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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466997/hearing-impairment-in-melas-new-prospective-in-clinical-use-of-microrna-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Arianna Di Stadio, Valentina Pegoraro, Laura Giaretta, Laura Dipietro, Roberta Marozzo, Corrado Angelini
AIM: To evaluate the feasibility of microRNAs (miR) in clinical use to fill in the gap of current methodology commonly used to test hearing impairment in MELAS patients. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A literature review was performed using the following keywords, i.e., MELAS, Hearing Loss, Hearing Impairment, Temporal Bone, Otoacustic Emission (OTOAE), Auditory Brain Response (ABR), and microRNA. We reviewed the literature and focused on the aspect of the temporal bone, the results of electrophysiological tests in human clinical studies, and the use of miR for detecting lesions in the cochlea in patients with MELAS...
February 21, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458150/pink1-protects-auditory-hair-cells-and-spiral-ganglion-neurons-from-cisplatin-induced-ototoxicity-via-inducing-autophagy-and-inhibiting-jnk-signaling-pathway
#2
Qianqian Yang, Gaoying Sun, Haiyan Yin, Hongrui Li, Zhixin Cao, Jinghan Wang, Meijuan Zhou, Haibo Wang, Jianfeng Li
Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) gene encodes a serine/threonine kinase, which acts as a molecular sensor of mitochondrial health necessary for mitochondrial quality control. The present study was designed to examine whether PINK1 expressed in C57BL/6 murine cochlea and HEI-OC1 cells and, if so, to investigate the possible mechanisms underlying the action of PINK1 in cisplatin-induced death of sensory hair cells (HCs) and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) in vitro. The expression pattern of PINK1, formation of parkin particles, and autophagy were determined by immunofluorescent staining...
February 16, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456958/etiology-of-noise-induced-hearing-loss-nihl-and-its-symptomatic-correlation-with-audiometry-observations-in-type-ii-diabetes
#3
Meena K Yadav, K S Yadav
Type II diabetic mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disease that impairs normal insulin production and glucose transport to the liver and muscles. In the India, about 1-5% population suffer from diabetes or related complication. So there is need to cure this disease. DM chronic auditory complications may include spiral ganglia atrophy, degeneration of the vestibulocochlear nerve myelin sheath, reduction of the number of spiral lamina nerve fibres, and thickening of the capillary walls of the stria vascularis and small arteries...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453205/co-deficiency-of-lysosomal-mucolipins-3-and-1-in-cochlear-hair-cells-diminishes-outer-hair-cell-longevity-and-accelerates-age-related-hearing-loss
#4
Teerawat Wiwatpanit, Natalie N Remis, Aisha Ahmad, Yingjie Zhou, John C Clancy, Mary Ann Cheatham, Jaime García-Añoveros
Acquired hearing loss is the predominant neurodegenerative condition associated with aging in humans. Although mutations on several genes are known to cause congenital deafness in newborns, few genes have been implicated in age-related hearing loss (ARHL), perhaps because its cause is likely polygenic. Here, we generated mice lacking lysosomal calcium channel mucolipins 3 and 1 and discovered that both male and female mice suffered a polygenic form of hearing loss. While mucolipin 1 is ubiquitously expressed in all cells, mucolipin 3 is expressed in a small subset of cochlear cells -hair cells (HCs) and marginal cells of the stria vascularis- and very few other cell types...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436578/protective-effect-of-adenovirus-mediated-erythropoietin-expression-on-the-spiral-ganglion-neurons-in-the-rat-inner-ear
#5
Cheng Zhong, Zhendong Jiang, Qiang Guo, Xueyuan Zhang
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of erythropoietin (Epo) and the Epo receptor (Epo‑R) in the spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) of the rat inner ear, and to assess the effect of Epo adenovirus vector (Ad‑Epo) on the spontaneous apoptosis of SGNs. A total of 60 ears from 30 healthy neonatal (2‑3 days postnatal) Sprague‑Dawley rats were used to examine the expression of Epo in the SGNs. The rats were divided into three groups: The negative control group, the vector control group [infected with a green fluorescent protein expression vector (Ad‑GFP)] and the Ad‑Epo group (infected with Ad‑Epo)...
