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Yaqin Peng, Yutang Li, Jinlin Hou, Jian Sun, Mingze Su, Yao Li, Kuanhui Xiang, Ling Yan, Hui Zhuang, Tong Li
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study the dynamic changes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) core promoter/precore (CP/preC) sequences during antiviral treatment and their associations with virological responses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The baseline and 12-week CP/preC sequences (nts 1655-2014) were obtained from 52 chronic hepatitis B patients with positive hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), who received a 104-week lamivudine and adefovir dipivoxil combination therapy. The mutations within the CP/preC were analyzed against genotype specific reference sequences...
January 11, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Ching-Yi Tsai, Chia-Hao Su, Julie Y H Chan, Samuel H H Chan
The onset of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in liver failure is associated with high mortality; the underlying mechanism is undecided. Here we report that in an acute liver failure model employing intraperitoneal administration of thioacetamide in Sprague-Dawley rats, diffusion weighted imaging revealed a progressive reduction in apparent diffusion coefficient in the brain stem. Diffusion tensor imaging further showed that the connectivity between nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), the terminal site of baroreceptor afferents in brain stem and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), the origin of sympathetic innervation of blood vessels, was progressively disrupted until its disappearance, coincidental with the irreversible cessation of baroreflex-mediated sympathetic vasomotor tone signifying clinically the occurrence of brain death...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Amber L Alhadeff, Ruby A Holland, Huiyuan Zheng, Linda Rinaman, Harvey J Grill, Bart C De Jonghe
: Cisplatin chemotherapy is commonly used to treat cancer despite severe energy balance side effects. In rats, cisplatin activates nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) projections to the lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN) and calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) projections from the lPBN to the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). We demonstrated previously that CeA glutamate receptor signaling mediates cisplatin-induced anorexia and body weight loss. Here, we used neuroanatomical tracing, immunofluorescence, and confocal imaging to demonstrate that virtually all NTS→lPBN and lPBN→CeA CGRP projections coexpress vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2), providing evidence that excitatory projections mediate cisplatin-induced energy balance dysregulation...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Xiaoqing Du, Yumeng Yang, Chenxi Yi, Yu Chen, Chao Cai, Zhao Zhang
The coaxial arrays of AAO-CeO2 NTs have been successfully galvanostatically deposited on an anode, characterized and adopted as a catalyst for removing organic sulfurs from diesel. The influence of the main electrochemical oxidation factors on the efficiency of desulfurization have also been investigated. The results show that the fabrication process of AAO-CeO2 NTs is accompanied by the formation of a new phase, namely Al3Ce, and the main oxidation products of the diesel are soluble inorganic sulphides, especially Ce2(SO4)3...
January 9, 2017: Nanotechnology
Zhuo Zhang, Mingi Choi, Minki Baek, Zexiang Deng, Kijung Yong
Modern nanotechnology generates more stringent requirements for the design and synthetic strategy of nanostructural materials. In this work, we demonstrate a novel strategy for the synthesis of "corn silk"-like ZnO hierarchical nanostructures, simplified as ZnO corn silk: silk-like ZnO nanotubes (NTs) with a large length-to-diameter ratio are grown on the top tip of corn-shaped ZnO nanorods (NRs). The synthetic method is unique in that when the ZnO NRs are dipped into the aqueous solution of NaBH4, the release of Zn2+ and OH- caused by the corrosion of ZnO NRs, as well as the subsequent growth of ZnO NTs, could allow the process to run step-by-step in self-assembly mode...
