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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742157/angiotensin-ii-system-in-the-nucleus-tractus-solitarii-contributes-to-autonomic-dysreflexia-in-rats-with-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Kai Wang, Shaoxia Duan, Xueping Wen, Weizhong Wang, Shangping Fang, Dunyi Qi, Xiang Huan, Liwei Wang, Zhenzhou He
BACKGROUND: Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is a potentially life-threating complication after spinal cord injury (SCI), characterized by episodic hypertension induced by colon or bladder distension. The objective of this study was to determine the role of impaired baroreflex regulation by the nucleus tractus solitarii(NTS) in the occurrence of AD in a rat model. METHODS: T4 spinal cord transection animal model was used in this study, which included 40 Male rats Colorectal distension (CD) was performed to assess AD and compare the changes of BP, HR, and BRS, six weeks after operation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736262/bdnf-a-key-player-in-cardiovascular-system
#2
REVIEW
Ewa Pius-Sadowska, Bogusław Machaliński
Neurotrophins (NTs) were first identified as target-derived survival factors for neurons of the central and peripheral nervous system (PNS). They are known to control neural cell fate, development and function. Independently of their neuronal properties, NTs exert unique cardiovascular activity. The heart is innervated by sensory, sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons, which require NTs during early development and in the establishment of mature properties, contributing to the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731899/current-perspectives-on-invasive-nontyphoidal-salmonella-disease
#3
Andrea H Haselbeck, Ursula Panzner, Justin Im, Stephen Baker, Christian G Meyer, Florian Marks
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We searched PubMed for scientific literature published in the past 2 years for relevant information regarding the burden of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease and host factors associated with nontyphoidal Salmonella infection and discuss current knowledge on vaccine development. The following search terms were used: Salmonella, non typhoidal/nontyphoidal, NTS, disease, bloodstream infection, invasive, sepsis/septicaemia/septicemia, bacteraemia/bacteremia, gastroenteritis, incidence, prevalence, morbidity, mortality, case fatality, host/risk factor, vaccination, and prevention/control...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723666/increased-cflip-expression-in-thymic-epithelial-tumors-blocks-autophagy-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signalling
#4
Djeda Belharazem, Albert Grass, Cornelia Paul, Mario Vitacolonna, Berthold Schalke, Ralf J Rieker, Daniel Körner, Philipp Jungebluth, Katja Simon-Keller, Peter Hohenberger, Eric M Roessner, Karsten Wiebe, Thomas Gräter, Thomas Kyriss, German Ott, Peter Geserick, Martin Leverkus, Philipp Ströbel, Alexander Marx
The anti-apoptotic cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein cFLIP plays a pivotal role in normal tissues homoeostasis and the development of many tumors, but its role in normal thymus (NT), thymomas and thymic carcinomas (TC) is largely unknown.Expression, regulation and function of cFLIP were analyzed in biopsies of NT, thymomas, thymic squamous cell carcinomas (TSCC), thymic epithelial cells (TECs) derived thereof and in the TC line 1889c by qRT-PCR, western blot, shRNA techniques, and functional assays addressing survival, senescence and autophagy...
February 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714311/localized-liquid-phase-synthesis-of-porous-sno2-nanotubes-on-mems-platform-for-low-power-high-performance-gas-sensors
#5
Incheol Cho, Kyungnam Kang, Daejong Yang, Jeonghoon Yun, Inkyu Park
We have developed highly sensitive, low power gas sensors through the novel integration method of porous SnO2 nanotubes (NTs) on a micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) platform. As a template material, ZnO nanowires (NWs) were directly synthesized on beam-shaped, suspended microheaters through in-situ localized hydrothermal reaction induced by local thermal energy around the Joule-heated area. Also, liquid phase deposition (LPD) process enabled the formation of porous SnO2 thin film on the surface of ZnO NWs and simultaneous etching of ZnO core, eventually to generate porous SnO2 NTs...
