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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818391/role-of-capillary-pericytes-and-precapillary-arterioles-in-the-vascular-mechanism-of-betahistine-in-a-guinea-pig-inner-ear-model
#1
Mattis Bertlich, Friedrich Ihler, Bernhard G Weiss, Saskia Freytag, Michael Strupp, Mark Jakob, Martin Canis
AIMS: Betahistine is a histamine analogue that is used for the treatment of Menière's disease. Animal studies showed that it increases local blood flow in the stria vascularis. In terms of its mode of action, recent studies have prompted discussion of whether betahistine actively affects cochlear microcirculation by dilations of pericytes or of precapillary arterioles or by mere downstream effects. Hence, we investigated the effects of betahistine on cochlear capillary pericytes and precapillary arterioles...
August 14, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814474/role-of-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-in-aversive-learning-and-memory
#2
Travis D Goode, Stephen Maren
Surviving threats in the environment requires brain circuits for detecting (or anticipating) danger and for coordinating appropriate defensive responses (e.g., increased cardiac output, stress hormone release, and freezing behavior). The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a critical interface between the "affective forebrain"-including the amygdala, ventral hippocampus, and medial prefrontal cortex-and the hypothalamic and brainstem areas that have been implicated in neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses to actual or anticipated threats...
September 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802382/evaluation-of-the-possible-protective-role-of-naringenin-on-gentamicin-induced-ototoxicity-a-preliminary-study
#3
I Koçak, S Sarac, E Aydogan, E Şentürk, D Akakın, K Koroglu, Ö F Özer
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the possible protective role of naringenin in gentamicin-induced ototoxicity through an audiological, biochemical and histopathological evaluation. METHODS: This study was conducted on 32 adult male rats that were randomized into 4 groups(control, gentamicin, naringenin + gentamicin, and naringenin). Naringenin was given to the rats via oral gavage in a dose of 50 mg/kg/day during the 14 day study period. Gentamicin was given by the intraperitoneal route in a dose of 120 mg/kg/day...
September 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797599/magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-analysis-of-neurochemical-changes-in-the-atrophic-hippocampus-of-app-ps1-transgenic-mice
#4
Shengxiang Liang, Jia Huang, Weilin Liu, Hao Jin, Long Li, Xiufeng Zhang, Binbin Nie, Ruhui Lin, Jing Tao, Shujun Zhao, Baoci Shan, Lidian Chen
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by neuropathological changes and progressive cognitive decline, which is associated with the volume loss and neurochemical alterations. However, the specific neurochemical alterations in cerebral regions that contribute to cognitive decline still remain unknown. In the present study, we measured cerebral morphological and neurochemical alterations using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in an AD model of APP/PS1 transgenic mice...
August 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790896/a-quantitative-analysis-of-the-distribution-of-crh-neurons-in-whole-mouse-brain
#5
Jie Peng, Ben Long, Jing Yuan, Xue Peng, Hong Ni, Xiangning Li, Hui Gong, Qingming Luo, Anan Li
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), with widespread expression in the brain, plays a key role in modulating a series of behaviors, including anxiety, arousal, motor function, learning and memory. Previous studies have focused on some brain regions with densely distributed CRH neurons such as paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVH) and bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BST) and revealed some basic structural and functional knowledge of CRH neurons. However, there is no systematic analysis of brain-wide distribution of CRH neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764933/analysis-of-c-fos-induction-in-response-to-social-interaction-in-male-and-female-fisher-344-rats
#6
Amy E Perkins, Elizabeth R Woodruff, Lauren E Chun, Robert L Spencer, Elena Varlinskaya, Terrence Deak
Sex differences in the expression of social behavior are typically apparent in adolescent and adult rats. While the neurobiology underlying juvenile social play behavior has been well characterized, less is known about discrete brain regions involved in adult responsiveness to a same sex peer. Furthermore, whether adult males and females differ in their responsiveness to a social interaction in terms of neuronal activation indexed via immediate early gene (IEG) expression remains to be determined. Thus, the present study was designed to identify key sites relevant to the processing of sensory stimuli (generally) or social stimuli (specifically) after brief exposure to a same-sex social partner by assessing IEG expression...
