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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909096/excitatory-hindbrain-forebrain-communication-is-required-for-cisplatin-induced-anorexia-and-weight-loss
#1
Amber L Alhadeff, Ruby A Holland, Huiyuan Zheng, Linda Rinaman, Harvey J Grill, Bart C De Jonghe
: Cisplatin chemotherapy is commonly used to treat cancer despite severe energy balance side effects. In rats, cisplatin activates nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) projections to the lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN), and calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) projections from the lPBN to the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). We previously demonstrated that CeA glutamate receptor signaling mediates cisplatin-induced anorexia and body weight loss. Here, we use neuroanatomical tracing, immunofluorescence and confocal imaging to demonstrate that virtually all NTS→lPBN and lPBN→CeA CGRP projections co-express vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2), providing evidence that excitatory projections mediate cisplatin-induced energy balance dysregulation...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901502/first-report-of-perkinsus-honshuensis-in-the-variegated-carpet-shell-clam-ruditapes-variegatus-in-korea
#2
Hyun-Sil Kang, Hyun-Sung Yang, Kimberly S Reece, Hyun-Ki Hong, Kyung-Il Park, Kwang-Sik Choi
The recent discovery of Perkinsus honshuensis, a new Perkinsus species infecting Manila clams Ruditapes philippinarum (Sowerby, 1852), in Japan, suggested that, based on proximity, P. honshuensis could also be in Korean waters, where to date, P. olseni was believed to be the only Perkinsus species present. Perkinsus sp. infections consistently occurred among Ruditapes variegatus clams on a pebble beach on Jeju Island, off the south coast of Korea. The typical 'signet ring' morphology of the parasite was observed in the connective tissue of the digestive gland, and infection intensity was comparatively low (3...
November 22, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901369/involvement-of-endogenous-central-hydrogen-sulfide-h2s-in-hypoxia-induced-hypothermia-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#3
João Paulo J Sabino, Renato N Soriano, Alberto F Donatti, Rodrigo Restrepo Fernandez, Marcelo Kwiatkoski, Heloísa D C Francescato, Terezila M Coimbra, Luiz G S Branco
Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) display autonomic imbalance and abnormal body temperature (Tb) adjustments. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) modulates hypoxia-induced hypothermia, but its role in SHR thermoregulation is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that SHR display peculiar thermoregulatory response to hypoxia and that endogenous H2S overproduced in the caudal nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) of SHR modulates this response. SHR and Wistar rats were microinjected into the fourth ventricle with aminooxyacetate (AOA, H2S-synthezing enzyme inhibitor) or sodium sulfide (Na2S, H2S donor) and exposed to normoxia (21% inspired O2) or hypoxia (10% inspired O2, 30 min)...
September 6, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898202/optimization-of-transcutaneous-vagus-nerve-stimulation-using-functional-mri
#4
Natalia Yakunina, Sam Soo Kim, Eui-Cheol Nam
OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an established therapy for drug-resistant epilepsy, depression, and a number of other disorders. Transcutaneous stimulation of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (tVNS) has been considered as a non-invasive alternative. Several functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies on the effects of tVNS used different stimulation parameters and locations in the ear, which makes it difficult to determine the optimal tVNS methodology...
November 29, 2016: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895916/mechanically-produced-schistosomula-as-a-higher-throughput-tools-for-phenotypic-pre-screening-in-drug-sensitivity-assays-current-research-and-future-trends
#5
REVIEW
Emmanuel Mouafo Tekwu, William Kofi Anyan, Daniel Boamah, Kofi Owusu Baffour-Awuah, Stephanie Keyetat Tekwu, Veronique Penlap Beng, Alexander Kwadwo Nyarko, Kwabena Mante Bosompem
It is crucial to develop new antischistosomal drugs since there is no vaccine and the whole world is relying on only a single drug for the treatment of schistosomiasis. One of the obstacles to the development of drugs is the absence of the high throughput objective screening methods to assess drug compounds efficacy. Thus for identification of new drug compounds candidates, fast and accurate in vitro assays are unavoidable and more research efforts in the field of drug discovery can target schistosomula. This review presents a substantial overview of the present state of in vitro drug sensitivity assays developed so far for the determination of anti-schistosomula activity of drug compounds, natural products and derivatives using newly transformed schistosomula (NTS)...
