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D Broughton, R M Fairchild, M Z Morgan
Background Sports drinks intended to improve performance and hydrate athletes taking part in endurance sport are being marketed to children, for whom these products are not intended. Popularity among children has grown exponentially. Worryingly they consume them socially, as well as during physical activity. Sports drinks are high in sugar and are acidic. Product marketing ignores the potential harmful effects of dental caries and erosion.Objective To investigate the use of sports drinks by children.Method One hundred and eighty-three self-complete questionnaires were distributed to four schools in South Wales...
June 24, 2016: British Dental Journal
Ezequiel Valguarnera, Rachel L Kinsella, Mario F Feldman
Protein glycosylation is a post-translational modification that occurs across the whole tree of life. In the recent years, multiple N- and O-glycosylation mechanisms have been identified and characterized in diverse bacterial species, including human pathogens. This review focuses on bacterial protein glycosylation and its impact in pathogenesis. Bacteria carry N- and O-glycosylation systems that are mediated by an oligosaccharyltransferase (OTase). In OTase-dependent glycosylation mechanisms, an oligosaccharide is synthesized on a lipid carrier and subsequently transferred to proteins en bloc by an OTase...
August 14, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
R T M van Hooijdonk, S Eslami, N F de Keizer, F Bakhshi-Raiez, R J Bosman, D A Dongelmans, P H J van der Voort, J O Streefkerk, W J Engelbrecht, J ten Cate, S Huissoon, E M van Driel, I van Dijk, N Cimic, O F T Beck, F T F Snellen, N D Holman, H C Mulder, A Abu-Hanna, M J Schultz
BACKGROUND: Publication of the Normoglycemia in Intensive Care Evaluation and Survival Using Glucose Algorithm Regulation (NICE-SUGAR) trial in 2009 and several observational studies caused a change in the recommendations for blood glucose control in intensive care patients. We evaluated local trends in blood glucose control in intensive care units in the Netherlands before and after the publication of the NICE-SUGAR trial and the revised Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) guidelines in 2012...
December 2015: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
Gabriel Fernando Oviedo, Carlos Gómez Restrepo, Adriana Bohórquez Peñaranda, Jenny García Valencia, Luis Eduardo Jaramillo, Nathalie Tamayo, María Luisa Arenas, Carolina Vélez Fernández
OBJECTIVES: To determine the laboratory tests, related to metabolic risk that should be practiced to adult patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. To assist the clinician decision-making process about complementary diagnostic evaluation strategies in adult diagnosed with schizophrenia. METHODS: A clinical practice guideline was elaborated under the parameters of the Methodological Guide of the Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social to identify, synthesize and evaluate the evidence and make recommendations about the treatment and follow-up of adult patients with schizophrenia...
October 2015: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
Séverine Ho-Yue-Kuang, Camille Alvarado, Sébastien Antelme, Brigitte Bouchet, Laurent Cézard, Philippe Le Bris, Frédéric Legée, Alessandra Maia-Grondard, Arata Yoshinaga, Luc Saulnier, Fabienne Guillon, Richard Sibout, Catherine Lapierre, Anne-Laure Chateigner-Boutin
Cereal crop by-products are a promising source of renewable raw material for the production of biofuel from lignocellulose. However, their enzymatic conversion to fermentable sugars is detrimentally affected by lignins. Here the characterization of the Brachypodium Bd5139 mutant provided with a single nucleotide mutation in the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase BdCOMT6 gene is reported. This BdCOMT6-deficient mutant displayed a moderately altered lignification in mature stems. The lignin-related BdCOMT6 gene was also found to be expressed in grains, and the alterations of Bd5139 grain lignins were found to mirror nicely those evidenced in stem lignins...
