous forests in Asia and Africa, is used in traditional medicines to treat numerous health conditions. This review summarizes the up-to-date reports about the ethnobotany, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, toxicology, and clinical trials of the plant. It also provides critical assessment about the present knowledge of the plant which could contribute toward improving its prospect as a source of lead molecules for drug discovery...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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