July 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710648/clinical-associated-characteristics-and-microbiological-features-of-bloodstream-nontyphoidal-salmonella-infection-in-adult-patients-receiving-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#6
Po-Shen Ko, Yao-Chung Liu, Hao-Yuan Wang, Chia-Yun Wu, Nai-Wen Fan, Chia-Jen Liu, Yuan-Bin Yu, Liang-Tsai Hsiao, Tzeon-Jye Chiou, Cheng-Hwai Tzeng, Jin-Hwang Liu, Jyh-Pyng Gau
Bloodstream nontyphoidal salmonella (NTS) infection is rare, but its associated characteristics and microbiological features in immunocompromised patients are worth paying attention to, particularly for those receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT). No studies so far have analyzed post-transplant bloodstream NTS infection. Therefore, we reviewed 423 adult patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic SCT from 2003 to 2014. Nine out of four hundred twenty-three patients (2.13%) developed post-transplant bloodstream NTS infection, including two patients who had subsequent or combined metastatic infections...
July 15, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707748/catalytic-nitrene-transfer-to-alkynes-a-novel-and-versatile-route-for-the-synthesis-of-sulfinamides-and-iso-thiazoles
#7
Pedro J Pérez, M Mar Diaz-Requejo, Manuel R Rodríguez, Álvaro Beltrán, Eleuterio Alvarez, Angel Mudarra, Feliu Maseras
A novel transformation is reported for the reaction of terminal or internal alkynes with the nitrene precursor PhI=NTs (Ts = p-toluenesulfonyl) in the presence of catalytic amounts of TpBr3Cu(NCMe) (TpBr3 = hydrotris(3,4,5-tribromo-pyrazolylborate). Two products containing an imine functionality have been isolated from the reaction mixtures, identified as sulfinamides and iso-thiazoles. The former correspond to the formal reduction of the sulfone group into sulfoxide, whereas the latter involves the insertion of an alkyne carbon atom into the aromatic ring of the N-tosyl moiety...
July 14, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705805/validation-and-characterization-of-a-novel-method-for-selective-vagal-deafferentation-of-the-gut
#8
Charlene Diepenbroek, Danielle Quinn, Ricky Stephens, Benjamin Zollinger, Seth Anderson, Annabelle Pan, Guillaume de Lartigue
There is a lack of tools that selectively target vagal afferent neurons (VAN) innervating the gut. We use saporin (SAP), a potent neurotoxin, conjugated to the GI hormone cholecystokinin (CCK-SAP) injected into the nodose ganglia (NG) of male Wistar rats to specifically ablate GI-VAN. We report that CCK-SAP ablates a sub-population of VAN in culture. In vivo, CCK-SAP injection into the NG reduces VAN innervating the mucosal and muscular layers of the stomach and small intestine, but not the colon, while leaving vagal efferent neurons intact...
July 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704284/evaluation-of-a-simpler-tool-to-assess-nontechnical-skills-during-simulated-critical-events
#9
Scott C Watkins, David A Roberts, John R Boulet, Matthew D McEvoy, Matthew B Weinger
INTRODUCTION: Management of critical events requires teams to employ nontechnical skills (NTS), such as teamwork, communication, decision making, and vigilance. We sought to estimate the reliability and provide evidence for the validity of the ratings gathered using a new tool for assessing the NTS of anesthesia providers, the behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS), and compare its scores with those of an established NTS tool, the Anaesthetists' Nontechnical Skills (ANTS) scale. METHODS: Six previously trained raters (4 novices and 2 experts) reviewed and scored 18 recorded simulated pediatric crisis management scenarios using a modified ANTS and a BARS tool...
April 2017: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702988/mesoporous-sno2-nanotubes-via-electrospinning-etching-route-highly-sensitive-and-selective-detection-of-h2s-molecule
#10
Peresi Majura Bulemo, Hee-Jin Cho, Nam-Hoon Kim, Il-Doo Kim
We report the facile synthesis of thin-walled SnO2 nanotubes (NTs) with numerous clustered pores (pore radius 6.56 nm) and high surface area (125.63 m(2)/g) via selective etching of core (SiO2) region in SiO2-SnO2 composite nanofibers (NFs), in which SnO2 phase preferentially occupies the shell while SiO2 is concentrated in the center of the composite NFs. The SiO2-etched SnO2 NTs are composed of ultrasmall crystallites (∼6 nm in size) originating from crystal growth inhibition by small SiO2 domains, which are partially segregated in the polycrystalline SnO2 shell during calcination...
