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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534423/evaluating-non-technical-skills-and-mission-essential-competencies-of-pilots-in-military-aviation-environments
#1
Emmanuel Tsifetakis, Tom Kontogiannis
To develop and validate a classification of non-technical skills (NTS) in military aviation, a study was conducted, using data from real operations of F16 aircraft formations. Phase 1 developed a NTS classification based on the literature review (e.g., NOTECHS) and a workshop with pilots. The Non-TEChnical-MILitary-Skills (NOTEMILS) scheme was tested in Phase 2 in a series of Principal Component Analysis with data from After-Action-Review sessions (i.e., 900 records from a wide range of operations). The NTS were found to make a good prediction of Mission Essential Components (R square > 0,80) above the effect of experience...
May 23, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532058/interaction-of-nanostructured-tio2-biointerfaces-with-stem-cells-and-biofilm-forming-bacteria
#2
Mukta Kulkarni, Ita Junkar, Petr Humpolíček, Zdenka Capáková, Katarzyna Anna Radaszkiewicz, Nikola Mikušová, Jiří Pacherník, Marián Lehocký, Aleš Iglič, Markéta Hanáčková, Miran Mozetič
Nanostructured TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) of diameters from 15 to 100nm were fabricated by an electrochemical anodization process. Biofilm-positive strains of Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa behaved similarly on all TiO2 NTs as well as on native titanium (Ti) foil. The adhesion and growth of mesenchymal stem cells (MSc), embryonic stem cells (ESc), and pure cardiomyocytes derived from ESc exhibited significant differences. MSc as well as ESc were, in contrast to cardiomyocytes, able to adhere, and grow on TiO2 NTs...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529504/a-novel-avian-paramyxovirus-putative-serotype-15-isolated-from-wild-birds
#3
Hyun-Jeong Lee, Ji-Ye Kim, Youn-Jeong Lee, Eun-Kyung Lee, Byoung-Min Song, Hee-Soo Lee, Kang-Seuk Choi
In January 2014, a viral hemagglutinating agent named UPO216 was isolated from fecal droppings of wild birds at the UPO wetland in South Korea during an avian influenza surveillance program. Electron microscopy identified the UPO216 virus as an avian paramyxovirus (APMV). Pathogenicity tests and molecular pathotyping revealed that the virus was avirulent in chickens. The UPO216 virus was assigned to a serological group antigenically distinct from known serotypes of APMV (-1, -2, -3, -4, -6, -7, -8, and -9) by hemagglutination inhibition test, despite showing weak cross-reactivity with APMV-1 and APMV-9...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526964/characterization-of-a-new-isolate-of-pepper-chlorotic-spot-virus-from-yunnan-province-china
#4
Kuanyu Zheng, Tsung-Chi Chen, Shyi-Dong Yeh, Md Siddiqur Rahman, Xiaoxia Su, Kuo Wu, Ting Li, Zhongkai Zhang, Jiahong Dong
A new isolate, 14YV733, of pepper chlorotic spot virus (PCSV) from chili peppers in Yunnan province of China was identified. The typical tospoviral particles of 80-120 nm in diameter were observed by electron microscopy. The virus caused systemic symptoms in several solanaceous plants and the Brassica rapa L. Chinensis group with mechanical inoculation. The sap from infected leaves reacted positively to a rabbit antibody to the N protein of watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) in immunoblotting. The S, M, and L RNAs of PCSV-14YV733 are 3310 nts, 4711 nts, and 8913 nts long, respectively...
May 19, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524087/in-vitro-assessment-of-early-bacterial-activity-on-micro-nanostructured-ti6al4v-surfaces
#5
Benjamin Valdez-Salas, Ernesto Beltrán-Partida, Sandra Castillo-Uribe, Mario Curiel-Álvarez, Roumen Zlatev, Margarita Stoytcheva, Gisela Montero-Alpírez, Lidia Vargas-Osuna
It is imperative to understand and systematically compare the initial interactions between bacteria genre and surface properties. Thus, we fabricated a flat, anodized with 80 nm TiO₂ nanotubes (NTs), and a rough Ti6Al4V surface. The materials were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We cultured in vitro Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) to evaluate the bacterial-surface behavior by FE-SEM and viability calculation...
