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Evgeny J Chumin, Joaquín Goñi, Meredith E Halcomb, Timothy C Durazzo, Mario Džemidžić, Karmen K Yoder
BACKGROUND: Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) has been widely used to investigate the integrity of white matter (WM; indexed by fractional anisotropy, FA) in alcohol dependence and cigarette smoking. These disorders are highly comorbid, yet cigarette use has often not been adequately controlled in neuroimaging studies of alcohol dependent populations. In addition, information on white matter deficits in currently drinking, nontreatment-seeking (NTS) individuals with alcohol dependence is limited...
March 15, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Dan Yang, Guixin Yang, Qianqian Sun, Shili Gai, Fei He, Yunlu Dai, Chongna Zhong, Piaoping Yang
The use of visible light to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) from renewable water splitting is a highly promising means in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Up to date, diverse inorganic-organic hybrid materials developed as photosensitizers still undergo low therapeutic efficiency and/or poor stability. Herein, a kind of carbon-nanodot-decorated TiO2 nanotubes (CDots/TiO2 NTs) composite is developed and applied for photodynamic therapy. Upon 650 nm laser light excitation, the emissions with short wavelengths (325-425 nm) from the CDots as a result of upconversion process excite TiO2 NTs to form electron/hole (e- /h+ ) pairs, triggering the reaction with the adsorbed oxidants to produce ROS...
March 12, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Shang-Yu Chen, Tzu-Hua Weng, Wen-Pin Tseng, Chia-Ming Fu, Hui-Wen Lin, Chun-Hsing Liao, Tai-Fen Lee, Po-Ren Hsueh, Cheng-Chung Fang, Shey-Ying Chen
Few studies analyzed the association between blood culture time to positivity (TTP) and risk of complicated nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) bacteremia. We conducted a retrospective study of 206 patients (aged 60.4 ± 17.4 years) with NTS bacteremia during a 30-month period. Complicated NTS bacteremia was defined as the presence of 30-day mortality, complicated infection requiring surgery or abscess drainage, or requirement of intensive care unit admission. Serogroup D (75.7%) was the predominant isolates. Malignancy (44...
February 13, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Mamoru Tanida, Zhang Tao, Lingling Sun, Jie Song, Wei Yang, Yuichi Kuda, Yasutaka Kurata, Toshishige Shibamoto
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Whether anaphylaxis affects sympathetic outflows to the brown adipose tissue (BAT) and adrenal grand is not known. Moreover, it is unknown whether anaphylaxis affects some brain areas in association with sympathetic regulation. What is the main finding and its importance? We showed that sympathoexcitatory responses to anaphylaxis regionally occurred in the kidney and adrenal grand, but not in the thermogenesis-related BAT. Further, anaphylactic hypotension also caused increase in c-fos immunoreactivity in the hypothalamic and medullary areas...
March 10, 2018: Experimental Physiology
James J Gilchrist, Anna Rautanen, Benjamin P Fairfax, Tara C Mills, Vivek Naranbhai, Holly Trochet, Matti Pirinen, Esther Muthumbi, Salim Mwarumba, Patricia Njuguna, Neema Mturi, Chisomo L Msefula, Esther N Gondwe, Jenny M MacLennan, Stephen J Chapman, Malcolm E Molyneux, Julian C Knight, Chris C A Spencer, Thomas N Williams, Calman A MacLennan, J Anthony G Scott, Adrian V S Hill
Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a major cause of bacteraemia in Africa. The disease typically affects HIV-infected individuals and young children, causing substantial morbidity and mortality. Here we present a genome-wide association study (180 cases, 2677 controls) and replication analysis of NTS bacteraemia in Kenyan and Malawian children. We identify a locus in STAT4, rs13390936, associated with NTS bacteraemia. rs13390936 is a context-specific expression quantitative trait locus for STAT4 RNA expression, and individuals carrying the NTS-risk genotype demonstrate decreased interferon-γ (IFNγ) production in stimulated natural killer cells, and decreased circulating IFNγ concentrations during acute NTS bacteraemia...
March 9, 2018: Nature Communications
Yanfeng Wang, Lei Bai, Yonglan Wang, Dongdong Qin, Duoliang Shan, Xiaoquan Lu
A novel and highly sensitive photoelectrochemical biosensor for the detection of glucose based on ternary nanocomposites of Au/CuS/TiO2 (Au/CuS/TiO2 ) has been fabricated. Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiO2 NTs) were prepared by anodization of Ti foils, and CuS nanoparticles (NPs) and Au NPs were deposited on TiO2 NTs by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The resultant Au/CuS/TiO2 exhibited excellent photoelectrochemical behavior as a glucose sensor under white light illumination due to the remarkable photocatalytic capabilities of TiO2 and CuS, and the surface plasmonic resonance (SPR) effect of Au NPs...