January 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ifeanyi Valentine Uche, Calman A MacLennan, Allan Saul
This study systematically reviews the literature on the occurrence, incidence and case fatality rate (CFR) of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease in Africa from 1966 to 2014. Data on the burden of iNTS disease in Africa are sparse and generally have not been aggregated, making it difficult to describe the epidemiology that is needed to inform the development and implementation of effective prevention and control policies. This study involved a comprehensive search of PubMed and Embase databases...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jun-Fan Fang, Jian-Qiao Fang, Xiao-Mei Shao, Jun-Ying Du, Yi Liang, Wen Wang, Zhe Liu
Postoperative ileus (POI) after abdominal surgery significantly lowers the life quality of patients and increase hospital costs. However, few treatment strategies have successfully shortened the duration of POI. Electroacupuncture (EA) is a modern way of administering acupuncture and widely used in various gastrointestinal (GI) diseases in the world. Here, we studied the effect of EA on POI and its underlying mechanisms. Intestinal manipulation resulted in significant delays of GI transit, colonic transit and gastric emptying...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
Lindy Sergeant, Carla Rodriguez-Dimitrescu, Christopher C Barney, Gregory S Fraley
Galanin-Like Peptide (GALP) is a hypothalamic neuromediator of metabolism and reproduction. GALP is known to stimulate reproduction and alter food intake and body weight in multiple species. The regulation of body weight involves control of both energy intake and energy expenditure. Since GALP is known to alter food intake - possibly via the autonomic nervous system - we first hypothesized that GALP would increase metabolic rate. First, male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannulae and abdominal radiotelemetry temperature transmitters...
December 29, 2016: Neuropeptides
Xian-En Zhao, Yongrui He, Meng Li, Guang Chen, Na Wei, Xiao Wang, Jing Sun, Shuyun Zhu, Jinmao You
Neurotransmitters (NTs) may play an important role in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to investigate the potential links, a new simple, fast, accurate and sensitive analytical method, based on in situ ultrasound-assisted derivatization dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (in situ UA-DDLLME) coupled with ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), has been developed and validated. The quantitation of amino acid neurotransmitters (AANTs) and monoamine neurotransmitters (MANTs) in urine of AD rats were performed in this work...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Costas C Papagiannitsis, Leonidas S Tzouvelekis, Eva Tzelepi, Vivi Miriagou
By searching the Integrall Integron and GenBank Databases, a novel ORF of 51 nts (ORF-17) overlapping the previously described ORF-11 was identified within the att1I site in virtually all class 1 integrons. Using a set of isogenic plasmid constructs carrying a single gene cassette (blaGES-1)possessing a canonical Translation Initiation Region, it was shown that ORF-17 contributes to GES-1 expression.
December 28, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
K A McColl, A Sunarto, J Slater, K Bell, M Asmus, W Fulton, K Hall, P Brown, D Gilligan, J Hoad, L M Williams, M St J Crane
Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) is a pest species in Australian waterways, and cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is being considered as a potential biological control (biocontrol) agent. An important consideration for any such agent is its target specificity. In this study, the susceptibility to CyHV-3 of a range of non-target species (NTS) was tested. The NTS were as follows: 13 native Australian, and one introduced, fish species; a lamprey species; a crustacean; two native amphibian species (tadpole and mature stages); two native reptilian species; chickens; and laboratory mice...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
Rachel A Miller, Martin Wiedmann
: Select nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica (NTS) serotypes were recently found to encode the Salmonella cytolethal distending toxin (S-CDT), an important virulence factor for serotype Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid fever. Using a PCR-based assay, we determined that among 21 NTS serotypes causing the majority of food-borne salmonellosis cases in the United States, genes encoding S-CDT are conserved in isolates representing serotypes Javiana, Montevideo, and Oranienburg but that among serotype Mississippi isolates, the presence of S-CDT-encoding genes is clade associated...
December 20, 2016: MBio
Lincohn Zappelini, Solange Martone-Rocha, Milena Dropa, Maria Helena Matté, Monique Ribeiro Tiba, Bruna Suellen Breternitz, Maria Tereza Pepe Razzolini
Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a relevant pathogen involved in gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. In this study, we determined the capacity to combine the most probable number (MPN) and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods to characterize the most important Salmonella serotypes in raw sewage. A total of 499 isolates were recovered from 27 raw sewage samples and screened using two previously described multiplex PCR methods. From those, 123 isolates were selected based on PCR banding pattern-identical or similar to Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium-and submitted to conventional serotyping...
