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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049980/the-dual-role-of-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-1-in-modulating-parthanatos-and-autophagy-under-oxidative-stress-in-rat-cochlear-marginal-cells-of-the-stria-vascularis
#1
Hong-Yan Jiang, Yang Yang, Yuan-Yuan Zhang, Zhen Xie, Xue-Yan Zhao, Yu Sun, Wei-Jia Kong
Oxidative stress is reported to regulate several apoptotic and necrotic cell death pathways in auditory tissues. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) can be activated under oxidative stress, which is the hallmark of parthanatos. Autophagy, which serves either a pro-survival or pro-death function, can also be stimulated by oxidative stress, but the role of autophagy and its relationship with parthanatos underlying this activation in the inner ear remains unknown. In this study, we established an oxidative stress model in vitro by glucose oxidase/glucose (GO/G), which could continuously generate low concentrations of H2O2 to mimic continuous exposure to H2O2 in physiological conditions, for investigation of oxidative stress-induced cell death mechanisms and the regulatory role of PARP-1 in this process...
October 7, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045013/is-there-a-relationship-between-melanocytes-and-sensorineural-hearing-loss-clinical-evaluation-of-fifthy-one-alopecia-areata-patients
#2
Hasan Emre Koçak, Ayşe Şermin Filiz Acıpayam, Harun Acıpayam, Bilgen Çakıl Erdoğan, Nimet Yeşim Yıldız, Levent Küfeciler, Mustafa Suphi Elbistanlı, Kamil Hakan Kaya
Melanocytes are located in both the cochlea and vestibular organ of the inner ear. They are present in the hearing organ, in the intermediate layer of stria vascularis in the cochlea. The most important task of the stria vascularis is to provide the endolymph production necessary for normal hearing levels, especially high K(+) concentration, and to protect the positive endocochlear potential. Specifically, intermediate layer melanocytes express ionic channels, such as inwardly rectifying K+ channels and voltage-dependent outwardly rectifying K+...
October 17, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037972/sex-differences-in-circuits-activated-by-corticotropin-releasing-factor-in-rats
#3
Madeleine Salvatore, Kimberly Wiersielis, Sandra Luz, David Waxler, Seema Bhatnagar, Debra A Bangasser
Women are more likely than men to suffer from psychiatric disorders characterized by corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) hypersecretion, suggesting sex differences in CRF sensitivity. In rodents, sex differences in the sensitivity of specific brain regions to CRF have been identified. However, regions do not work in isolation, but rather form circuits to coordinate distinct responses to stress. Here we examined whether CRF activates different circuits in male and female rats. Following central administration of CRF or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), neuronal activation in stress-related areas was assessed using cFOS...
October 13, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992226/arginine-vasotocin-and-neuropeptide-y-vary-with-seasonal-life-history-transitions-in-garter-snakes
#4
Ashley R Lucas, Daelyn Y Richards, Lucy M Ramirez, Deborah I Lutterschmidt
Transitions between life-history stages are often accompanied by dramatic behavioral switches that result from a shift in motivation to pursue one resource over another. While the neuroendocrine mechanisms that regulate such behavioral transitions are poorly understood, arginine vasotocin (AVT) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) are excellent candidates because they modulate reproductive and feeding behavior, respectively. We asked if seasonal changes in AVT and NPY are concomitant with the seasonal migration to and from the feeding grounds in red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis)...
August 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990707/rapid-changes-in-brain-aromatase-activity-in-the-female-quail-brain-following-expression-of-sexual-behavior
#5
Catherine de Bournonville, Gregory F Ball, Jacques Balthazart, Charlotte A Cornil
In male quail, estrogens produced in the brain (neuroestrogens) exert a dual action on male sexual behavior: they increase sexual motivation within minutes via mechanisms activated at the membrane but facilitate sexual performance by slower, presumably nuclear-initiated, mechanisms. Recent work indicates that neuroestrogens are also implicated in the control of female sexual motivation despite the presence of high circulating concentrations of estrogens of ovarian origin. Interestingly aromatase activity (AA) in the male brain is regulated in time domains corresponding to the slow "genomic" and faster "non-genomic" modes of action of estrogens...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990052/macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-knockdown-inhibit-viability-and-induce-apoptosis-of-pvm-ms
#6
Wenjing Zhang, Jian Zheng, Juan Meng, Lingling Neng, Xiaohua Chen, Zhaobing Qin
Previous studies have suggested that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) serves an important role in hearing function; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, perivascular‑resident macrophage‑like melanocytes (PVM/Ms) from the stria vascularis of the lateral cochlear wall in young and aged mice were isolated. The mRNA and protein expression levels of MIF were determined using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, and western blotting, respectively...
October 2, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986608/opiate-dependence-induces-cell-type-specific-plasticity-of-intrinsic-membrane-properties-in-the-rat-juxtacapsular-bed-nucleus-of-stria-terminalis-jcbnst
#7
Walter Francesconi, Attila Szücs, Fulvia Berton, George F Koob, Leandro F Vendruscolo, Pietro Paolo Sanna
RATIONALE: Drugs of abuse can alter circuit dynamics by modifying synaptic efficacy and/or the intrinsic membrane properties of neurons. The juxtacapsular subdivision of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (jcBNST) has unique connectivity that positions it to integrate cortical and amygdala inputs and provide feed-forward inhibition to the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), among other regions. In this study, we investigated changes in the synaptic and intrinsic properties of neurons in the rat jcBNST during protracted withdrawal from morphine dependence using a combination of conventional electrophysiological methods and the dynamic clamp technique...