January 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Ingrid Torjesen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Atílio Tomazini Junior, Luciano Graciani Dolce, Mario de Oliveira Neto, Igor Polikarpov
OBJECTIVES: To biochemically characterize an expansin-like X protein domain from Xanthomonas campestris (XcEXLX1) and to study its synergy with cellulases in cellulose depolymerization. RESULTS: The protein was purified using a combination of ion exchange and size exclusion chromatography rendering about 30 mg pure protein/l culture medium. Circular dichroism spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering studies of XcEXLX1 reveal that it is a strongly disordered β-sheet protein...
December 2015: Biotechnology Letters
James Stephen Krinsley
Since publication of the Normoglycemia in Intensive Care Evaluation - Survival Using Glucose Algorithm Regulation trial in 2009, demonstrating increased 90-day mortality in a large cohort of critically ill patients treated with the intensive, rather than moderate blood glucose (BG) target, enthusiasm has dampened for 'tight glucose control' in intensive care units. Nevertheless, a burgeoning literature has clarified limitations of the interventional trials of intensive insulin therapy in the critically ill and explored key clinical aspects of glycemic control in this population...
2015: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
Simon Finfer, Dean Chittock, Yang Li, Denise Foster, Vinay Dhingra, Rinaldo Bellomo, Deborah Cook, Peter Dodek, Paul Hebert, William Henderson, Daren Heyland, Alisa Higgins, Colin McArthur, Imogen Mitchell, John Myburgh, Bruce Robinson, Juan Ronco
PURPOSE: To compare the effect of intensive versus conventional blood glucose control in patients with traumatic brain injury. METHODS: In a large international randomized trial patients were randomly assigned to a target blood glucose (BG) range of either 4.5-6.0 mmol/L (intensive control) or <10 mmol/L (conventional control). Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) were identified at randomization and data were collected to examine the extended Glasgow outcome score (includes mortality) at 24 months...
June 2015: Intensive Care Medicine
Daniel J Niven, Gordon D Rubenfeld, Andrew A Kramer, Henry T Stelfox
IMPORTANCE: Little is known about the deadoption of ineffective or harmful clinical practices. A large clinical trial (the Normoglycemia in Intensive Care Evaluation and Survival Using Glucose Algorithm Regulation [NICE-SUGAR] trial) demonstrated that strict blood glucose control (tight glycemic control) in patients admitted to adult intensive care units (ICUs) should be deadopted; however, it is unknown whether deadoption occurred and how it compared with the initial adoption. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate glycemic control in critically ill patients before and after the publication of clinical trials that initially suggested that tight glycemic control reduced mortality (Leuven I) but subsequently demonstrated that it increased mortality (NICE-SUGAR)...
May 2015: JAMA Internal Medicine
Amanda Williams, Markus Paulus, Chris Moore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2014: Frontiers in Psychology
Andrew John Gardner
Hyperglycemia has long been observed amongst critically ill patients and associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Tight glycemic control (TGC) is the clinical practice of controlling blood glucose (BG) down to the "normal" 4.4-6.1 mmol/L range of a healthy adult, aiming to avoid any potential deleterious effects of hyperglycemia. The ground-breaking Leuven trials reported a mortality benefit of approximately 10% when using this technique, which led many to endorse its benefits. In stark contrast, the multi-center normoglycemia in intensive care evaluation-survival using glucose algorithm regulation (NICE-SUGAR) trial, not only failed to replicate this outcome, but showed TGC appeared to be harmful...
December 2014: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Juzheng Sheng, Peixue Ling, Fengshan Wang
Hyaluronic acid (HA), a natural high molecular weight polysaccharide, is produced by Streptococcus zooepidemicus. However, Streptococcus has several drawbacks including its potential to produce exotoxins, so there is demand for an alternative HA source. Here, a recombinant HA biosynthesis operon, as well as the HA biosynthesis operon of S. zooepidemicus were introduced into L. lactis using the nisin-controlled expression system, respectively. HA was successfully synthesized by recombinant L. lactis. Furthermore, overexpression of the endogenous enzymes directing the synthesis of precursor sugars was effective at increasing HA production, and increasing the supply of UDP-activated monosaccharide donors aided synthesis of monodisperse HA polysaccharides...
