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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342283/non-typhoidal-salmonella-serovars-associated-with-invasive-and-non-invasive-disease-in-the-lao-people-s-democratic-republic
#1
Tu Le Thi Phuong, Sayaphet Rattanavong, Manivanh Vongsouvath, Viengmon Davong, Nguyen Phu Huong Lan, James I Campbell, Thomas C Darton, Guy E Thwaites, Paul N Newton, David A B Dance, Stephen Baker
Background: Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease is a well-described cause of mortality in children and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa. Additionally, there is an ill-defined burden of iNTS disease in Southeast Asia. Methods: Aiming to investigate the causative serovars of non-invasive and iNTS disease and their associated antimicrobial susceptibility profiles in the Lao People's Democratic Republic, we performed multilocus sequence typing and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling on 168 NTS (63 blood and 105 faecal) organisms isolated in Lao between 2000 and 2012...
January 12, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336333/simulation-and-training-in-urology-in-collaboration-with-esu-esut
#2
Domenico Veneziano, Giovanni Cacciamani, Chandra Shekhar Biyani
Being a Surgeon today means taking on your shoulders countless responsibilities. It is definitely a high-stakes job but, even though the professionals do not go through the intense, focused and demanding training schedule as followed by the other equally risky fields, it doesn't yet require any practical training certification. Simulation was introduced in the aviation field in the early '30s with the "Link Trainer", designed to reproduce the most difficult flying case scenario: landing on an air-carrier. After almost a century, flight simulation is still becoming more sophisticated, while surgical training is slowly starting to fill the gap...
January 2018: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334109/a-multifunctional-supramolecular-hydrogel-preparation-properties-and-molecular-assembly
#3
Lin Wang, Xuefeng Shi, Yaqian Wu, Jian Zhang, Yuejun Zhu, Jinben Wang
A novel supramolecular hydrogel was designed and constructed by molecular self-assembly of a cationic gemini surfactant, 1,3-bis(N,N-dimethyl-N-cetylammonium)-2-propylacrylate dibromide (AGC16), and an anionic aromatic compound, trisodium 1,3,6-naphthalenetrisulfonate (NTS). Owing to its unique structure, the hydrogel (abbreviated as AGC16/NTS) has the potential to be used as a multifunctional drug delivery system. The structure and properties of AGC16/NTS were characterized by rheological measurements, differential scanning calorimetry, variable-temperature 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, variable-temperature fluorescence emission spectroscopy, cryogenic scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods...
January 15, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329299/multi-drug-resistant-non-typhoidal-salmonella-associated-with-invasive-disease-in-western-kenya
#4
Adam Akullian, Joel M Montgomery, Grace John-Stewart, Samuel I Miller, Hillary S Hayden, Matthew C Radey, Kyle R Hager, Jennifer R Verani, John Benjamin Ochieng, Jane Juma, Jim Katieno, Barry Fields, Godfrey Bigogo, Allan Audi, Judd Walson
Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a leading cause of bloodstream infections in Africa, but the various contributions of host susceptibility versus unique pathogen virulence factors are unclear. We used data from a population-based surveillance platform (population ~25,000) between 2007-2014 and NTS genome-sequencing to compare host and pathogen-specific factors between individuals presenting with NTS bacteremia and those presenting with NTS diarrhea. Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 and Salmonella Enteritidis ST11 were the most common isolates...