2016: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893846/cerebellum-transcriptome-of-mice-bred-for-high-voluntary-activity-offers-insights-into-locomotor-control-and-reward-dependent-behaviors
#6
Kelsey Caetano-Anollés, Justin S Rhodes, Theodore Garland, Sam D Perez, Alvaro G Hernandez, Bruce R Southey, Sandra L Rodriguez-Zas
The role of the cerebellum in motivation and addictive behaviors is less understood than that in control and coordination of movements. High running can be a self-rewarding behavior exhibiting addictive properties. Changes in the cerebellum transcriptional networks of mice from a line selectively bred for High voluntary running (H) were profiled relative to an unselected Control (C) line. The environmental modulation of these changes was assessed both in activity environments corresponding to 7 days of Free (F) access to running wheel and to Blocked (B) access on day 7...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891182/case-control-study-of-diarrheal-disease-etiology-in-individuals-over-5%C3%A2-years-in-southwest-china
#7
Shun-Xian Zhang, Chun-Li Yang, Wen-Peng Gu, Lin Ai, Emmanuel Serrano, Pin Yang, Xia Zhou, Shi-Zhu Li, Shan Lv, Zhi-Sheng Dang, Jun-Hu Chen, Wei Hu, Li-Guang Tian, Jia-Xu Chen, Xiao-Nong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Acute diarrhea is one of the major public health problems worldwide. Most of studies on acute diarrhea have been made on infants aged below 5 years and few efforts have been made to identify the etiological agents of acute diarrhea in people over five, especially in China. METHODS: 271 diarrhea cases and 149 healthy controls over 5 years were recruited from four participating hospitals between June 2014 and July 2015. Each stool specimen was collected to detect a series of enteric pathogens, involving five viruses (Rotavirus group A, RVA; Norovirus, NoV; Sapovirus, SaV; Astrovirus, As; and Adenovirus, Ad), seven bacteria (diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, DEC; non-typhoidal Salmonella, NTS; Shigella spp...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886563/nanomechanical-properties-wear-resistance-and-in-vitro-characterization-of-ta2o5-nanotubes-coating-on-biomedical-grade-ti-6al-4v
#8
Masoud Sarraf, Bushroa Abdul Razak, Bahman Nasiri-Tabrizi, Ali Dabbagh, Noor Hayaty Abu Kasim, Wan Jefrey Basirun, Eshamsul Bin Sulaiman
Tantalum pentoxide nanotubes (Ta2O5 NTs) can dramatically raise the biological functions of different kinds of cells, thus have promising applications in biomedical fields. In this study, Ta2O5 NTs were prepared on biomedical grade Ti-6Al-4V alloy (Ti64) via physical vapor deposition (PVD) and a successive two-step anodization in H2SO4: HF (99:1)+5% EG electrolyte at a constant potential of 15V. To improve the adhesion of nanotubular array coating on Ti64, heat treatment was carried out at 450°C for 1h under atmospheric pressure with a heating/cooling rate of 1°Cmin(-)(1)...