July 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701322/functional-and-neurochemical-characterization-of-angiotensin-type-1a-receptor-expressing-neurons-in-the-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract-of-the-mouse
#11
David A Carter, Yan-Ting Choong, Angela A Connelly, Jaspreet K Bassi, Nicole O Hunter, Nattaya Thongsepee, Ida J Llewellyn-Smith, Angelina Y Fong, Stuart James McDougall, Andrew Mark Allen
Angiotensin II acts via two main receptors within the CNS, with the type 1A receptor (AT1AR) most widely expressed in adult neurons. Activation of the AT1R in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), the principal nucleus receiving central synapses of viscerosensory afferents, modulates cardiovascular reflexes. Expression of the AT1R occurs in high density within the NTS of most mammals, including humans, but the fundamental electrophysiological and neurochemical characteristics of the AT1AR-expressing NTS neurons are not known...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698373/genetic-identification-of-a-hindbrain-nucleus-essential-for-innate-vocalization
#12
Luis Rodrigo Hernandez-Miranda, Pierre-Louis Ruffault, Julien C Bouvier, Andrew J Murray, Marie-Pierre Morin-Surun, Niccolò Zampieri, Justyna B Cholewa-Waclaw, Elodie Ey, Jean-Francois Brunet, Jean Champagnat, Gilles Fortin, Carmen Birchmeier
Vocalization in young mice is an innate response to isolation or mechanical stimulation. Neuronal circuits that control vocalization and breathing overlap and rely on motor neurons that innervate laryngeal and expiratory muscles, but the brain center that coordinates these motor neurons has not been identified. Here, we show that the hindbrain nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) is essential for vocalization in mice. By generating genetically modified newborn mice that specifically lack excitatory NTS neurons, we show that they are both mute and unable to produce the expiratory drive required for vocalization...
July 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693820/central-glucagon-like-peptide-1-inhibits-reflex-swallowing-elicited-by-the-superior-laryngeal-nerve-via-caudal-brainstem-in-the-rat
#13
Motoi Kobashi, Satoshi Mizutani, Masako Fujita, Yoshihiro Mitoh, Yuichi Shimatani, Ryuji Matsuo
The effects of glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) on reflex swallowing were examined using anaesthetized rats. GLP-1 was injected into the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) using glass micropipettes. Swallowing was induced by repeated electrical stimulation of the central cut end of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) and was identified by the electromyogram lead penetrated in the mylohyoide muscle through bipolar electrodes. Microinjection of GLP-1 into the medial DVC (M-DVC) increased the frequency of swallowing during the electrical stimulation of the SLN and extended the latency of the first swallowing...
July 7, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693556/evidence-for-a-comprehensive-approach-to-aboriginal-tobacco-control-to-maintain-the-decline-in-smoking-an-overview-of-reviews-among-indigenous-peoples
#14
Catherine Chamberlain, Susan Perlen, Sue Brennan, Lucie Rychetnik, David Thomas, Raglan Maddox, Noore Alam, Emily Banks, Andrew Wilson, Sandra Eades
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is a leading cause of disease and premature mortality among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) Australians. While the daily smoking prevalence among Indigenous Australians has declined significantly from 49% in 2001, it remains about three times higher than that of non-Indigenous Australians (39 and 14%, respectively, for age ≥15 years in 2014-15). This overview of systematic reviews aimed to synthesise evidence about reducing tobacco consumption among Indigenous peoples using a comprehensive framework for Indigenous tobacco control in Australia comprised of the National Tobacco Strategy (NTS) and National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan (NATSIHP) principles and priorities...