May 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523796/silica-polypyrrole-hybrids-as-high-performance-metal-free-electrocatalysts-for-hydrogen-evolution-reaction-in-neutral-media
#6
Jin-Xian Feng, Han Xu, Sheng-Hua Ye, Gangfeng Ouyang, Ye-Xiang Tong, Gao-Ren Li
Constructing inorganic-organic hybrids with high abilities of water adsorption and activation will lead to significant enhancement of electrocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in neutral media that is environmentally benign. Here we report SiO2-polypyrrole (PPy) hybrid nanotubes supported on carbon fibers (CFs) (SiO2/PPy NTs-CFs) as low-cost and high-performance electrocatalysts for HER in neutral media. Because of the strong electronic interactions between SiO2 and PPy, SiO2 uniquely serves as the centers of water adsorption and activation, and accordingly it will obviously promote HER...
May 18, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515136/loss-of-humoral-and-cellular-immunity-to-invasive-nontyphoidal-salmonella-during-current-or-convalescent-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-in-malawian-children
#7
Tonney S Nyirenda, James T Nyirenda, Dumizulu L Tembo, Janet Storm, Queen Dube, Chisomo L Msefula, Kondwani C Jambo, Henry C Mwandumba, Robert S Heyderman, Melita A Gordon, Wilson L Mandala
Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) infections are commonly associated with Plasmodium falciparum infections, but the immunologic basis for this linkage is poorly understood. We hypothesized that P. falciparum infection compromises the hosts' humoral and cellular immunity to NTS which increases their susceptibility to iNTS infection. We prospectively recruited children aged between 6 and 60 months at a Community Health Centre in Blantyre, Malawi and allocated them to the following groups; febrile with uncomplicated malaria, febrile malaria-negative, non-febrile malaria-negative...
May 17, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506824/hypoxia-and-nicotine-effects-on-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-pacap-and-its-receptor-1-pac1-in-the-developing-piglet-brainstem
#8
J Huang, K A Waters, R Machaalani
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its cognate receptor 1 (PAC1), have been implicated in the pathophysiology of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Two main risk factors for SIDS are prone sleeping and cigarette smoke exposure. Using piglet models of these risk factors, intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia (IHH-mimicking rebreathing in prone position) and nicotine (main reinforcing element of cigarettes), this study aimed to determine their effects on PACAP and PAC1 protein expression in the medulla...
May 12, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498396/diverse-expression-patterns-and-tumorigenic-role-of-neurotensin-signaling-components-in-colorectal-cancer-cells
#9
Ji Tae Kim, Heidi L Weiss, B Mark Evers
Colorectal cancer (CRC), which is one of the most common malignancies worldwide, results from an accumulation of genetic and epigenetic modifications including DNA methylation. Neurotensin (NTS), a hormone localized to the gut and central nervous system, mediates its physiological and pathological effects, including growth stimulation for a variety of cancers, through three distinct NTS receptors (NTSRs). Most NTS functions are mediated through the high-affinity receptor NTSR1, and expression of NTSR1 is increased in many cancers including CRC...
May 9, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494471/inhibition-of-neurotensin-receptor-1-induces-intrinsic-apoptosis-via-let-7a-3p-bcl-w-axis-in-glioblastoma
#10
Zhen Dong, Qian Lei, Rui Yang, Shunqin Zhu, Xiao-Xue Ke, Liqun Yang, Hongjuan Cui, Liang Yi
Backgroud:Glioblastoma is a kind of highly malignant and aggressive tumours in the central nervous system. Previously, we found that neurotensin (NTS) and its high-affinity receptor 1 (NTSR1) had essential roles in cell proliferation and invasiveness of glioblastoma. Unexpectedly, cell death also appeared by inhibition of NTSR1 except for cell cycle arrest. However, the mechanisms were remained to be further explored. METHODS: Cells treated with SR48692, a selective antagonist of NTSR1, or NTSR1 shRNA were stained with Annexin V-FITC/PI and the apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry...