November 16, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881651/alternative-polyadenylation-of-human-bocavirus-at-its-3-end-is-regulated-by-multiple-elements-and-affects-capsid-expression
#9
Sujuan Hao, Junmei Zhang, Zhen Chen, Huanzhou Xu, Hanzhong Wang, Wuxiang Guan
: Alternative processing of human bocavirus (HBoV) P5 promoter-transcribed RNA is critical for generating the structural and nonstructural protein-encoding mRNA transcripts. The regulatory mechanism by which HBoV RNA transcripts are polyadenylated at proximal [(pA)p] or distal [(pA)d] polyadenylation sites is yet unclear. We constructed a recombinant HBoV infectious clone to study the alternative polyadenylation regulation of HBoV. Surprisingly, in addition to the reported distal polyadenylation site (pA)d, a novel distal polyadenylation site (pA)d2 which is located in the right end hairpin (REH), was identified during infectious clone transfection or recombinant virus infection...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878554/the-involvement-of-the-decrease-of-astrocytic-wnt5a-in-the-cognitive-decline-in-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy
#10
Saidan Ding, Zhu Xu, Jianjing Yang, Leping Liu, Xueli Huang, Xuebao Wang, Qichuan Zhuge
Wnt signaling plays a key role in neuroprotection and synaptic plasticity. We speculate that the impairment of Wnt signaling may mediate astrocytic neurotrophins (NTs) production and the impairment of Wnt signaling to astrocytic NTs production contributes to the pathogenesis of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). Here, we found that induction of astrocytic NTs synthesis was by Wnt5a via the calcium/calmodulin-sensitive protein kinase II (CaMK II)-cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) pathway in PCAs...
November 22, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870903/rdna-loci-evolution-in-the-genus-glechoma-lamiaceae
#11
Tae-Soo Jang, Jamie McCann, John S Parker, Koji Takayama, Suk-Pyo Hong, Gerald M Schneeweiss, Hanna Weiss-Schneeweiss
Glechoma L. (Lamiaceae) is distributed in eastern Asia and Europe. Understanding chromosome evolution in Glechoma has been strongly hampered by its small chromosomes, constant karyotype and polyploidy. Here phylogenetic patterns and chromosomal variation in Glechoma species are considered, using genome sizes, chromosome mapping of 5S and 35S rDNAs by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH), and phylogenetic analyses of internal transcribed spacers (nrITS) of 35S rDNA and 5S rDNA NTS sequences. Species and populations of Glechoma are tetraploid (2n = 36) with base chromosome number of x = 9...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862404/pristine-ta3-n5-nanotubes-trap-driven-high-external-biasing-perspective-in-semiconductor-electrolyte-interfaces
#12
Sherdil Khan, Marcos J L Santos, Célia F Malfatti, Jairton Dupont, Sérgio R Teixeira
Ta3 N5 is a promising photoelectrode for solar hydrogen production; however, to date pristine Ta3 N5 electrodes without loading co-catalysts have presented limited photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance. In particular, large external biasing has been required to run water oxidation, the origin of which is investigated herein. Ta3 N5 nanotubes (NTs) prepared by nitridation were characterized by a wide range of techniques. The bandgap was confirmed by a novel PEC technique. Nondestructive synchrotron-excited XPS has shown the presence of reduced Ta species deeper in the Ta3 N5 surface...
November 10, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860321/novel-uv-visible-photodetector-in-photovoltaic-mode-with-fast-response-and-ultrahigh-photosensitivity-employing-se-tio2-nanotubes-heterojunction
#13
Lingxia Zheng, Kai Hu, Feng Teng, Xiaosheng Fang
A feasible strategy for hybrid photodetector by integrating an array of self-ordered TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) and selenium is demonstrated to break the compromise between the responsivity and response speed. Novel heterojunction between the TiO2 NTs and Se in combination with the surface trap states at TiO2 help regulate the electron transport and facilitate the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs under photovoltaic mode (at zero bias), leading to a high responsivity of ≈100 mA W(-1) at 620 nm light illumination and the ultrashort rise/decay time (1...
November 17, 2016: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857642/chiropractic-management-of-a-patient-with-neck-tongue-syndrome-a-case-report
#14
Craig S Roberts
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this case report was to describe the chiropractic management of a patient with neck-tongue syndrome (NTS). CLINICAL FEATURES: A 34-year-old female patient sought treatment at a chiropractic clinic for symptoms involving neck pain associated with left-sided paresthesia of the tongue that had persisted for >2 years. A diagnosis of NTS was made. INTERVENTION AND OUTCOME: The patient was treated with spinal manipulation, myofascial release, and home exercises...
