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Kristen L Lokken, Gregory T Walker, Renée M Tsolis
Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars (NTS) are generally associated with gastroenteritis; however, the very young and elderly, as well as individuals with compromised immunity, are at risk of developing disseminated infection that can manifest as bacteremia or focal infections at systemic sites. Disseminated NTS infections can be fatal and are responsible for over 600,000 deaths annually. Most of these deaths are in sub-Saharan Africa, where multi-drug resistant NTS clones are currently circulating in a population with a high proportion of individuals that are susceptible to disseminated disease...
October 8, 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Di Shu, Ionel Simbotin, Robin Côté
We investigate the energy dependence of inelastic processes in systemswhich possess Efimov states. We consider the three-body recombinationrate $K_3$ where three free atoms interact to produce anatom--dimer pair, and the relaxation rate $K_{\rm rel}$where an atom quenches a weakly bound state of a dimernear an Efimov resonance to more deeply bound levels.Using a modelcapturing the key features of the Efimov problem, weidentify new energy regimes for $K_3$, namely the NTR (NearThreshold Resonance) regime behavior $E^{-2}$ for negativescattering lengths and the NTS (Near Threshold Suppression) regimebehavior $E^2$ for positive scattering lengths...
October 19, 2016: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Jianguo Zhuang, Xiuping Gao, Franklin Gao, Fadi Xu
We tested the hypothesis that mu-opioid receptors (MORs) in the caudomedial nucleus tractus solitarius (cmNTS) are important for the ventilatory responses to stimulation of bronchopulmonary C-fibers (PCFs), the carotid body-mediated hypoxia, and hypercapnia independent of the carotid body. First, we used immunohistochemistry to map MORs distribution in the caudal medulla. Then we compared the effects of intra-cmNTS microinjection of DAMGO (a MOR agonist) with or without a combination of CTAP (a MOR antagonist) on the ventilatory responses to: 1) right atrial injection of capsaicin (to stimulation of PCFs) and 2) acute hypoxia (HVR, to stimulate the carotid body) in awake intact rats; and 3) hypercapnia (HCVR) in the carotid body ablated rats...
October 12, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Isabelle Bragard, Marie-Christine Seghaye, Nesrine Farhat, Marie Solowianiuk, Mariane Saliba, Anne-Marie Etienne, Katharina Schumacher
OBJECTIVES: Residents beginning their specialization in pediatrics and emergency medicine (EM) are rapidly involved in oncall duties. Early acquisition of crisis resource management by novice residents is essential for patient safety, but traditional training may be insufficient. Our aim was to investigate the impact of a 2-day simulation-based course on residents to manage pediatric and neonatal patients. METHODS: First year residents participated in the course...
October 6, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Vanessa S Goodwill, Christopher Terrill, Ian Hopewood, Arthur D Loewy, Mark M Knuepfer
In some patients, renal nerve denervation has been reported to be an effective treatment for essential hypertension. Considerable evidence suggests that afferent renal nerves (ARN) and sodium balance play important roles in the development and maintenance of high blood pressure. ARN are sensitive to sodium concentrations in the renal pelvis. To better understand the role of ARN, we infused isotonic or hypertonic NaCl (308 or 500mOsm) into the left renal pelvis of conscious rats for two 2hours while recording arterial pressure and heart rate...
September 22, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Kathrin Deuschle, Gabi Kepp, Holger Jeske
Geminiviral minichromosomes were purified to explore epigenetic modifications. The levels of methylation in their covalently closed circular DNA were examined with the help of methylation-dependent restriction (MdR). DNA with 12 superhelical turns was preferentially modified, indicating minichromosomes with 12 nucleosomes leaving an open gap. MdR digestion yielded a specific product of genomic length, which was cloned and Sanger-sequenced, or amplified following ligation-mediated rolling circle amplification and deep-sequenced (circomics)...