February 2015: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Malgorzata E Wilinska, Roman Hovorka
BACKGROUND: Accuracy and frequency of glucose measurement is essential to achieve safe and efficacious glucose control in the intensive care unit. Emerging continuous glucose monitors provide frequent measurements, trending information, and alarms. The objective of this study was to establish the level of accuracy of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) associated with safe and efficacious glucose control in the intensive care unit. METHODS: We evaluated 3 established glucose control protocols [Yale, University of Washington, and Normoglycemia in Intensive Care Evaluation and Surviving Using Glucose Algorithm Regulation (NICE-SUGAR)] by use of computer simulations...
December 2014: Clinical Chemistry
Ranee R Lleva, Prem Thomas, Janis E Bozzo, Karrie C Hendrickson, Silvio E Inzucchi
Prior to 2009, intensive glycemic control was the standard in main intensive care units (ICUs). Glucose targets have been recalibrated after publication of the NICE-SUGAR study in that year, followed by updated guidelines that endorsed more moderated control. We sought to determine if the prevalence of hyperglycemia in US ICUs had increased after the NICE-SUGAR study's results were reported. We used data from hospitals submitted to the Yale Glucometrics™ website to assess mean blood glucose values, percentage of blood glucose within various ranges, and the prevalence of hypo- and hyperglycemic excursions, based on the patient-day method, comparing the pre- to post-NICE-SUGAR time period...
September 2014: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Erika Brutsaert, Michelle Carey, Joel Zonszein
Hypoglycemia is common in hospitalized patients and is associated with poor outcomes, including increased mortality. Older individuals and those with comorbidities are more likely to suffer the adverse consequences of inpatient hypoglycemia. Observational studies have shown that spontaneous inpatient hypoglycemia is a greater risk factor for death than iatrogenic hypoglycemia, suggesting that hypoglycemia acts as a marker for more severe illness, and may not directly cause death. Initial randomized controlled trials of intensive insulin therapy in intensive care units demonstrated improvements in mortality with tight glycemic control, despite high rates of hypoglycemia...
July 2014: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
N R Orford, M Bailey, K Kaukonen, T Elderkin, Pj Stow, C Cattigan, M Kotowicz, R Bellomo
This retrospective observational cohort study compared glycaemic control and long-term outcomes following transition from a modified intensive insulin therapy (mIIT) regimen to conventional glycaemic control (CGC) in adult patients admitted to a tertiary adult general intensive care unit, during two 24-month periods, before and after the publication of the Normoglycemia in Intensive Care Evaluation and Surviving Using Glucose Algorithm Regulation (NICE-SUGAR) trial. The before NICE-SUGAR cohort received mIIT (target glycaemic ranges 4...
March 2014: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Fiona Geaney, Jessica Scotto Di Marrazzo, Clare Kelly, Anthony P Fitzgerald, Janas M Harrington, Ann Kirby, Ken McKenzie, Birgit Greiner, Ivan J Perry
BACKGROUND: Dietary behaviour interventions have the potential to reduce diet-related disease. Ample opportunity exists to implement these interventions in the workplace. The overall aim is to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of complex dietary interventions focused on environmental dietary modification alone or in combination with nutrition education in large manufacturing workplace settings. METHODS/DESIGN: A clustered controlled trial involving four large multinational manufacturing workplaces in Cork will be conducted...
2013: Trials
Kirsi-Maija Kaukonen, Michael Bailey, David Pilcher, Neil Orford, Simon Finfer, Rinaldo Bellomo
INTRODUCTION: There is no information on the uptake of Intensive Insulin Therapy (IIT) before the Normoglycemia in Intensive Care Evaluation and Surviving Using Glucose Algorithm Regulation (NICE-SUGAR) trial in Australia and New Zealand (ANZ) and on the bi-national response to the trial, yet such data would provide important information on the evolution of ANZ practice in this field. We aimed to study ANZ glycaemic control before and after the publication of the results of the NICE-SUGAR trial...
2013: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
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