May 11, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494216/cough-reflex-hypersensitivity-a-role-for-neurotrophins
#11
Ahmed Z El-Hashim, Sahar M Jaffal
Cough is one of the most common complaints for which sufferers seek medical assistance. However, currently available drugs are not very effective in treating cough, particularly that which follows an upper respiratory tract infection. Nonetheless, there has been a significant increase in our understanding of the mechanisms and pathways of the defensive cough as well as the hypersensitive/pathophysiological cough, both at airway and central nervous system (CNS) levels. Numerous molecules and signaling pathways have been identified as potential targets for antitussive drugs, including neurotrophins (NTs)...
March 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492302/metal-organic-framework-templated-catalysts-dual-sensitization-of-pdo-zno-composite-on-hollow-sno2-nanotubes-for-selective-acetone-sensors
#12
Won-Tae Koo, Ji-Soo Jang, Seon-Jin Choi, Hee-Jin Cho, Il-Doo Kim
Metal-organic framework (MOF) derived synergistic catalysts were easily functionalized on hollow SnO2 nanotubes (NTs) via electrospinning and subsequent calcination. Nanoscale Pd NPs (~ 2 nm) loaded Zn based zeolite imidazole framework (Pd@ZIF-8, ~ 80 nm) was used as a new catalyst loading platform for effective functionalization of PdO@ZnO complex catalyst onto the thin wall of one-dimensional (1D) metal oxide NTs. The well-dispersed nanoscale PdO catalysts (3¬-4 nm) and multi-heterojunctions (PdO/ZnO and ZnO/SnO2) on hollow structures are essential for the development of high-performance gas sensors...
May 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488367/chemosensitive-phox2b-expressing-neurons-are-crucial-for-hypercapnic-ventilatory-response-in-the-nucleus-tractus-solitarius
#13
Congrui Fu, Jinyu Xue, Ri Wang, Jinting Chen, Lan Ma, Yixian Liu, Xuejiao Wang, Fang Guo, Yi Zhang, Xiangjian Zhang, Sheng Wang
The nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) neurons have been thought to function as central respiratory chemoreceptors. However, it remains unknown regarding the common molecular marker defined for these neurons. Here we ask whether paired-like homeobox 2b (Phox2b)-expressing NTS neurons are recruited in hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR) and whether these neurons exhibit intrinsic chemosensitivity. HCVR was assessed using whole body plethysmography and neuronal chemosensitivity was examined by patch clamp recordings in brainstem slices or dissociated neurons from Phox2b-EGFP transgenic mice...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483509/nitric-oxide-in-the-nucleus-of-the-tractus-solitarius-is-involved-in-hypoglycemic-conditioned-response
#14
Beatriz A Alvarado, Mónica Lemus, Sergio Montero, Valery Melnikov, Sonia Luquín, Joaquín García-Estrada, Elena Roces de Álvarez-Buylla
The repeated injection of insulin (unconditioned stimulus, UCS) immediately followed by exposure to sensory stimulation (e.g. sound or odor; conditioned stimulus, CS) results in a learned conditioned reflex in which the exposure to the CS alone lowers blood glucose. The brain regions participating in this hypoglycemic Pavlovian response remain unknown. Here we investigate if nitric oxide (NO) in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), a nucleus known to be involved in glucose homeostasis, participates in this hypoglycemic reflex...
