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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905939/causes-of-death-in-vanuatu
#1
Karen Carter, Viran Tovu, Jeffrey Tila Langati, Michael Buttsworth, Lester Dingley, Andy Calo, Griffith Harrison, Chalapati Rao, Alan D Lopez, Richard Taylor
BACKGROUND: The population of the Pacific Melanesian country of Vanuatu was 234,000 at the 2009 census. Apart from subsistence activities, economic activity includes tourism and agriculture. Current completeness of vital registration is considered too low to be usable for national statistics; mortality and life expectancy (LE) are derived from indirect demographic estimates from censuses/surveys. Some cause of death (CoD) data are available to provide information on major causes of premature death...
March 15, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893966/vaccination-via-chloroplast-genetics-affordable-protein-drugs-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-inherited-or-infectious-human-diseases
#2
Henry Daniell, Hui-Ting Chan, Elise K Pasoreck
Plastid-made biopharmaceuticals treat major metabolic or genetic disorders, including Alzheimer's, diabetes, hypertension, hemophilia, and retinopathy. Booster vaccines made in chloroplasts prevent global infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis, malaria, cholera, and polio, and biological threats, such as anthrax and plague. Recent advances in this field include commercial-scale production of human therapeutic proteins in FDA-approved cGMP facilities, development of tags to deliver protein drugs to targeted human cells or tissues, methods to deliver precise doses, and long-term stability of protein drugs at ambient temperature, maintaining their efficacy...
November 23, 2016: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884381/elevated-adiponectin-but-varied-response-in-circulating-leptin-levels-to-falciparum-malaria-in-type-2-diabetics-and-non-diabetic-controls
#3
COMMENT
Samuel Acquah, Benjamin Ackon Eghan, Johnson Nyarko Boampong
BACKGROUND: To investigate effects of falciparum malaria on circulating levels of leptin and adiponectin in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and non-diabetic controls in relation to measures of adiposity. METHODS: Levels of leptin and adiponectin were measured in 100 type 2 diabetics and 100 age-matched controls before and during falciparum malaria in a 2-year prospective study. Also, waist circumference (WC), weight, height and hip circumference were measured. Body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were computed...
October 2016: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858887/glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficiency-and-risk-of-colorectal-cancer-in-northern-sardinia-a-retrospective-observational-study
#4
Maria P Dore, Agnese Davoli, Nunzio Longo, Giuseppina Marras, Giovanni M Pes
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency has been associated with a lower cancer risk, possibly via a reduction of mutagenic oxygen-free radicals and by reducing nicotinamide-adeninedinucleotide-phosphate for replicating cells. In Sardinia, the enzyme defect is frequent as a consequence of selection by malaria in the past. This study investigated the relationship between G6PD deficiency and colorectal cancer (CRC).A retrospective case-control study of 3901 patients from Sardinia, who underwent a colonoscopy between 2006 and 2016, was performed...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855617/eryptosis-ally-or-enemy
#5
Marilena Briglia, Maria Antonia Rossi, Caterina Faggio
Prior to senescence, erythrocytes may, experience injury which compromises their integrity and thus triggers suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis. This mechanism is characterised by cell shrinkage, cell membrane blebbing, and cell membrane phospholipid scrambling after phosphatidylserine exposure on the cell surface that is identified by macrophages which engulf and degrade the eryptotic cells. The term eryptosis also includes typical mechanisms, which contribute to the triggering of this process. Among them: oxidative stress, Ca2+ entry with an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca ]i) and the activation of p38 kinase, which is a kinase expressed in human erythrocytes and activated after hyperosmotic shock...
November 18, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780133/a-systematic-review-of-the-protective-role-of-swertiamarin-in-cardiac-and-metabolic-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Xin Yu Leong, Punniyakoti Veeraveedu Thanikachalam, Manisha Pandey, Srinivasan Ramamurthy
BACKGROUND: Swertiamarin, is a secoiridoid glycoside found in genera of Enicostemma Species (Enicostemma littorale and Enicostemma axillare) belonging to the family of gentianaceae, which has been reported to cure many diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, arthritis, malaria and abdominal ulcers. However, to the best of our knowledge, till date systematic studies to understand the molecular basis of cardiac and metabolic disease preventing properties of swertiamarin has not been reported...