January 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325429/a-novel-method-for-re-positioning-suboptimally-preoperatively-placed-nephrostomy-tubes-for-pcnl-without-renal-re-puncture
#5
Yazeed Barghouthy, Vasileios Kourmpetis, Snir Dekalo, Yuval Bar-Yosef, Simon Conti, Alexander Greenstein, Mario Sofer
OBJECTIVE: Nephrostomy tubes (NT) inserted in emergency settings by interventional radiologists are frequently unsuitable for subsequent percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). We report a novel method of adjusting these NTs to be used as PCNL tracts and avoid renal re-puncture. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective search of 981 consecutive PCNLs performed in our institution between 2002-2017 identified all patients with preoperatively inserted NTs. The NTs unsuitable for PCNL were adjusted by a novel approach in which a 5-mm incision was made at the ideal puncture location (IPL) as indicated under fluoroscopic guidance...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323336/schisandrin-ameliorates-cognitive-impairment-and-attenuates-a%C3%AE-deposition-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mice-involvement-of-adjusting-neurotransmitters-and-their-metabolite-changes-in-the-brain
#6
Bin-Bin Wei, Ming-Yan Liu, Zai-Xing Chen, Min-Jie Wei
Neurotransmitters (NTs) in the brain are involved in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Schisandrin is a major ingredient of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill and has been used for the treatment of AD. In this study we examined the therapeutic effects of schisandrin in APP/PS1 transgenic mice, and correlated the beneficial effects on cognitive impairment with the adjustments in NTs and their metabolites in the mouse brains. APP/PS1 mice were treated with schisandrin (2 mg·kg-1·d-1, ip) for 2 weeks...
January 11, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311233/characterization-and-protective-efficacy-of-type-three-secretion-proteins-as-a-broadly-protective-subunit-vaccine-against-salmonella-enterica-serovars
#7
Francisco J Martinez-Becerra, Prashant Kumar, Vikalp Vishwakarma, Jae Hyun Kim, Olivia Arizmendi, C Russell Middaugh, William D Picking, Wendy L Picking
Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serotypes (NTS) are the leading cause of hospitalization and death due to foodborne illnesses. NTS are the costliest of the foodborne pathogens and cause ∼$4 billion annually in healthcare costs. In Africa, new invasive NTS are the leading cause of bacteremia especially in HIV-positive children and adults. Current vaccines against S. enterica are not broadly protective and most are directed at the typhoid causing serotypes, not the NTS. All S. enterica require two type III secretion systems (T3SS) for virulence...
January 8, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301386/development-of-a-parenteral-formulation-of-nts-polyplex-nanoparticles-for-clinical-purpose
#8
María E Aranda-Barradas, Maripaz Márquez, Liliana Quintanar, Jaime Santoyo-Salazar, Armando J Espadas-Álvarez, Daniel Martínez-Fong, Elizabeth García-García
Neurotensin (NTS)-polyplex is a nanoparticle system for targeted gene delivery that holds great promise for treatment of Parkinson's disease and various types of cancer. However, the high instability in aqueous suspension of NTS-polyplex nanoparticles is a major limitation for their widespread clinical use. To overcome this obstacle, we developed a clinical formulation and a lyophilization process for NTS-polyplex nanoparticles. The reconstituted samples were compared with fresh preparations by using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic mobility, circular dichroism and transfection assays in vitro and in vivo...
January 3, 2018: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298724/brainstem-tau-pathology-in-alzheimer-s-disease-is-characterized-by-increase-of-three-repeat-tau-and-independent-of-amyloid%C3%A2-%C3%AE
#9
Miho Uematsu, Ayako Nakamura, Momoko Ebashi, Katsuiku Hirokawa, Ryosuke Takahashi, Toshiki Uchihara
INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer-type neuropil threads (NTs) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are comprised of either 4 repeat (4R)-tau, 3 repeat (3R)-tau, or a mixture of both. In the hippocampus, the number of NFTs, and the proportion of 3R tau progressively increases. If this preferential accumulation of 3R tau also occurs in the brainstem, it may be fundamentally related to progression of Alzheimer pathology. METHODS: Midbrain and pontine sections of brainstems from 23 cases (Braak-NFT stages I/II: 8, III/IV: 8, and V/VI: 7) were double immunofluorolabeled for 4R and 3R tau...
January 3, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288794/role-of-central-neurotensin-in-regulating-feeding-implications-for-the-development-and-treatment-of-body-weight-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Laura E Schroeder, Gina M Leinninger
The peptide neurotensin (Nts) was discovered within the brain over 40 years ago and is implicated in regulating analgesia, body temperature, blood pressure, locomotor activity and feeding. Recent evidence suggests, however, that these disparate processes may be controlled via specific populations of Nts neurons and receptors. The neuronal mediators of Nts anorectic action are now beginning to be understood, and, as such, modulating specific Nts pathways might be useful in treating feeding and body weight disorders...