October 4, 2016: Virology
Zhongxue Yang, Huying Wang, Weijie Song, Wei Wei, Qingping Mu, Bo Kong, Peiqiang Li, Hongzong Yin
The hydrothermal method was explored to prepare SnO2 nanorods (SnO2 NRs) with the special faces of (110) and (101) on the surface of Fe2O3 nanotubes (Fe2O3 NTs). According to the SEM and XRD results, the formation process of the hierarchically assembled SnO2 NRs was deduced. The SnO2 NRs/Fe2O3 NTs catalyst that had reached for 120 mins behaved the best photoelectrocatalytic properties. From the view of photocatalytic reduction, the conduction band (-0.75eV vs NHE) is negative enough to drive CO2 reduction, and the valence band (1...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Mingfeng Feng, Hanping Zhang, Yuan Pan, Yahui Hu, Jing Chen, Dengpan Zuo, Tong Jiang
BACKGROUND: Strawberry vein banding virus (SVBV) is a double-stranded DNA plant virus, which has been found in North America, Australia, Brazil, Japan, Europe and several provinces of China. Infected strawberry plants exhibit mild vein-banding symptoms and chlorosis along the veins. It is one of the most economically important diseases in Asiatic, European and North American strawberry-growing areas. FINDINGS: The complete genome of an SVBV Chinese isolate (SVBV-CN) was isolated and cloned from a naturally infected strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa cv...
October 6, 2016: Virology Journal
Wei Wang, Fan Lv, Bo Lei, Sheng Wan, Mingchuan Luo, Shaojun Guo
Developing new synthetic methods for the controlled synthesis of Pt-based or non-Pt nanocatalysts with low or no Pt loading to facilitate sluggish cathodic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and organics oxidation reactions is the key in the development of fuel-cell technology. Various nanoparticles (NPs), with a range of size, shape, composition, and structure, have shown good potential to catalyze the sluggish cathodic and anodic reactions. In contrast to NPs, one-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials such as nanowires (NWs), and nanotubes (NTs), exhibit additional advantages associated with their anisotropy, unique structure, and surface properties...
September 30, 2016: Advanced Materials
Lei Hu, Yi Li, Wenlong Zhang
The removal of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) during wastewater reclamation is a great concern. However, the existing advanced treatment processes are inefficient for the removal of PFCs from secondary effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) because other coexistent pollutants with less environmental significance are removed simultaneously. Therefore, research on high-selectivity, low-cost removal methods is needed. The S-MIP-TiO2 nanotube (NT) photocatalysts were fabricated, characterized and tested for removal of PFCs from wastewater for the first time...
September 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Chelsea Corradetti, Neelakshi R Jog, Stefania Gallucci, Michael Madaio, Siddharth Balachandran, Roberto Caricchio
Immune mediated nephropathy is one of the most serious manifestations of lupus and is characterized by severe inflammation and necrosis that, if untreated, eventually leads to renal failure. Although lupus has a higher incidence in women, both sexes can develop lupus glomerulonephritis; nephritis in men develops earlier and is more severe than in women. It is therefore important to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating nephritis in each sex. Previous work by our lab found that the absence or pharmacological inhibition of Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP-1), an enzyme involved in DNA repair and necrotic cell death, affects only male mice and results in milder nephritis, with less in situ inflammation, and diminished incidence of necrotic lesions, allowing for higher survival rates...
2016: PloS One
Gordana Samardzija, Tamara Kravic Stevovic, Slavisa Djuricic, Dragomir Djokic, Marina Djurisic, Darko Ciric, Tamara Martinovic, Vladimir Bumbasirevic, Dragana Vujic
Autophagy is activated in cancer cells in response to multiple stresses and has been demonstrated to promote tumor cell survival and drug resistance in neuroblastoma (NB). This study was conducted to analyze the ultrastructural features of peripheral neuroblastic tumors (pNTs) and identify the relation of the types of NTs, the proliferation rate, and MYCN gene amplification with a number of autophagic vacuoles. Our results indicate that aggressive human NBs show a massive increase in the number of autophagic vacuoles associated with proliferation rate and that alteration of the mitochondria might be an important factor for the induction of autophagy in NTs...
September 2016: Ultrastructural Pathology
Maria Licursi, Christian O Alberto, Alex Dias, Kensuke Hirasawa, Michiru Hirasawa
OBJECTIVE: High-fat diet (HFD) is known to induce low-grade hypothalamic inflammation. Whether inflammation occurs in other brain areas remains unknown. This study tested the effect of short-term HFD on cytokine gene expression and identified leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) as a responsive cytokine in the brain stem. Thus, functional and cellular effects of LIF in the brain stem were investigated. METHODS: Male rats were fed chow or HFD for 3 days, and then gene expression was analyzed in different brain regions for IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and LIF...