October 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741031/implementation-and-operational-research-cost-and-efficiency-of-a-hybrid-mobile-multidisease-testing-approach-with-high-hiv-testing-coverage-in-east-africa
#7
Wei Chang, Gabriel Chamie, Daniel Mwai, Tamara D Clark, Harsha Thirumurthy, Edwin D Charlebois, Maya Petersen, Jane Kabami, Emmanuel Ssemmondo, Kevin Kadede, Dalsone Kwarisiima, Norton Sang, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Craig R Cohen, Moses Kamya, Diane V Havlir, James G Kahn
BACKGROUND: In 2013-2014, we achieved 89% adult HIV testing coverage using a hybrid testing approach in 32 communities in Uganda and Kenya (SEARCH: NCT01864603). To inform scalability, we sought to determine: (1) overall cost and efficiency of this approach; and (2) costs associated with point-of-care (POC) CD4 testing, multidisease services, and community mobilization. METHODS: We applied microcosting methods to estimate costs of population-wide HIV testing in 12 SEARCH trial communities...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733282/global-regional-and-national-incidence-prevalence-and-years-lived-with-disability-for-310-diseases-and-injuries-1990-2015-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#8
COMMENT
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Non-fatal outcomes of disease and injury increasingly detract from the ability of the world's population to live in full health, a trend largely attributable to an epidemiological transition in many countries from causes affecting children, to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) more common in adults. For the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we estimated the incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for diseases and injuries at the global, regional, and national scale over the period of 1990 to 2015...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733281/global-regional-and-national-life-expectancy-all-cause-mortality-and-cause-specific-mortality-for-249-causes-of-death-1980-2015-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#9
COMMENT
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures. METHODS: We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713699/plant-alkaloids-as-antiplatelet-agent-drugs-of-the-future-in-the-light-of-recent-developments
#10
Qurrat-Ul- Ain, Haroon Khan, Mohammad S Mubarak, Aini Pervaiz
An alkaloid is a class of naturally occurring organic nitrogen-containing compounds that are frequently found in the plant kingdom. Many alkaloids are valuable medicinal agents that can be utilized to treat various diseases including malaria, diabetics, cancer, cardiac dysfunction etc. Similarly, platelet aggregation beyond the purpose of homeostasis is the underlying cause of blood clotting related diseases. This review presents a thorough understanding of alkaloids as antiplatelet agents with a possible mechanism of action based on the literature of the last decade...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642406/toxicological-assessment-of-the-hydroethanolic-leaf-extract-of-clerodendrum-capitatum-in-wistar-rats
#11
Kokou Idoh, Amegnona Agbonon, Yao Potchoo, Messanvi Gbeassor
INTRODUCTION: Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd) Schumach. & Thonn (Lamiaceae) is used in African traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria, hypertension, obesity, jaundice and diabetes however there is lack of experimental data on its possible toxicity. This study investigated the acute and 28 days sub-chronic toxicity of C. capitatum in Wistar rats. METHODS: In acute toxicity tests, a single administration of the hydroethanolic C. capitatum leaf extract (5 g/kg) was given orally to 5 female rats...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609056/the-double-burden-of-disease-among-mining-workers-in-papua-indonesia-at-the-crossroads-between-old-and-new-health-paradigms
#12
Rodrigo Rodriguez-Fernandez, Nawi Ng, Dwidjo Susilo, John Prawira, Michael J Bangs, Rachel M Amiya
BACKGROUND: As the global shift toward non-communicable diseases overlaps with the unfinished agenda of confronting infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries, epidemiological links across both burdens must be recognized. This study examined the non-communicable disease-infectious disease overlap in the specific comorbidity rates for key diseases in an occupational cohort in Papua, Indonesia. METHODS: Diagnosed cases of ischaemic heart disease, stroke, hypertension, diabetes (types 1 and 2), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, cancer, HIV and AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria were extracted from 22,550 patient records (21,513 men, 1037 women) stored in identical electronic health information systems from two clinic sites in Papua, Indonesia...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605848/blood-donor-selection-and-deferral-pattern-as-an-important-tool-for-blood-safety-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#13
Manisha Shrivastava, Nehal Shah, Seema Navaid, Kalpana Agarwal, Gourav Sharma
CONTEXT: Blood donor selection criteria based on science and regulatory rules influence donor as well recipient safety and demographics. AIM: To evaluate and analyze the blood donor deferral pattern and its causes among blood donors in a tertiary care hospital blood bank and to review its influence on blood safety. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Hospital based blood bank, retrospective analysis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The data available as donor deferral record over a period of 13 years from 2001 to 2013 was analyzed...
July 2016: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589386/hyperglycemia-in-acutely-ill-non-diabetic-children-in-the-emergency-rooms-of-2-tertiary-hospitals-in-lagos-nigeria
#14
Elizabeth E Oyenusi, Abiola O Oduwole, A Stefan Aronson, Björn G Jonsson, Kerstin Albertsson-Wikland, Olisamedua F Njokanma
OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to determine the prevalence of hyperglycemia in sick children admitted into the emergency rooms and to investigate its relationship with adverse outcomes. METHODS: A prospective study involving 2 tertiary hospitals in Lagos. Study subjects included all children aged beyond 1 month. An Accu-Chek Active glucometer was used for the bedside blood glucose determination. Hyperglycemia was defined as blood glucose greater than 7.8 mmol/L. RESULTS: A total of 1045 patients were recruited with hyperglycemia being recorded in 135 patients (prevalence rate of 12...