December 27, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280425/characterization-of-invasive-salmonella-serogroup-c1-infections-in-mali
#11
Fabien J Fuche, Sunil Sen, Jennifer A Jones, Joseph Nkeze, Jasnehta Permala-Booth, Milagritos D Tapia, Samba O Sow, Boubou Tamboura, Aliou Touré, Uma Onwuchekwa, Mamadou Sylla, Karen L Kotloff, Sharon M Tennant
Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) are the leading cause of foodborne infections worldwide and a major cause of bloodstream infections in infants and HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Salmonella Typhimurium (serogroup B) and Salmonella Enteritidis (serogroup D) are the most common serovars in this region. However, data describing rarer invasive NTS serovars, particularly those belonging to serogroups C1 and C2, circulating in SSA are lacking. We previously conducted systematic blood culture surveillance on pediatric patients in Bamako, Mali, from 2002 to 2014, and the results showed that serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis accounted for 32% and 36% of isolates, respectively...
December 26, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278501/quaternary-chalcogenide-based-misfit-nanotubes-lns-se-tas-se-2-ln-la-ce-nd-and-ho-synthesis-and-atomic-structural-studies
#12
Luc Lajaunie, Gal Radovsky, Reshef Tenne, Raul Arenal
We have synthesized quaternary chalcogenide-based misfit nanotubes LnS(Se)-TaS2(Se) (Ln = La, Ce, Nd, and Ho). None of the compounds described here were reported in the literature as a bulk compound. The characterization of these nanotubes, at the atomic level, has been developed via different transmission electron microscopy techniques, including high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. In particular, quantification at sub-nanometer scale was achieved by acquiring high-quality electron energy-loss spectra at high energy (∼between 1000 and 2500 eV)...
December 26, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275223/antimicrobial-residues-and-resistance-against-critically-important-antimicrobials-in-non-typhoidal-salmonella-from-meat-sold-at-wet-markets-and-supermarkets-in-vietnam
#13
Nguyen Thi Nhung, Nguyen Thi Bich Van, Nguyen Van Cuong, Truong Thi Quy Duong, Tran Thi Nhat, Tran Thi Thu Hang, Nguyen Thi Hong Nhi, Bach Tuan Kiet, Vo Be Hien, Pham Thi Ngoc, James Campbell, Guy Thwaites, Juan Carrique-Mas
Excessive antimicrobial usage and deficiencies in hygiene in meat production systems may result in undesirable human health hazards, such as the presence of antimicrobial drug residues and non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS), including antimicrobial resistant (AMR) NTS. Recently, Vietnam has witnessed the emergence of integrated intensive animal production systems, coexisting with more traditional, locally-sourced wet markets. To date no systematic studies have been carried out to compare health hazards in beef, pork and chicken in different production systems...
December 17, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260979/hspa5-negatively-regulates-lysosomal-activity-through-ubiquitination-of-mul1-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#14
Sun-Yong Kim, Hyo Jeong Kim, Haeng-Jun Kim, Dae Ho Kim, Chul-Ho Kim, Jae Ho Han, Hyung Kwon Byeon, Keunho Lee
HSPA5/GRP78/BiP plays an important role in cell survival or tumor progression. For these reasons, HSPA5 is an emerging therapeutic target in cancer development. Here we report that HSPA5 contributes to head and neck cancer (HNC) survival via maintenance of lysosomal activity; however, a nonthermal plasma (NTP, considered as a next-generation cancer therapy)-treated solution (NTS) inhibits HNC progression through HSPA5-dependent alteration of lysosomal activity. HSPA5 prevents NTS-induced lysosome inhibition through lysosomal-related proteins or regulation of gene expression...
December 20, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259802/the-effect-of-the-glp-1-analogue-exenatide-on-functional-connectivity-within-an-nts-based-network-in-women-with-and-without-obesity
#15
K Coveleskie, L A Kilpatrick, A Gupta, J Stains, L Connolly, J S Labus, C Sanmiguel, E A Mayer
Objective: The differential effect of GLP-1 agonist Exenatide on functional connectivity of the nucleus tractus solitaries (NTS), a key region associated with homeostasis, and on appetite-related behaviours was investigated in women with normal weight compared with women with obesity. Methods: Following an 8-h fast, 19 female subjects (11 lean, 8 obese) participated in a 2-d double blind crossover study. Subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging at fast and 30-min post subcutaneous injection of 5 μg of Exenatide or placebo...