October 6, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981839/activity-alterations-in-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-and-amygdala-during-threat-anticipation-in-generalized-anxiety-disorder
#8
Christine Buff, Leonie Brinkmann, Maximilian Bruchmann, Michael P I Becker, Sara Tupak, Martin J Herrmann, Thomas Straube
Sustained anticipatory anxiety is central to Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). During anticipatory anxiety, phasic threat responding appears to be mediated by the amygdala, while sustained threat responding seems related to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). Although sustained anticipatory anxiety in GAD patients was proposed to be associated with BNST activity alterations, firm evidence is lacking. We aimed to explore temporal characteristics of BNST and amygdala activity during threat anticipation in GAD patients...
August 25, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977609/gonadal-hormone-dependent-sexual-differentiation-of-a-female-biased-sexually-dimorphic-cell-group-in-the-principal-nucleus-of-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-in-mice
#9
Masahiro Morishita, Sho Maejima, Shinji Tsukahara
We recently reported a female-biased sexually dimorphic area in the mouse brain in the boundary region between the preoptic area and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). We reexamined this area and found that it is a ventral part of the principal nucleus of the BNST (BNSTp). The BNSTp is a male-biased sexually dimorphic nucleus, but the ventral part of the BNSTp (BNSTpv) exhibits female-biased sex differences in volume and neuron number. The volume and neuron number of the BNSTpv were increased in males by neonatal orchiectomy and decreased in females by treatment with testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, or estradiol within 5 days after birth...
October 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968249/evaluating-the-relationship-between-white-matter-integrity-cognition-and-varieties-of%C3%A2-video-game-learning
#10
Nicholas R Ray, Margaret A O'Connell, Kaoru Nashiro, Evan T Smith, Shuo Qin, Chandramallika Basak
BACKGROUND: Many studies are currently researching the effects of video games, particularly in the domain of cognitive training. Great variability exists among video games however, and few studies have attempted to compare different types of video games. Little is known, for instance, about the cognitive processes or brain structures that underlie learning of different genres of video games. OBJECTIVE: To examine the cognitive and neural underpinnings of two different types of game learning in order to evaluate their common and separate correlates, with the hopes of informing future intervention research...
September 27, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965828/activation-of-5-ht2a-receptor-disrupts-rat-maternal-behavior
#11
Jun Gao, Ruiyong Wu, Collin Davis, Ming Li
Serotonin 5-HT2A receptor is widely distributed in the central nervous system and plays an important role in sensorimotor function, emotion regulation, motivation, executive control, learning and memory. We investigated its role in rat maternal behavior, a naturalistic behavior encompassing many psychological functions that the 5-HT2A receptor is involved in. We first showed that activation of 5-HT2A receptor by TCB-2 (a highly selective 5-HT2A agonist, 1, 2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg) disrupted maternal behavior dose-dependently, and this effect was reduced by pretreatment with a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist MDL 100907, but exacerbated by pretreatment with a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist SB242084 and a 5-HT2C receptor agonist MK212, indicating that the maternal disruptive effect of 5-HT2A activation is receptor-specific and can be modulated by 5-HT2C receptor bidirectionally...
September 28, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965430/deep-brain-stimulation-for-severe-treatment-resistant-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-an-open-label-case-series
#12
Sarah Farrand, Andrew H Evans, Simone Mangelsdorf, Samantha M Loi, Ramon Mocellin, Adam Borham, JoAnne Bevilacqua, Scott Blair-West, Mark A Walterfang, Richard G Bittar, Dennis Velakoulis
OBJECTIVE: Deep brain stimulation can be of benefit in carefully selected patients with severe intractable obsessive-compulsive disorder. The aim of this paper is to describe the outcomes of the first seven deep brain stimulation procedures for obsessive-compulsive disorder undertaken at the Neuropsychiatry Unit, Royal Melbourne Hospital. The primary objective was to assess the response to deep brain stimulation treatment utilising the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale as a measure of symptom severity...