September 24, 2016: Obesity
Chunyan Li, Malinda E C Fitzgerald, Nobel Del Mar, Anton Reiner
Preganglionic neurons in the superior salivatory nucleus (SSN) that mediate parasympathetic vasodilation of choroidal blood vessels receive a major excitatory input from the baroresponsive part of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). This input appears likely to mediate choroidal vasodilation during systemic hypotension, which prevents decreases in choroidal blood flow (ChBF) due to reduced perfusion pressure. It is uncertain, however, how low blood pressure signals to NTS from the aortic depressor nerve (ADN), which fires at a low rate during systemic hypotension, could yield increased firing in the NTS output to SSN...
October 28, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Emma Stewart-Parker, Robert Galloway, Stella Vig
BACKGROUND: Possessing adequate nontechnical skills (NTS) in operating theaters is of increasing interest to health care professionals, yet these are rarely formally taught. Teams make human errors despite technical expertise and knowledge, compromising patient safety. We designed a 1-day, multiprofessional, multidisciplinary course to teach, practice, and apply these skills through simulation. METHODS: The course, "S-TEAMS," comprised a morning of lectures, case studies, and interactive teamworking exercises...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Surgical Education
Saurabh Kumar Jha, Niraj Kumar Jha, Dhiraj Kumar, Renu Sharma, Abhishek Shrivastava, Rashmi K Ambasta, Pravir Kumar
The communication between neurons at synaptic junctions is an intriguing process that monitors the transmission of various electro-chemical signals in the central nervous system. Albeit any aberration in the mechanisms associated with transmission of these signals leads to loss of synaptic contacts in both the neocortex and hippocampus thereby causing insidious cognitive decline and memory dysfunction. Compelling evidence suggests that soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau serve as toxins in the dysfunction of synaptic plasticity and aberrant neurotransmitter (NT) release at synapses consequently causing a cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Richard Neugebauer, Allana Forde, Kinga E Fodor, Prudence W Fisher, J Blake Turner, Tasha Stehling-Ariza, Saori Yamabe
Whether children or adolescents exhibit higher levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in response to violence is an unresolved research question. We examine this issue in UNICEF's 1995 National Trauma Survey (NTS) of 8-19-year-olds (n = 942) who survived the Rwandan Genocide and lived and attended schools in the community. PTSS were assessed with a symptom checklist based on DSM-IV indexed using an overall score comprising the sum of scores on all items and mean item scores of each of five distinct factors identified in a factor analysis within this sample...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Neha A Kajale, Shashi A Chiplonkar, Vaman Khadilkar, Anuradha V Khadilkar
OBJECTIVE: To study cross-sectionally, effect of early feeding practices and maternal nutrition, with special reference to traditional food supplements (TFSs), on baby's weight gain during first 6 months. METHODS: HASH(0x4a8b748) DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study design. SETTINGS: Urban tertiary healthcare centre, India. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and fifteen primiparous mother-infant pairs within 6 months of delivery...
October 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
D Martínez-Vargas, A Valdés-Cruz, V M Magdaleno-Madrigal, R Fernández-Mas, S Almazán-Alvarado
BACKGROUND: The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) plays a determinant role in the antiepileptic effects of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). One mechanism underlying the efficacy of VNS is the induction of cortical changes, detected by electroencephalogram (EEG), which can be mediated by the NTS through its projections to the cerebral nuclei responsible for modulating cortical activity. The effect of the electrical stimulation of the nucleus of the solitary tract (ENTS) on EEG activity and sleep states in freely moving animals is unknown...
August 26, 2016: Brain Stimulation
Maria Fernanda Calió, Katherine B Lepis, José Rubens Pirani, Lena Struwe
The monophyletic and Neotropical tribe Helieae of the worldwide family Gentianaceae (Gentianales, Asterids, Angiospermae) is well known for its problematic generic classifications. An initial phylogenetic analysis of Helieae shed light onto the relationships between genera, and indicated that traditional generic limits did not correspond to monophyletic groups. In order to obtain a more thorough understanding of generic relationships within the group, we enhanced sampling within the so-called Symbolanthus clade and performed phylogenetic analyses from DNA sequences from one plastid region (matK) and two nuclear regions (ITS and 5S-NTS), plus 112 morphological characters, which were analyzed separately and in combination, using parsimony and Bayesian approaches...
September 15, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
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