February 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426600/the-endocochlear-potential-as-an-indicator-of-reticular-lamina-integrity-after-noise-exposure-in-mice
#6
Kevin K Ohlemiller, Tejbeer Kaur, Mark E Warchol, Robert H Withnell
The endocochlear potential (EP) provides part of the electrochemical drive for sound-driven currents through cochlear hair cells. Intense noise exposure (110 dB SPL, 2 h) differentially affects the EP in three inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6 [B6], CBA/J [CBA], BALB/cJ [BALB]) (Ohlemiller and Gagnon, 2007, Hearing Research 224:34-50; Ohlemiller et al., 2011, JARO 12:45-58). At least for mice older than 3 mos, B6 mice are unaffected, CBA mice show temporary EP reduction, and BALB mice may show temporary or permanent EP reduction...
February 1, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424020/activation-patterns-of-vasopressinergic-and-oxytocinergic-brain-regions-following-social-play-exposure-in-juvenile-male-and-female-rats
#7
C J Reppucci, C K Gergely, A H Veenema
Social play is a highly rewarding and motivated behavior predominately displayed by juveniles and expressed by nearly all mammalian species. Prior work suggested that the vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) systems can regulate the expression of social play in sex-specific ways. Here we investigated whether there are sex differences in the recruitment of vasopressinergic and oxytocinergic brain regions following social play exposure in juvenile rats. Single-housed rats were allowed to play, in their home cage, with an age- and sex-matched unfamiliar conspecific for 10 min, or received similar handling but no partner...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414029/control-of-cardiovascular-responses-to-stress-by-crf-in-the-bed-nucleus-of-stria-terminalis-is-mediated-by-local-nmda-nnos-sgc-pkg-signaling
#8
Leandro A Oliveira, Lucas Gomes-de-Souza, Ricardo Benini, Carlos C Crestani
The aims of the present study were to assess an interaction of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurotransmission within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) with local nitrergic signaling, as well as to investigate an involvement of activation of local NMDA glutamate receptor and nitric oxide (NO) signaling in control of cardiovascular responses to acute restraint stress by BNST CRF neurotransmission in rats. We observed that CRF microinjection into the BNST increased local NO release during restraint stress...
January 12, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408589/identification-of-stria-medullaris-fibers-in-the-massa-intermedia-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#9
Ryan B Kochanski, Robert Dawe, Mehmet Kocak, Sepehr Sani
BACKGROUND: The massa intermedia (MI) or interthalamic adhesion is an inconsistent band spanning between bilateral medial thalami that is absent in up to 20-30% of individuals. Little is known of its significance, especially in regards to functional pathways. Probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has recently been used to seed the lateral habenula (LHb) and define its afferent white matter pathway, the stria medullaris thalami (SM). We sought to determine if the MI serves as a conduit for crossing of limbic fibers such as the SM...
January 31, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408468/neuropeptide-y2-receptors-in-anteroventral-bnst-control-remote-fear-memory-depending-on-extinction-training
#10
Dilip Verma, Ramon Tasan, Guenther Sperk, Hans-Christian Pape
The anterior bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) is involved in reinstatement of extinguished fear, and neuropeptide Y2 receptors influence local synaptic signaling. Therefore, we hypothesized that Y2 receptors in anteroventral BNST (BNSTav) interfere with remote fear memory and that previous fear extinction is an important variable. C57BL/6NCrl mice were fear-conditioned, and a Y2 receptor-specific agonist (NPY3-36) or antagonist (JNJ-5207787) was applied in BNSTav before fear retrieval at the following day...