September 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554094/glucagon-like-peptide-1-analogue-liraglutide-in-experimental-cerebral-malaria-implications-for-the-role-of-oxidative-stress-in-cerebral-malaria
#15
Brian DellaValle, Casper Hempel, Trine Staalsoe, Flemming Fryd Johansen, Jørgen Anders Lindholm Kurtzhals
BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria from Plasmodium falciparum infection is major cause of death in the tropics. The pathogenesis of the disease is complex and the contribution of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) in the brain is incompletely understood. Insulinotropic glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetics have potent neuroprotective effects in animal models of neuropathology associated with ROS/RNS dysfunction. This study investigates the effect of the GLP-1 analogue, liraglutide against the clinical outcome of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) and Plasmodium falciparum growth...
2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509589/the-challenges-of-esrd-care-in-developing-economies-sub-saharan-african-opportunities-for-significant-improvement
#16
Ebun Ladipo Bamgboye
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. This, along with other noncommunicable diseases like hypertension, diabetes, and heart diseases, poses a double burden on a region that is still struggling to cope with the scourge of communicable diseases like malaria, tuberculosis, HIV, and more recently Ebola. Causes of CKD in the region are predominantly glomerulonephritis and hypertension, although type 2 diabetes is also becoming a significant cause as is the retroviral disease...
2016: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509253/cost-and-efficiency-of-a-hybrid-mobile-multi-disease-testing-approach-with-high-hiv-testing-coverage-in-east-africa
#17
Wei Chang, Gabriel Chamie, Daniel Mwai, Tamara D Clark, Harsha Thirumurthy, Edwin D Charlebois, Maya Petersen, Jane Kabami, Emmanuel Ssemmondo, Kevin Kadede, Dalsone Kwarisiima, Norton Sang, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Craig R Cohen, Moses Kamya, Diane V Havlir, James G Kahn
BACKGROUND: In 2013-14, we achieved 89% adult HIV testing coverage using a hybrid testing approach in 32 communities in Uganda and Kenya (SEARCH: NCT01864603). To inform scalability, we sought to determine: 1) overall cost and efficiency of this approach; and 2) costs associated with point-of-care (POC) CD4 testing, multi-disease services, and community mobilization. METHODS: We applied micro-costing methods to estimate costs of population-wide HIV testing in 12 SEARCH Trial communities...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27355220/-the-offer-of-medical-diagnostic-self-tests-on-german-language-websites-results-of-a-systematic-internet-search
#18
P Kuecuekbalaban, S Schmidt, H Muehlan
Aim of the study: The aim of the current study was to provide an overview of medical-diagnostic self-tests which can be purchased without a medical prescription on German language websites. Method: From September 2014 to March 2015, a systematic internet research was conducted with the following search terms: self-test, self-diagnosis, home test, home diagnosis, quick test, rapid test. Results: 513 different self-tests for the diagnostics of 52 diverse diseases or health risks were identified, including chronic diseases (e...
June 29, 2016: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27303136/initial-sequential-organ-failure-assessment-score-versus-simplified-acute-physiology-score-to-analyze-multiple-organ-dysfunction-in-infectious-diseases-in-intensive-care-unit
#19
Remyasri Nair, Nithish M Bhandary, Ashton D D'Souza
AIMS: To investigate initial Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score of patients in Intensive Care Unit (ICU), who were diagnosed with infectious disease, as an indicator of multiple organ dysfunction and to examine if initial SOFA score is a better mortality predictor compared to Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hospital-based study done in medical ICU, from June to September 2014 with a sample size of 48. Patients aged 18 years and above, diagnosed with infectious disease were included...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27298824/increased-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-independent-of-body-adiposity-in-diabetic-and-nondiabetic-controls-in-falciparum-malaria
#20
Samuel Acquah, Johnson Nyarko Boampong, Benjamin Ackon Eghan Jnr
Information on the extent to which oxidative stress and inflammation occur in the presence of falciparum malaria and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the same individual is limited. This study sought to investigate the extent of inflammation and oxidative stress in adult uncomplicated malaria by measuring fasting levels of lipid peroxides, C-reactive protein (CRP), and total antioxidant power (TAP) before and during falciparum malaria, in 100 respondents with type 2 diabetes and 100 age-matched controls in the Cape Coast metropolis of Ghana...
2016: BioMed Research International
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