December 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250032/involvement-of-amylin-and-leptin-in-the-development-of-projections-from-the-area-postrema-to-the-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract
#16
Kathrin Abegg, Andreas Hermann, Christina N Boyle, Sebastien G Bouret, Thomas A Lutz, Thomas Riediger
The area postrema (AP) and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) are important hindbrain centers involved in the control of energy homeostasis. The AP mediates the anorectic action and the inhibitory effect on gastric emptying induced by the pancreatic hormone amylin. Amylin's target cells in the AP project to the NTS, an integrative relay center for enteroceptive signals. Perinatal hormonal and metabolic factors influence brain development. A postnatal surge of the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin represents a developmental signal for the maturation of projections between hypothalamic nuclei controlling energy balance...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247677/brainstem-glp-1-signalling-contributes-to-cancer-anorexia-cachexia-syndrome-in-the-rat
#17
Tito Borner, Claudia G Liberini, Thomas A Lutz, Thomas Riediger
The cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) is a frequent and severe condition in cancer patients. Currently, no pharmacological treatment is approved for the therapy of CACS. Centrally, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is expressed in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and is implicated in malaise, nausea and food aversion. The NTS is reciprocally connected to brain sites implicated in the control of energy balance including the area postrema (AP), which mediates CACS in certain tumour models. Given the role of GLP-1 as a mediator of anorexia under acute sickness conditions, we hypothesized that brainstem GLP-1 signalling might play a role in the mediation of CACS...
December 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241540/lateral-hypothalamic-neurotensin-neurons-orchestrate-dual-weight-loss-behaviors-via-distinct-mechanisms
#18
Hillary L Woodworth, Bethany G Beekly, Hannah M Batchelor, Raluca Bugescu, Patricia Perez-Bonilla, Laura E Schroeder, Gina M Leinninger
The central mechanism by which neurotensin (Nts) potentiates weight loss has remained elusive. We leveraged chemogenetics to reveal that Nts-expressing neurons of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) promote weight loss in mice by increasing volitional activity and restraining food intake. Intriguingly, these dual weight loss behaviors are mediated by distinct signaling pathways: Nts action via NtsR1 is essential for the anorectic effect of the LHA Nts circuit, but not for regulation of locomotor or drinking behavior...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241309/involvement-of-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-activation-in-midkine-mediated-central-hypotensive-effects
#19
Ching-Huang Lin, Jun-Yen Pan, Jung-Jui Chang, Hsin-Hung Chen, Pei-Wen Cheng, Ching-Jiunn Tseng
The growth factor midkine has been implicated in various biologic and pathologic events. It has been shown that the peripheral influence of midkine on cardiovascular regulation is due to an influence on the renin-angiotensin system. The nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) is the primary integrative center for cardiovascular control and other autonomic functions in the central nervous system. However, the signaling mechanisms involved in midkine-mediated cardiovascular effects in the NTS remain unclear. In this study, we investigated whether the renin-angiotensin system and/ or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-calmodulin-eNOS signaling pathways were both involved in midkine-mediated blood pressure (BP) regulation in the NTS of Wistar-Kyoto rats...
December 15, 2017: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240762/rethinking-3r-strategies-digging-deeper-into-animaltestinfo-promotes-transparency-in-in-vivo-biomedical-research
#20
Bettina Bert, Antje Dörendahl, Nora Leich, Julia Vietze, Matthias Steinfath, Justyna Chmielewska, Andreas Hensel, Barbara Grune, Gilbert Schönfelder
In the European Union (EU), animal welfare is seen as a matter of great importance. However, with respect to animal experimentation, European citizens feel quite uninformed. The European Directive 2010/63/EU for the protection of laboratory animals aims for greater transparency and requires that a comprehensible, nontechnical summary (NTS) of each authorised research project involving animals is published by the respective Member State. However, the NTSs remain sleeping beauties if their contents are not easily and systematically accessible...
December 2017: PLoS Biology
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