December 2016: Journal of Chiropractic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856342/angiotensin-ii-at1-receptors-mediate-neuronal-sensitization-and-sustained-blood-pressure-response-induced-by-a-single-injection-of-amphetamine
#15
N A Marchese, M C Paz, X Caeiro, F M Dadam, G Baiardi, M F Perez, C Bregonzio
A single exposure to amphetamine induces neurochemical sensitization in striatal areas. The neuropeptide angiotensin II, through AT1 receptors (AT1-R) activation, is involved in these responses. However, amphetamine-induced alterations can be extended to extra-striatal areas involved in blood pressure control and their physiological outcomes. Our aim for the present study was to analyze the possible role for AT1-R in these events using a two-injection protocol and to further characterize the proposed AT1-R antagonism protocol...
November 14, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845682/should-violent-offenders-be-forced-to-undergo-neurotechnological-treatment-a-critical-discussion-of-the-freedom-of-thought-objection
#16
Thomas Søbirk Petersen, Kristian Kragh
In this paper we examine one reason for rejecting the view that violent offenders should be forced to undergo neurotechnological treatments (NTs) involving such therapies as psychoactive medication to curb violent behaviour. The reason is based on the concern that forced treatment violates the offender's right to freedom of thought. We argue that this objection can be challenged. First, we present some specifications of what a right to freedom of thought might mean. We focus on the recently published views of Jared Craig, and Jan Cristopher Bublitz and Reinhard Merkel...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843514/attentional-networks-in-adolescents-with-high-functioning-autism-an-fmri-investigation
#17
Elizabeth C Hames, Ravi Rajmohan, Dan Fang, Ronald Anderson, Mary Baker, David M Richman, Michael O'Boyle
BACKGROUND: Attentional deficits in Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are often noted, but their specific nature remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The present study used the child Attentional Network Task (Child ANT) in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine if the consistently cited deficits of orienting attention are truly due to dysfunctions of orienting-based networks. We hypothesized that these observations are, in fact, a reflection of executive dysfunctions...
2016: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827853/antimicrobial-usage-and-antimicrobial-resistance-in-animal-production-in-southeast-asia-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Nguyen T Nhung, Nguyen V Cuong, Guy Thwaites, Juan Carrique-Mas
Southeast Asia is an area of great economic dynamism. In recent years, it has experienced a rapid rise in the levels of animal product production and consumption. The region is considered to be a hotspot for infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance (AMR). We reviewed English-language peer-reviewed publications related to antimicrobial usage (AMU) and AMR in animal production, as well as antimicrobial residues in meat and fish from 2000 to 2016, in the region. There is a paucity of data from most countries and for most bacterial pathogens...
November 2, 2016: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815842/neurotrophin-signaling-and-stem-cells-implications-for-neurodegenerative-diseases-and-stem-cell-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Subrata Pramanik, Yanuar Alan Sulistio, Klaus Heese
Neurotrophins (NTs) are members of a neuronal growth factor protein family whose action is mediated by the tropomyosin receptor kinase (TRK) receptor family receptors and the p75 NT receptor (p75NTR), a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family. Although NTs were first discovered in neurons, recent studies have suggested that NTs and their receptors are expressed in various types of stem cells mediating pivotal signaling events in stem cell biology. The concept of stem cell therapy has already attracted much attention as a potential strategy for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases (NDs)...
November 5, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805868/ovariectomy-alters-gene-expression-of-the-hippocampal-formation-in-middle-aged-rats
#20
Miklós Sárvári, Imre Kalló, Erik Hrabovszky, Norbert Solymosi, Zsolt Liposits
Ovarian hormones regulate the transcriptome of the hippocampus and modulate its functions. During menopause this complex signaling declines, leading to impaired learning and memory. This study was undertaken to clarify the effects of long-term, surgical ovariectomy (OVX) on the rat hippocampal transcriptome. At age of 13 months, intact control and ovariectomized groups were formed. All animals were sacrificed 5 weeks after gonadectomy, hippocampal formations were dissected and processed for transcriptome analysis...
November 2, 2016: Endocrinology
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