July 10, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691745/prospective-evaluation-of-the-whitt-neonatal-trigger-score-in-an-at-risk-neonatal-population
#15
Anna Robinson, Lucinda C Winckworth, Georgios Eleftheriou, Rebecca Hewitson, Harriet Holme
AIM: The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the Whitt Neonatal Trigger Score (W-NTS), determining optimum threshold scores for consideration of medical intervention and intensive care unit admission. METHODS: All neonates on the postnatal ward (PNW) with a set of pre-defined risk factors were scored on the W-NTS. Neonates were divided into three groups: 'unwell' admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU); 'well', who remained on the PNW receiving standard care; and 'intervention', who received antibiotics but did not require admission to NICU...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687803/self-powered-zns-nanotubes-ag-nanowires-msm-uv-photodetector-with-high-on-off-ratio-and-fast-response-speed
#16
Qinwei An, Xianquan Meng, Ke Xiong, Yunlei Qiu
In this study, we design and demonstrate a novel type of self-powered UV photodetectors (PDs) using single-crystalline ZnS nanotubes (NTs) as the photodetecting layer and Ag nanowires (NWs) network as transparent electrodes. The self-powered UV PDs with asymmetric metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) structure exhibit attractive photovoltaic characteristic at 0 V bias. Device performance analysis reveals that the as-assembled PDs have a high on/off ratio of 19173 and a fast response speed (τr = 0.09 s, τf = 0...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684275/a-tale-of-two-circuits-cck-nts-neuron-stimulation-controls-appetite-and-induces-opposing-motivational-states-by-projections-to-distinct-brain-regions
#17
Carolyn W Roman, Stephanie R Sloat, Richard D Palmiter
Cholecystokinin (CCK)-expressing neurons within the nucleus of the solitary tract (CCK(NTS)) of the mouse are responsive to satiety signals and their chemogenetic activation suppresses appetite. Optogenetic activation of CCK(NTS) axon terminals within either the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) or the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) is sufficient to suppress feeding. An interesting dichotomy has been revealed when assessing the motivational valence of these two circuits. Activating CCK(NTS) cell bodies is aversive as demonstrated by conditioned taste aversion and place-preference assays...
July 3, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684117/exploring-the-impact-of-pharmacist-led-feedback-on-prescribing-behaviour-a-qualitative-study
#18
M Lloyd, S D Watmough, S V O'Brien, N Furlong, K Hardy
BACKGROUND: Prescribing errors occur frequently in hospital settings. Interventions to influence prescribing behaviour are needed with feedback one potential intervention to improve prescribing practice. Doctors have reported a lack of feedback on their prescribing previously whilst the literature exploring the impact of feedback on prescribing behaviour is limited. OBJECTIVES: To explore the impact of pharmacist-led feedback on prescribing behaviour. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with doctors who had received prescribing error feedback...
June 29, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680434/unraveling-the-transcriptional-basis-of-temperature-dependent-pinoxaden-resistance-in-brachypodium-hybridum
#19
Maor Matzrafi, Lidor Shaar-Moshe, Baruch Rubin, Zvi Peleg
Climate change endangers food security and our ability to feed the ever-increasing human population. Weeds are the most important biotic stress, reducing crop-plant productivity worldwide. Chemical control, the main approach for weed management, can be strongly affected by temperature. Previously, we have shown that temperature-dependent non-target site (NTS) resistance of Brachypodium hybridum is due to enhanced detoxification of acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitors. Here, we explored the transcriptional basis of this phenomenon...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680392/direct-anandamide-activation-of-trpv1-produces-divergent-calcium-and-current-responses
#20
Axel J Fenwick, Daniel K Fowler, Shaw-Wen Wu, Forrest J Shaffer, Jonathan E M Lindberg, Dallas C Kinch, James H Peters
In the brainstem nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), primary vagal afferent neurons express the transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1) at their central terminals where it contributes to quantal forms of glutamate release. The endogenous membrane lipid anandamide (AEA) is a putative TRPV1 agonist in the brain, yet the extent to which AEA activation of TRPV1 has a neurophysiological consequence is not well established. We investigated the ability of AEA to activate TRPV1 in vagal afferent neurons in comparison to capsaicin (CAP)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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