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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140180/the-role-of-lumbopelvic-hip-complex-stability-in-softball-throwing-mechanics
#1
Gabrielle G Gilmer, Jessica K Washington, Jeffrey Dugas, James Andrews, Gretchen D Oliver
CONTEXT: Studies have found that a 20% reduction in energy generation from the lumbopelvic-hip complex (LPHC) during overhead throws leads to a 34% increase in load on the shoulder. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of LPHC stability, via the single leg squat (SLS) assessment, on throwing mechanics of softball athletes. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Laboratory setting. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty softball athletes (164...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137674/the-development-of-the-parents-a-tool-for-parents-to-assess-residents-non-technical-skills-in-pediatric-emergency-departments
#2
Katherine A Moreau, Kaylee Eady, Kenneth Tang, Mona Jabbour, Jason R Frank, Meaghan Campbell, Stanley J Hamstra
BACKGROUND: Parents can assess residents' non-technical skills (NTS) in pediatric emergency departments (EDs). There are no assessment tools, with validity evidence, for parental use in pediatric EDs. The purpose of this study was to develop the Parents' Assessment of Residents Enacting Non-Technical Skills (PARENTS) educational assessment tool and collect three sources of validity evidence (i.e., content, response process, internal structure) for it. METHODS: We established content evidence for the PARENTS through interviews with physician-educators and residents, focus groups with parents, a literature review, and a modified nominal group technique with experts...
November 14, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137402/bdnf-trkb-signaling-mediates-the-anorectic-action-of-estradiol-in-the-nucleus-tractus-solitarius
#3
Ling Shen, David Q H Wang, Meifeng Xu, Stephen C Woods, Min Liu
Although compelling evidence indicates that estradiol (E2) acts in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) to reduce food intake, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We now report that estrogen's anorectic action occurs through enhancing the strength of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin receptor kinase (TrkB) signaling in the NTS. Intra-4th-ventricular administration of a low dose of BDNF reduced food intake to a greater extent in ovariectomized (OVX) rats cyclically treated with E2 than in vehicle-treated OVX rats, implying that cyclic E2 replacement increases BDNF's satiating potency...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121595/from-the-psychosis-prodrome-to-the-first-episode-of-psychosis-no-evidence-of-a-cognitive-decline
#4
Ricardo E Carrión, Deborah J Walder, Andrea M Auther, Danielle McLaughlin, Heather O Zyla, Steven Adelsheim, Roderick Calkins, Cameron S Carter, Bentson McFarland, Ryan Melton, Tara Niendam, J Daniel Ragland, Tamara G Sale, Stephan F Taylor, William R McFarlane, Barbara A Cornblatt
Cognitive deficits have an important role in the neurodevelopment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. However, there is a continuing debate as to whether cognitive impairments in the psychosis prodrome are stable predictors of eventual psychosis or undergo a decline due to the onset of psychosis. In the present study, to determine how cognition changes as illness emerges, we examined baseline neurocognitive performance in a large sample of helping-seeking youth ranging in clinical state from low-risk for psychosis through individuals at clinical high-risk (CHR) for illness to early first-episode patients (EFEP)...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118020/viscerosensory-input-drives-angiotensin-ii-type-1a-receptor-expressing-neurons-in-the-solitary-tract-nucleus
#5
David A Carter, Haoyao Guo, Angela A Connelly, Jaspreet K Bassi, Angelina Y Fong, Andrew Mark Allen, Stuart James McDougall
Homeostatic regulation of visceral organ function requires integrated processing of neural and neurohormonal sensory signals. The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) is the primary sensory nucleus for cranial visceral sensory afferents. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is known to modulate peripheral visceral reflexes, in part, by activating Ang II type 1A receptors (AT1AR) in the NTS. AT1AR-expressing NTS neurons occur throughout the NTS with a defined sub-nuclear distribution and most of these neurons are depolarized by Ang II...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117778/serotonin-a-mediator-of-the-gut-brain-axis-in-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Tsveta S Malinova, Christine D Dijkstra, Helga E de Vries
BACKGROUND: The significance of the gut microbiome for the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been established, although the underlying signaling mechanisms of this interaction have not been sufficiently explored. OBJECTIVES: We address this point and use serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT))-a microbial-modulated neurotransmitter (NT) as a showcase to demonstrate that NTs regulated by the gut microbiome are potent candidates for mediators of the gut-brain axis in demyelinating disorders...