February 2, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407458/mechanistic-substrates-of-a-life-history-transition-in-male-prairie-voles-developmental-plasticity-in-affiliation-and-aggression-corresponds-to-nonapeptide-neuronal-function
#11
Aubrey M Kelly, Alexander G Saunders, Alexander G Ophir
Although prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) social behavior is well-characterized in adults, surprisingly little is known about the development of social behavior in voles. Further, the overwhelming majority of studies in prairie voles examine social behavior in a reproductive context. Here, we examine developmental plasticity in affiliation and aggression and their underlying neural correlates. Using sexually naïve males, we characterized interactions with an age-matched, novel, same-sex conspecific in four different age groups that span pre-weaning to adulthood...
February 3, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406245/progress-and-challenges-in-deep-brain-stimulation-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#12
REVIEW
Sina Kohl, Juan C Baldermann
This narrative review summarizes the recent literature on deep brain stimulation for treatment resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder highlighting both progress and challenges of this novel treatment. Common targets of psychiatric deep brain stimulation involve both white matter trajectories (anterior limb of the internal capsule, inferior thalamic peduncle, and medial forebrain bundle) and grey matter subcortical nuclei (nucleus accumbens, nucleus subthalamicus, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis) each of which have been reported with a relevant beneficial effect on obsessive-compulsive symptoms...
January 30, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395488/anteroventral-bed-nuclei-of-the-stria-terminalis-neurocircuitry-towards-an-integration-of-hpa-axis-modulation-with-coping-behaviors-curt-richter-award-paper-2017
#13
REVIEW
Jason J Radley, Shane B Johnson
A network of interconnected cell groups in the limbic forebrain regulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation and behavioral responses to emotionally stressful experiences, and chronic disruption of these systems chronically is implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric illnesses. A significant challenge has been to unravel the circuitry and mechanisms providing for regulation of HPA activity, as these limbic forebrain regions do not provide any direct innervation of HPA effector cell groups in the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH)...
December 24, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383398/methamphetamine-withdrawal-induces-activation-of-crf-neurons-in-the-brain-stress-system-in-parallel-with-an-increased-activity-of-cardiac-sympathetic-pathways
#14
Juan Antonio García-Carmona, Polymnia Georgiou, Panos Zanos, Alexis Bailey, Maria Luisa Laorden
Methamphetamine (METH) addiction is a major public health problem in some countries. There is evidence to suggest that METH use is associated with increased risk of developing cardiovascular problems. Here, we investigated the effects of chronic METH administration and withdrawal on the activation of the brain stress system and cardiac sympathetic pathways. Mice were treated with METH (2 mg/kg, i.p.) for 10 days and left to spontaneous withdraw for 7 days. The number of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF), c-Fos, and CRF/c-Fos neurons was measured by immunohistochemistry in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and the oval region of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (ovBNST), two regions associated with cardiac sympathetic control...
January 30, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382815/extended-amygdala-connectivity-changes-during-sustained-shock-anticipation
#15
REVIEW
Salvatore Torrisi, Adam X Gorka, Javier Gonzalez-Castillo, Katherine O'Connell, Nicholas Balderston, Christian Grillon, Monique Ernst
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and central amygdala (CeA) of the extended amygdala are small, anatomically interconnected brain regions. They are thought to mediate responses to sustained, unpredictable threat stimuli and phasic, predictable threat stimuli, respectively. They perform these operations largely through their interconnected networks. In two previous studies, we mapped and contrasted the resting functional connectivity networks of the BNST and CeA at 7 Tesla with high resolution...