September 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955207/hydrogen-inhalation-protects-against-ototoxicity-induced-by-intravenous-cisplatin-in-the-guinea-pig
#13
Anette E Fransson, Marta Kisiel, Kristian Pirttilä, Curt Pettersson, Pernilla Videhult Pierre, Göran F E Laurell
Introduction: Permanent hearing loss and tinnitus as side-effects from treatment with the anticancer drug cisplatin is a clinical problem. Ototoxicity may be reduced by co-administration of an otoprotective agent, but the results in humans have so far been modest. Aim: The present preclinical in vivo study aimed to explore the protective efficacy of hydrogen (H2) inhalation on ototoxicity induced by intravenous cisplatin. Materials and Methods: Albino guinea pigs were divided into four groups. The Cispt (n = 11) and Cispt+H2 (n = 11) groups were given intravenous cisplatin (8 mg/kg b...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951212/macrophage-recruitment-but-not-interleukin-1-beta-activation-enhances-noise-induced-hearing-damage
#14
Yu Mizushima, Chisato Fujimoto, Akinori Kashio, Kenji Kondo, Tatsuya Yamasoba
It has been suggested that macrophages or inflammatory monocytes participate in the pathology of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), but it is unclear how extensively these cells contribute to the development of temporary and/or permanent NIHL. To address this question, we used clodronate liposomes to deplete macrophages and monocytes. After clodronate liposome injection, mice were exposed to 4-kHz octave band noise at 121 dB for 4 h. Compared to vehicle-injected controls, clodronate-treated mice exhibited significantly reduced permanent threshold shifts at 4 and 8 kHz and significantly smaller outer hair cell losses in the lower-apical cochlear turn...
November 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948070/predicting-neurocognitive-function-with-hippocampal-volumes-and-dti-metrics-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-dementia-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#15
Geumsook Shim, Kwang-Yeon Choi, Dohyun Kim, Sang-Il Suh, Suji Lee, Hyun-Ghang Jeong, Bumseok Jeong
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive performance in patients with Alzheimer's dementia (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been reported to be related to hippocampal atrophy and microstructural changes in white matter (WM). We aimed to predict the neurocognitive functions of patients with MCI or AD using hippocampal volumes and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics via partial least squares regression (PLSR). METHODS: A total of 148 elderly female subjects were included: AD (n = 49), MCI (n = 66), and healthy controls (n = 33)...
September 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942063/in-vivo-magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri-of-laminae-in-the-human-cortex
#16
REVIEW
Robert Trampel, Pierre-Louis Bazin, Kerrin Pine, Nikolaus Weiskopf
The human neocortex is organized radially into six layers which differ in their myelination and the density and arrangement of neuronal cells. This cortical cyto- and myeloarchitecture plays a central role in the anatomical and functional neuroanatomy but is primarily accessible through invasive histology only. To overcome this limitation, several non-invasive MRI approaches have been, and are being, developed to resolve the anatomical cortical layers. As a result, recent studies on large populations and structure-function relationships at the laminar level became possible...
September 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941573/hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-responsiveness-to-methamphetamine-is-modulated-by-gonadectomy-in-males
#17
Jason S Jacobskind, Zachary J Rosinger, Damian G Zuloaga
Sex differences in patterns of methamphetamine (MA) abuse have been reported with females (humans and rodents) showing an elevated addiction phenotype. Previous findings indicate MA-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation is also sexually dimorphic with females exhibiting an elevated glucocorticoid release and differential neural activation patterns within HPA axis-associated brain regions. These effects may contribute to sex differences in abuse. To determine the role of gonadal hormones in mediating sex differences in MA-induced glucocorticoids, male and female C57BL/6J mice were gonadectomized or sham-operated, and following recovery, injected with MA (5 mg/kg) and sacrificed 60 minutes or 120 minutes later...
September 20, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925723/expression-patterns-of-members-of-the-isocitrate-dehydrogenase-gene-family-in-murine-inner-ear
#18
Y-R Kim, K-H Kim, S Lee, S-K Oh, J-W Park, K-Y Lee, J-I Baek, U-K Kim
Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is characterized by an age-dependent decline of auditory function characterized by with loss of sensory hair cells, spiral ganglion neurons, and stria vascularis (SV) cells in the cochlea of the inner ear. Aging and age-related diseases result from accumulated oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by mitochondria. The isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) family includes three enzymes in human cells: IDH1, IDH2, and IDH3. Although all three enzymes catalyze the same enzymatic reaction, that is, oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to produce α-ketoglutarate, each IDH enzyme has unique features...
September 19, 2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921616/tangential-migration-of-corridor-guidepost-neurons-contributes-to-anxiety-circuits
#19
Andrea Tinterri, Marie Deck, Maryama Keita, Caroline Mailhes, Anna Noren Rubin, Nicoletta Kessaris, Ludmilla Lokmane, Franck Bielle, Sonia Garel
In mammals, thalamic axons are guided internally toward their neocortical target by corridor (Co) neurons that act as axonal guideposts. The existence of Co-like neurons in non-mammalian species, in which thalamic axons do not grow internally, raised the possibility that Co cells might have an ancestral role. Here, we investigated the contribution of corridor (Co) cells to mature brain circuits using a combination of genetic fate-mapping and assays in mice. We unexpectedly found that Co neurons contribute to striatal-like projection neurons in the central extended amygdala...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918267/compulsivity-in-opioid-dependence
#20
Serenella Tolomeo, Keith Matthews, Douglas Steele, Alex Baldacchino
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between compulsivity versus impulsivity and structural MRI abnormalities in opioid dependence. METHOD: We recruited 146 participants: i) patients with a history of opioid dependence due to chronic heroin use (n=24), ii) heroin users stabilised on methadone maintenance treatment (n=48), iii) abstinent participants with a history of opioid dependence due to heroin use (n=24) and iv) healthy controls (n=50)...
September 14, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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