November 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111577/applications-of-acupuncture-therapy-in-modulating-plasticity-of-central-nervous-system
#7
REVIEW
Ling-Yong Xiao, Xue-Rui Wang, Ye Yang, Jing-Wen Yang, Yan Cao, Si-Ming Ma, Tian-Ran Li, Cun-Zhi Liu
OBJECTIVE: Acupuncture is widely applied for treatment of various neurological disorders. This manuscript will review the preclinical evidence of acupuncture in mediating neural plasticity, the mechanisms involved. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched acupuncture, plasticity, and other potential related words at the following sites: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and VIP information data base. The following keywords were used: acupuncture, electroacupuncture, plasticity, neural plasticity, neuroplasticity, neurogenesis, neuroblast, stem cell, progenitor cell, BrdU, synapse, synapse structure, synaptogenesis, axon, axon regeneration, synaptic plasticity, LTP, LTD, neurotrophin, neurotrophic factor, BDNF, GDNF, VEGF, bFGF, EGF, NT-3, NT-4, NT-5, p75NTR, neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, norepinephrine, noradrenaline, dopamine, monamine...
November 7, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107283/acute-activation-of-glp-1-expressing-neurons-promotes-glucose-homeostasis-and-insulin-sensitivity
#8
Xuemei Shi, Shaji Chacko, Feng Li, Depei Li, Douglas Burrin, Lawrence Chan, Xinfu Guan
OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptides are co-released from enteroendocrine L cells in the gut and preproglucagon (PPG) neurons in the brainstem. PPG-derived GLP-1/2 are probably key neuroendocrine signals for the control of energy balance and glucose homeostasis. The objective of this study was to determine whether activation of PPG neurons per se modulates glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in vivo. METHODS: We generated glucagon (Gcg) promoter-driven Cre transgenic mice and injected excitatory hM3Dq-mCherry AAV into their brainstem NTS...
November 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101166/transcription-factor-%C3%AE-fosb-acts-within-the-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract-to-increase-mean-arterial-pressure-during-exposures-to-intermittent-hypoxia
#9
Qiong Wu, J Thomas Cunningham, Steve W Mifflin
ΔFosB is a member of the AP-1 family of transcription factors. ΔFosB has low constitutive expression in the central nervous system and is induced following exposure of rodents to intermittent hypoxia (IH), a model of the arterial hypoxemia that accompanies sleep apnea. We hypothesize ΔFosB in the nucleus of solitary tract (NTS) contributes to increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) during IH. The NTS of 11 male Sprague Dawley rats was injected (3 sites, 100nl per site) with a dominant-negative against ΔFosB (ΔJunD) in an adeno-associated viral vector (AAV)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter...
November 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098325/neurotrophin-conjugated-nanoparticles-prevent-retina-damage-induced-by-oxidative-stress
#10
Martina Giannaccini, Alice Usai, Federica Chiellini, Viviana Guadagni, Massimiliano Andreazzoli, Michela Ori, Massimo Pasqualetti, Luciana Dente, Vittoria Raffa
Glaucoma and other optic neuropathies are characterized by a loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), a cell layer located in the posterior eye segment. Several preclinical studies demonstrate that neurotrophins (NTs) prevent RGC loss. However, NTs are rarely investigated in the clinic due to various issues, such as difficulties in reaching the retina, the very short half-life of NTs, and the need for multiple injections. We demonstrate that NTs can be conjugated to magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), which act as smart drug carriers...