May 5, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482568/enhanced-antifungal-activity-by-disinfected-titanium-dioxide-nanotubes-via-reduced-nano-adhesion-bonds
#15
Ernesto Beltrán-Partida, Benjamín Valdez-Salas, Mario Curiel-Álvarez, Sandra Castillo-Uribe, Alan Escamilla, Nicola Nedev
We have provided evidence that the beneficial effect of super-oxidized water (SOW) disinfected Ti6Al4V-TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) can reduce bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. However, the need of antifungal nanostructured surfaces with osteoactive capabilities is an important goal that has been arising for dental implants (DI) applications. Thus, in the present study we isolated and tested the effects of Candida albicans (C. albicans) on disinfected, wetter and nanoroughness NTs compared to a non-modified control...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482507/a-review-of-tio2-nts-on-ti-metal-electrochemical-synthesis-functionalization-and-potential-use-as-bone-implants
#16
REVIEW
Nasser K Awad, Sharon L Edwards, Yosry S Morsi
Degenerative diseases of bone such as osteoarthritis and osteoporosis can lead to bone fractures and immobility, compromising quality of life. Titanium (Ti)-based implants have been intensively investigated for bone repair, with these implants, demonstrating improved outcomes compared to stainless steel and cobalt-chrome alloys, owing to superior mechanical properties and biocompatibility. However, osseointegration between the Ti-based implants and the surrounding bone tissue needs to be improved. Surface modification of Ti-based implants provides a solution for addressing this, with electrochemical anodization becoming a realistic approach for the fabrication of hierarchical structured for example nanotubes (NTs), implant surfaces...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482247/a-possible-biomarker-for-methadone-related-deaths
#17
Antonina Argo, Gianfranco Francesco Spatola, Stefania Zerbo, Cettina Sortino, Antonietta Lanzarone, Maria Laura Uzzo, Alessandro Pitruzzella, Fiorenza Farè, Gabriella Roda, Veniero Gambaro, Paolo Procaccianti, Steven B Karch
Methadone (MTH) concentrations in those dying of MTH toxicity totally overlap concentrations where the presence of MTH is only an incidental finding, making it very difficult to make distinctions in actual cases. A biomarker, be it anatomical or biochemical for MTH toxicity is badly needed, particularly if that markers were known to disrupt effective ventilation. Because the brainstem houses the regulatory centers for cardiorespiratory-control enters, it would seem to be the most likely anatomical site to seek abnormalities in cardiorespiratory control...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481238/the-adenosinergic-system-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-the-vasculature-new-ligands-and-challenges
#18
REVIEW
Joana Beatriz Sousa, Carmen Diniz
Adenosine is an adenine base purine with actions as a modulator of neurotransmission, smooth muscle contraction, and immune response in several systems of the human body, including the cardiovascular system. In the vasculature, four P1-receptors or adenosine receptors-A₁, A2A, A2B and A₃-have been identified. Adenosine receptors are membrane G-protein receptors that trigger their actions through several signaling pathways and present differential affinity requirements. Adenosine is an endogenous ligand whose extracellular levels can reach concentrations high enough to activate the adenosine receptors...
May 6, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476920/clinically-styled-vagus-nerve-stimulation-augments-spontaneous-discharge-in-second-and-higher-order-sensory-neurons-in-rat-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract
#19
Eric Beaumont, Regenia B Phillips Campbell, Michael C Andresen, Stephanie Lc Scofield, Krishna Singh, Imad Libbus, Bruce H KenKnight, Logan Snyder, Nathan Cantrell
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) currently treats patients with drug resistant epilepsy, depression and heart failure. The mild intensities used in chronic VNS suggest that primary visceral afferents and central nervous system activation are involved. Here we measured the activity of neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in anesthetized rats using clinically-styled VNS. Our chief findings indicate that VNS at threshold bradycardic intensity activated NTS neuron discharge in one third of NTS neurons...
May 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472438/the-impact-of-chronic-sleep-restriction-on-neuronal-number-and-volumetric-correlates-of-the-dorsal-respiratory-nuclei-in-a-rat-model
#20
Ali-Mohammad Kamali, Fatemeh Karimi, Saied Karbalay-Doust, Mohammad Nami, Ali Noorafshan
Study Objectives: Sleep restriction can result in a range of neurophysiological consequences in the brain including some brain stem nuclei. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of chronic sleep restriction (CSR) on quantitative aspects of brain stem respiratory centers using stereological methods. Methods: Male rats were randomly assigned into experimental group (CSR through a modified multiple platform apparatus), corresponding apparatus-control group (grid-floor control) and cage controls...
May 2, 2017: Sleep
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