March 9, 2018: Analyst
Rachel N Hardy, Zinar D Simsek, Brandon Curry, Sheri L Core, Terry Beltz, Baojian Xue, Alan K Johnson, Robert L Thunhorst, Kathleen S Curtis
Age-dependent impairments in the central control of compensatory responses to body fluid challenges have received scant experimental attention, especially in females. In the present study, we found that water drinking in response to β-adrenergic activation with isoproterenol (30 μg/kg, s.c.) was reduced by more than half in aged (25 mo) vs. young (5 mo) ovariectomized female Brown Norway rats. To determine whether this age-related decrease in water intake was accompanied by changes in central nervous system areas associated with fluid balance, we assessed astrocyte density and neuronal activation in the SFO, OVLT, SON, AP and NTS of these rats using immunohistochemical labeling for GFAP and c-fos, respectively...
March 5, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Jyoti Roy, Bibekanand Mallick
Remarkable attempts have been exercised in recent years using high-throughput technologies to identify and decipher the functions of piRNAs in various abnormalities like cancer. However, piRNAs in the oncogenesis of neuroblastoma (NB) has not been reported yet even after their illustrated roles in neurological processes. Therefore, we investigated the piRNA transcriptome in IMR-32 and SH-SY-5Y NB cell lines by employing high-throughput next-generation sequencing after confirming the expression of three associated PIWILs both at mRNAs and protein level by qRT-PCR and immunofluroscence respectively...
March 8, 2018: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
Jonas Töle, Antje Stolzenburg, Susan M Tyree, Frauke Stähler, Wolfgang Meyerhof
Despite long and intense research, some fundamental questions regarding representation of taste information in the brain still remain unanswered. This might in part be due to shortcomings of the established methods that limit the researcher either to thorough characterization of few elements or analyze the response of the entirety of neurons to only one stimulus. To overcome these restrictions, we evaluate the use of the immediate early gene Arc as a neuronal activity marker in the early neural structures of the taste pathway, the nodose/petrosal ganglion (NPG) and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS)...
March 5, 2018: Chemical Senses
Vijayakumar Ramaraj, Rajyoganandh S Vijayaraman, Veena Hemanth, Sudha Rangarajan, Anupma Jyoti Kindo
Background & objectives: : Dermatophytes are keratinophilic fungi that infect keratinized tissues of human and animal origin. Trichophyton mentagrophytes is considered to be a species complex composed of several strains, which include both anthropophiles and zoophiles. Accurate discrimination is critical for comprehensive understanding of the clinical and epidemiological implications of the genetic heterogeneity of this complex. Molecular strain typing renders an effective way to discriminate each strain...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Jr-Jiun Lin, Tzu-Hua Weng, Wen-Pin Tseng, Shang-Yu Chen, Chia-Ming Fu, Hui-Wen Lin, Chun-Hsing Liao, Tai-Fen Lee, Po-Ren Hsueh, Shey-Ying Chen
BACKGROUND: Vascular infections (VI) are potentially catastrophic complications of nontyphoid Salmonella (NTS). We aimed to develop a scoring model incorporating information from blood culture time to positivity (TTP-NTSVI) and compared the prediction capability for VI among adults with NTS bacteremia between TTP-NTSVI and a previously published score (Chen-NTSVI). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study enrolled 217 adults with NTS bacteremia ≧ 50 years old...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
Song Zhang, Pan Shen, Min Li, Xin Tian, Changyong Zhou, Mengji Cao
Next-generation sequencing of small RNAs and PCR amplification with two pairs of back-to-back primers, followed by cloning and sequencing, allowed identification of a novel geminivirus isolate provisionally named camellia chlorotic dwarf-associated virus (CaCDaV). The complete genome sequence of CaCDaV comprises 3,687 nucleotides (nts) and six open reading frames (ORFs). The genome and putative proteins of CaCDaV were most closely related to those of two unclassified geminiviruses: citrus chlorotic dwarf-associated virus (CCDaV, 3,640 nt) and mulberry mosaic dwarf-associated virus (MMDaV, 2,952 nt)...