November 2, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097301/non-enzymatic-recombination-of-rna-ligation-in-loops
#11
Staroseletz Yaroslav, Sergey Nechaev, Elena Bichenkova, Richard A Bryce, Catherine Watson, Valentin Vlassov, Marina Zenkova
BACKGROUND: While the RNA world hypothesis is widely accepted, it is still far from complete: the existence of self-replicating ribozyme, consisting of potentially hundreds of nucleotides, is a core assumption for the majority of RNA world models. The appearance of such long RNA molecules under prebiotic conditions is not self-evident. Recombination seems to be a plausible way of creating RNA diversity, resulting in the appearance of functional RNAs, capable of self-replicating. METHODS: We report here on the study of recombination process modelled with two 96 nts RNA fragments...
October 30, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096939/familial-colorectal-cancer-type-x-fcctx-and-the-correlation-with-various-genes-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Mahdieh Nejadtaghi, Hamideh Jafari, Effat Farrokhi, Keihan Ghatreh Samani
Familial Colorectal Cancer Type X (FCCTX) is a type of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer in accordance to Amsterdam criteria-1 for Lynch syndrome, with no related mutation in mismatch repair gene. FCCTX is microsatellite stable and is accounted for 40% of families with Amsterdam criteria-1 with a high age of onset. Thus, the carcinogenesis of FCCTX is different compared to Lynch syndrome. In addition to the microsatellite stability and the presence of less predominant tumors in proximal colon, various clinical features have also been associated with FCCTX in comparison with Lynch syndrome such as no increased risk of extra-colonic cancers, older age of diagnosis and higher adenoma/carcinoma rate...
October 18, 2017: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096105/a-seed-mediated-method-to-design-n-doped-graphene-supported-gold-silver-nanothorns-sensor-for-rutin-detection
#13
Beibei Yang, Duan Bin, Ke Zhang, Yukou Du, Tetsuro Majima
In this paper, a novel Au-Ag nanothorns (NT) composite has been synthesized through a seed-mediated mild chemical route, and then assembled on N-doped graphene (NG). The composite (Au-Ag NTs/NG) was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Furthermore, electrochemical activity of as-prepared Au-Ag NTs/NG was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and different pulse voltammetry (DPV)...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094517/au-nanoclusters-sensitized-black-tio2-x-nanotubes-for-enhanced-photodynamic-therapy-driven-by-near-infrared-light
#14
Dan Yang, Arif Gulzar, Guixin Yang, Shili Gai, Fei He, Yunlu Dai, Chongna Zhong, Piaoping Yang
The low reactive oxygen species production capability and the shallow tissue penetration of excited light (UV) are still two barriers in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Here, Au cluster anchored black anatase TiO2-x nanotubes (abbreviated as Au25 /B-TiO2-x NTs) are synthesized by gaseous reduction of anatase TiO2 NTs and subsequent deposition of noble metal. The Au25 /B-TiO2-x NTs with thickness of about 2 nm exhibit excellent PDT performance. The reduction process increased the density of Ti(3+) on the surface of TiO2 , which effectively depresses the recombination of electron and hole...
November 2, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094451/chemotherapy-induced-pica-in-rats-reduced-by-electroacupuncture
#15
Shiying Li, Yong Lei, Jiande D Z Chen
OBJECTIVES: Acupuncture or electroacupuncture (EA) has been applied for treating chemotherapy-induced emesis with limited success. The aims of this study were to investigate the anti-emetic effect of EA and to explore underlying anti-emetic mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were chronically implanted with a pair of stainless steel leads at acupoint pericardium 6 (PC6). Effects of EA with different parameters on cisplatin-induced nausea were assessed by pica (intake of kaolin, a surrogate of nausea in species without vomiting reflex)...