January 31, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377161/phylogeny-and-species-delineation-in-the-marine-diatom-pseudo-nitzchia-bacillariophyta-using-cox1-lsu-and-its2-rrna-genes-a-perspective-in-character-evolution
#16
Hong Chang Lim, Suh Nih Tan, Sing Tung Teng, Nina Lundholm, Emma Orive, Helena David, Sonia Quijano-Scheggia, Sandric Chee Yew Leong, Matthias Wolf, Stephen S Bates, Po Teen Lim, Chui Pin Leaw
Analyses of the mitochondrial cox1, the nuclear-encoded large subunit (LSU) and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) RNA coding region of Pseudo-nitzschia revealed that the P. pseudodelicatissima complex can be phylogenetically grouped into three distinct clades (Groups I-III), while the P. delicatissima complex forms another distinct clade (Group IV) in both the LSU and ITS2 phylogenetic trees. It was elucidated that comprehensive taxon sampling (sampling of sequences), selection of appropriate target genes and outgroup, and alignment strategies influence the phylogenetic accuracy...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368643/claudin-expression-during-early-postnatal-development-of-the-murine-cochlea
#17
Takayuki Kudo, Philine Wangemann, Daniel C Marcus
BACKGROUND: Claudins are major components of tight junctions, which form the paracellular barrier between the cochlear luminal and abluminal fluid compartments that supports the large transepithelial voltage difference and the large concentration differences of K+, Na+ and Ca2+ needed for normal cochlear function. Claudins are a family of more than 20 subtypes, but our knowledge about expression and localization of each subtype in the cochlea is limited. RESULTS: We examined by quantitative RT-PCR the expression of the mRNA of 24 claudin isoforms in mouse cochlea during postnatal development and localized the expression in separated fractions of the cochlea...
January 25, 2018: BMC Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352998/two-weeks-of-variable-stress-increases-gamma-h2ax-levels-in-the-mouse-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis
#18
Brendan D Hare, Tina M Thornton, Mercedes Rincon, Borivoj Golijanin, S Bradley King, Diane M Jaworski, William A Falls
Recent reports demonstrate that DNA damage is induced, and rapidly repaired, in circuits activated by experience. Moreover, stress hormones are known to slow DNA repair, suggesting that prolonged stress may result in persistent DNA damage. Prolonged stress is known to negatively impact physical and mental health; however, DNA damage as a factor in stress pathology has only begun to be explored. Histone H2A-X phosphorylated at serine 139 (γH2AX) is a marker of DNA double strand breaks (DSB), a type of damage that may lead to cell death if unrepaired...
January 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351398/visceral-hypersensitivity-induced-by-optogenetic-activation-of-the-amygdala-in-conscious-rats
#19
Anthony C Johnson, Rocco Latorre, Casey O Ligon, Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld
In vivo optogenetics identifies brain circuits controlling behaviors in conscious animals by using light to alter neuronal function and offers a novel tool to study the brain-gut axis. Using adenoviral-mediated expression, we aimed to investigate whether photoactivation with channelrhodopsin (ChR2) or photoinhibition with halorhodopsin (HR3.0) of fibers originating from the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) at the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) had any effect on colonic sensitivity. We also investigated whether that there was any deleterious effect of the adenovirus on the neuronal population or the neuronal phenotype within the CeA-BNST circuitry activated during the optogenetic stimulation...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339643/effect-of-remote-ischemic-preconditioning-on-systemic-toxicity-and-ototoxicity-induced-by-cisplatin-in-rats-role-of-tnf-%C3%AE-and-nitric-oxide
#20
Marcos Jullian Barreto Martins, Avner Marcos Alves Batista, Yuri Neyson Ferreira Brito, Pedro Marcos Gomes Soares, Conceição da Silva Martins, Ronaldo de Albuquerque Ribeiro, Gerly Anne de Castro Brito, Marcos Rabelo de Freitas
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent. The use of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) was proposed after the observation that ischemic preconditioning of a cardiac vascular area could protect another completely distinctly. METHODS: This is an experimental study. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized, and they underwent a hearing evaluation via measurement of the brainstem auditory evoked potential (BSAEP). Then, cisplatin was administered intraperitoneally (IP) at a dose of 8 mg/kg/day for 4 consecutive days to group 1, whereas saline solution was administered IP to group 2...
January 17, 2018: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
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