December 16, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Rishi R Dhingra, Mathias Dutschmann, Roberto Fernandez Galan, Thomas E Dick
Respiration varies from breath to breath. On the millisecond time scale of spiking, neuronal circuits exhibit variability due to the stochastic properties of ion channels and synapses. Does this fast, microscopic source of variability contribute to the slower, macroscopic variability of the respiratory period? To address this question, we modeled a stochastic oscillator with forcing; then, we tested its predictions experimentally for the respiratory rhythm generated by the in situ perfused preparation during vagal nerve stimulation (VNS)...
December 14, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Utkarsh Jain, Anamika Singh, Naresh Kumar Kuchhal, Nidhi Chauhan
Excessive glucose present in the blood of diabetic patients binds with the hemoglobin of red blood cells resulting in the formation of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Measurement of HbA1c levels may help in identifying the efficacy of the ongoing treatment and hence provide a better control over the disease. In the present study, we have synthesized a sensitive and stable scaffold, which consists of Au nanoparticles (GNPs)-dotted tubular TiO2, for the construction of an electrochemical HbA1c biosensor. 12-phosphotungstic acid has been used as a reducer after depositing well-dispersed GNPs on TiO2 nanotubes (TiO2 NTs) and an electron mediator by accelerating the electron transfer between the conductor and protein...
November 16, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Dilan A Satharasinghe, Kavitha Murulitharan, Sheau W Tan, Swee K Yeap, Muhammad Munir, Aini Ideris, Abdul R Omar
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a prototype member of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1), which causes severe and contagious disease in the commercial poultry and wild birds. Despite extensive vaccination programs and other control measures, the disease remains endemic around the globe especially in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. Being a single serotype, genotype II based vaccines remained most acceptable means of immunization. However, the evidence is emerging on failures of vaccines mainly due to evolving nature of the virus and higher genetic gaps between vaccine and field strains of APMV-1...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Wen Song, Mengqi Shi, Mingdong Dong, Yumei Zhang
Tuning autophagy has become a new strategy to control cell differentiation in tissue engineering. The nanosized surface is well-known for its ability to interfere with intracellular procedures, while its role in autophagy regulation is unclear. In this study, we found that a nanotube (NT) structure was able to induce enhanced mTOR-independent autophagy in osteoblasts compared to a flat surface. Further analysis revealed that autophagy was temporally promoted by NTs in the initial day contact and it was also reversible by exchanging the substrate nanotopographies...
December 14, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Barbara Falquetto, Marina Tuppy, Simone R Potje, Thiago S Moreira, Cristina Antoniali, Ana C Takakura
Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) exhibit both motor and non-motor symptoms. Among the non-motor symptoms, cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is frequently observed. Here, we evaluated baroreflex function, vascular reactivity and neuroanatomical changes in brainstem regions involved in the neural control of circulation in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model of PD. Male Wistar rats received a bilateral injection of 6-OHDA or vehicle into the striatum. After 61 days, baroreflex function and vascular reactivity were assessed...
December 9, 2016: Brain Research
Barry E Levin, Thomas A Lutz
While the regulation of energy homeostasis by amylin is already well-characterized, emerging data suggest that amylin is also crucial for the development of neural pathways in the hypothalamus and caudal hindbrain (area postrema, AP; nucleus tractus solitarius, NTS). Exciting new findings demonstrate crucial amylin-leptin interactions in altering the activity of specific hypothalamic and AP neurons, and a role for amylin as a novel class of 'leptin sensitizers' which enhance leptin signaling in both leptin-sensitive and -resistant individuals, in part by stimulating IL-6 production by hypothalamic microglia...
December 6, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Luyao Li, Haiqing Liu, Lei Wang, Shiyu Yue, Xiao Tong, Tatiana Zaliznyak, Gordon T Taylor, Stanislaus S Wong
Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) represent a promising support medium for electrocatalysts, especially Pt nanoparticles (NPs). The advantages of using MWNTs include their large surface area, high conductivity, as well as long-term stability. Surface functionalization of MWNTs with various terminal groups, such as -COOH, -SH, and -NH2, allows for rational electronic tuning of catalyst-support interactions. However, several issues still need to be addressed for such systems. First, over the course of an electrochemical run, catalyst durability can decrease, due in part to metal NP dissolution, a process facilitated by the inherently high surface defect concentration within the support...
December 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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