November 1, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089942/the-possible-influence-of-non-synonymous-point-mutations-within-the-fima-adhesin-of-non-typhoidal-salmonella-nts-isolates-in-the-process-of-host-adaptation
#16
Sahar Alshalchi, Shivdeep S Hayer, Ran An, Jeannette Munoz-Aguayo, Christian Flores-Figueroa, Ryan Nguyen, Dale Lauer, Karen Olsen, Julio Alvarez, David Boxrud, Carol Cardona, Sinisa Vidovic
Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) remains a global pathogen that affects a wide range of animal species. We analyzed a large number of NTS isolates of different host origins, including Salmonella Heidelberg (n = 80, avian), S. Dublin (50, bovine), S. Typhimurium var 5- (n = 40, porcine), S. 4,5,12,:i:- (n = 40, porcine), S. Cerro (n = 16, bovine), and S. Montevideo (n = 14, bovine), using virulence profiling of the bcfC, mgtC, ssaC, invE, pefA, stn, sopB, and siiE virulence-associated genes, a biofilm production assay, pulsed field gel electrophoresis, and the full-length sequencing of the fimA (adhesin) and iroN (receptor) genes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084332/assessment-of-neurotrophins-and-inflammatory-mediators-in-vitreous-of-patients-with-diabetic-retinopathy
#17
Joseph D Boss, Pawan Kumar Singh, Hemang K Pandya, Joaquin Tosi, Chaesik Kim, Asheesh Tewari, Mark S Juzych, Gary W Abrams, Ashok Kumar
Purpose: To assess vitreous levels of inflammatory cytokines and neurotrophins (NTs) in diabetic retinopathy (DR) and elucidate their potential roles. Methods: A prospective study was performed on 50 vitreous samples obtained from patients with DR (n = 22) and the nondiabetic controls (n = 28). All patients were candidates for vitrectomy. Inflammatory cytokine and NT levels were determined with ELISA. Potential source and role of NTs was determined by using human retinal Müller glia and mouse photoreceptor cells and challenging them with TNF-α or IL-1β, followed by detection of NTs and cell death...
October 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082898/optimizing-the-photochemical-conversion-of-uv-vis-light-of-silver-nanoparticles-decorated-tio2-nanotubes-based-photoanodes
#18
Mounir Gaidi, Khaled Trabelsi, Anouar Hajjaji, Mohamed Lassad Chourou, Abdulaziz Al Hazza, Brahim Bessais, My Ali El Khakani
Homogeneous decoration of TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) by Ag metallic nanoparticles (NPs) was carried out by a relatively simple photoreduction process. This Ag-NPs decoration was found to improve the photoconversion efficiency of the TiO2-NTs based photoanodes. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses confirmed that all the Ag-NPs are metallic and the underlying TiO2-NTs crystallize in the anatase phase after their annealing at 400°C, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy observations have confirmed the effective decoration of the TiO2-NTs' surface by Ag-NPs, and allowed to measure the average Ag-NPs size, which was found to increase linearly from (4 ± 2) nm to (16 ± 4) nm when the photoreduction time is increased from 5 to 20 min...
October 30, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078643/indocyanine-green-fluorescence-navigated-thoracoscopic-anatomical-segmentectomy
#19
Mingyon Mun, Sakae Okumura, Masayuki Nakao, Yosuke Matsuura, Ken Nakagawa
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of thoracoscopic anatomical segmentectomy (TS-S) using three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) reconstruction and indocyanine green-fluorescence (ICGF) navigation. METHODS: Twenty TS-S procedures were performed for 15 primary lung cancers and 5 metastatic lung tumors. Preoperatively we evaluated the target segmental pulmonary artery and created a virtual intersegmental plane using 3D-CT reconstruction. Intraoperatively, the target segmental artery and bronchus were divided, and after intravenous systemic injection of indocyanine green (ICG, 0...
2017: J Vis Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072766/the-electron-injection-rate-in-cdse-quantum-dot-sensitized-solar-cells-from-a-bifunctional-linker-and-zinc-oxide-morphology
#20
Wei-Lu Ding, Xing-Liang Peng, Zhu-Zhu Sun, Ze-Sheng Li
Herein, we have investigated the effect of both the bifunctional linker (L1, L2, L3, and L4) and ZnO morphology (porous nanoparticles (NPs), nanowires (NWs), and nanotubes (NTs-A and NTs-Z)) on the electron injection in CdSe QD sensitized solar cells by first-principles simulation. Via calculating the partitioned interfaces formed by different components (linker/QDs and ZnO/linker), we found that the electronic states of QDs and every ZnO substrate are insensitive to any linker, while the frontier orbitals of L1-L4 (with increased delocalization) manifest a systematical negative-shift...
November 9, 2017: Nanoscale
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