March 2, 2018: Archives of Virology
Junkai Zhang, Lili Yang, Xiaoxin Wu, Maobin Wei, Yanqing Liu, Chunxiao Gao, Jinghai Yang, Yanzhang Ma
Fe3+ doped chrysotile nanotubes (NTs) have been synthesized under controlled hydrothermal conditions, and have been characteristic of layered-walls and room-temperature ferromagnetism. High-pressure in-situ impedance spectra and synchrotron XRD measurements are performed on Fe-doped chrysotile NTs to reveal the electrical transport and structural properties under compression. Sample resistance (Rsum) was found to increase with the pressure elevation, accompanying the step decrease in the grain boundary relaxation frequency (fgb), which reflects the bandgap broadening and dipoles polarization weakening due to the application of pressure...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Tung-Chen Yeh, Ching-Sen Shin, Hsin-Hung Chen, Chi-Cheng Lai, Gwo-Ching Sun, Ching-Jiunn Tseng, Pei-Wen Cheng
Resveratrol is a polyphenol with pleiotropic effects against oxidative damage that has been widely implicated in the lowering of hypertension risk. The purpose of this study was to determine whether improve NO release in the brain either through the activation of AMPK or reduced Rac1-induced ROS generation, thereby reducing BP in rats with fructose-induced hypertension. The rats were fed with 10% fructose or crestor (rosuvastatin; 1.5 mg/kg/day) and resveratrol (10 mg/kg/day) treatment for 1 week, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) of the rats were measured by tail-cuff method...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Yuichi Sakata, Tsuyoshi Ushigami, Kazushi Anzawa, Takashi Mochizuki
Trichophyton tonsurans, a major pathogen of tinea capitis and tinea corporis, has been isolated from players of contact sports in Japan. To understand the contemporary epidemic in Japan, the molecular types of 208 strains isolated between 2011 and 2015 were determined. Of these, 142 were isolated from practitioners of judo, 28 from wrestlers, seven from sumo wrestlers, and 31 from individuals with unknown backgrounds. Based on length polymorphisms of the non-transcribed spacer (NTS) region of the ribosomal RNA gene, these 208 strains could be divided into three subtypes, NTS I(204; 98...
February 28, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
María D Flores, Luis M Gonzalez, Carolina Hurtado, Yamileth Monje Motta, Cristina Domínguez-Hidalgo, Francisco Jesús Merino, María J Perteguer, Teresa Gárate
BACKGROUND: Taenia solium, T. asiatica and T. saginata tapeworms cause human taeniasis and are the origin of porcine and bovine cysticercosis. Furthermore, T. solium eggs can cause human cysticercosis, with neurocysticercosis being the most serious form of the disease. These helminth infections are neglected tropical diseases and are endemic in several countries in the Americas, Asia and Africa. As a result of globalization, migration in particular, the infections have been extending to non-endemic territories...
February 27, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Hillary L Woodworth, Juliette A Brown, Hannah M Batchelor, Raluca Bugescu, Gina M Leinninger
Pharmacologic treatment with the neuropeptide neurotensin (Nts) modifies motivated behaviors such as feeding, locomotor activity, and reproduction. Dopamine (DA) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) control these behaviors, and Nts directly modulates the activity of DA neurons via Nts receptor-1. While Nts sources to the VTA have been described in starlings and rats, the endogenous sources of Nts to the VTA of mice remain incompletely understood, impeding determination of which Nts circuits orchestrate specific behaviors in this model...
February 15, 2018: Neuropeptides
Cindy F Yang, Jack L Feldman
The preBötzinger complex (preBötC), a compact medullary region essential for generating normal breathing rhythm and pattern, is the kernel of the breathing central pattern generator (CPG). Excitatory preBötC neurons in rats project to major breathing-related brainstem regions. Here, we provide a brainstem connectivity map in mice for both excitatory and inhibitory preBötC neurons. Using a genetic strategy to label preBötC neurons, we confirmed extensive projections of preBötC excitatory neurons within the brainstem breathing CPG including the contralateral preBötC, Bötzinger Complex (BötC), ventral respiratory group (VRG), nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), parahypoglossal nucleus, parafacial region (RTN/pFRG or alternatively, pFL /pFV ), parabrachial and Kölliker-Füse nuclei, as well as major projections to the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG)...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Erin C Kerfoot, Cedric L Williams
The nucleus accumbens shell is a site of converging inputs during memory processing for emotional events. The accumbens receives input from the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) regarding changes in peripheral autonomic functioning following emotional arousal. The shell also receives input from the amygdala and hippocampus regarding affective and contextual attributes of new learning experiences. The successful encoding of affect or context is facilitated by activating noradrenergic systems in either the amygdala or hippocampus...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Yong Huang, Wangbao Gong, Jianli Xiong, Xiao Chan Gao, Hong Tao Ren
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, single stranded RNA molecules with approximately 22 nts in length, which regulate the stability and translation of messenger RNAs in several organisms. To increase the repertoire of miRNAs characterized in M. amblycephala, we used the deep sequencing technology to sequence a small RNA library using pooled RNA sample isolated from the 4 different tissues of M. amblycephala. A total of 309 conserved miRNAs that originated from 131 miRNA families were detected. 15 novel candidates miRNA were identified...
February 18, 2018: Gene
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