July 29, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761080/serotonin-inputs-to-the-dorsal-bnst-modulate-anxiety-in-a-5-ht1a-receptor-dependent-manner
#7
A L Garcia-Garcia, S Canetta, J M Stujenske, N S Burghardt, M S Ansorge, A Dranovsky, E D Leonardo
Serotonin (5-HT) neurons project from the raphe nuclei throughout the brain where they act to maintain homeostasis. Here, we study 5-HT inputs into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a major subdivision of the extended amygdala that has been proposed to regulate responses to anxiogenic environments in humans and rodents. While the dorsal part of the BNST (dBNST) receives dense 5-HT innervation, whether and how 5-HT in the dBNST normally modulates anxiety remains unclear. Using optogenetics, we demonstrate that activation of 5-HT terminals in the dBNST reduces anxiety in a highly anxiogenic environment...
August 1, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755714/pseudo-nitzschia-simulans-sp-nov-bacillariophyceae-the-first-domoic-acid-producer-from-chinese-waters
#8
Yang Li, Chun Xiu Huang, Guo Shuang Xu, Nina Lundholm, Sing Tung Teng, Haiyan Wu, Zhijun Tan
The genus Pseudo-nitzschia has attracted attention because of production of the toxin, domoic acid (DA), causing Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). Pseudo-nitzschia blooms occur frequently in Chinese coastal waters, and DA has been detected in several marine organisms, but so far no Pseudo-nitzschia strains from Chinese waters have been shown to produce DA. In this study, monoclonal Pseudo-nitzschia strains were established from Chinese coastal waters and examined using light microscopy, electron microscopy and molecular markers...
July 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734725/estrogen-receptor-alpha-is-required-in-gabaergic-but-not-glutamatergic-neurons-to-masculinize-behavior
#9
Melody V Wu, Jessica Tollkuhn
Masculinization of the altricial rodent brain is driven by estrogen signaling during a perinatal critical period. Genetic deletion of estrogen receptor alpha (Esr1/ERα) results in altered hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis signaling and a dramatic reduction of male sexual and territorial behaviors. However, the role of ERα in masculinizing distinct classes of neurons remains unexplored. We deleted ERα in excitatory or inhibitory neurons using either a Vglut2 or Vgat driver and assessed male behaviors...
July 20, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729827/lateral-hypothalamic-control-of-the-ventral-tegmental-area-reward-evaluation-and-the-driving-of-motivated-behavior
#10
REVIEW
Susan M Tyree, Luis de Lecea
The lateral hypothalamus (LH) plays an important role in many motivated behaviors, sleep-wake states, food intake, drug-seeking, energy balance, etc. It is also home to a heterogeneous population of neurons that express and co-express multiple neuropeptides including hypocretin (Hcrt), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and neurotensin (NT). These neurons project widely throughout the brain to areas such as the locus coeruleus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the amygdala and the ventral tegmental area (VTA)...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726252/central-amygdala-relaxin-3-rxfp3-signalling-modulates-alcohol-seeking-in-rats
#11
Leigh C Walker, Hanna E Kastman, Elena Krstew, Andrew L Gundlach, Andrew J Lawrence
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Alcohol use disorders are a leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide and stress is a major trigger of relapse. The neuropeptide relaxin-3 and its cognate receptor, relaxin family peptide receptor 3 (RXFP3), modulate stress-induced relapse to alcohol seeking in rats and while the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis has been implicated in this regard, the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) also receives a relaxin-3 innervation and CeA neurons densely express RXFP3 mRNA...
July 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715355/repeated-exposure-to-sucrose-for-procedural-pain-in-mouse-pups-leads-to-long-term-widespread-brain-alterations
#12
Sophie Tremblay, Manon Ranger, Cecil M Y Chau, Jacob Ellegood, Jason P Lerch, Liisa Holsti, Daniel Goldowitz, Ruth E Grunau
Oral sucrose is administered routinely to reduce pain of minor procedures in premature infants and is recommended as standard care in international guidelines. No human or animal studies on effects of early repeated sucrose exposure on long-term brain development have been done in the context of pain. We evaluated the effects of repeated neonatal sucrose treatment before an intervention on long-term brain structure in mouse pups. Neonatal C57Bl/6J mice (n = 109) were randomly assigned to one of 2 treatments (vehicle vs sucrose) and one of 3 interventions (handling, touch, or needle-prick)...
August 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714716/cb%C3%A2-receptor-antagonism-in-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-interferes-with-affective-opioid-withdrawal-in-rats
#13
Kiri L Wills, Marieka V DeVuono, Cheryl L Limebeer, Kiran Vemuri, Alexandros Makriyannis, Linda A Parker
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a region of the extended amygdala that is implicated in addiction, anxiety, and stress related behaviors. This region has been identified in mediating the aversive state of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal (MWD) and cannabinoid Type I (CB1) receptors have been found to modulate neurotransmission within this region. Previous findings suggest that the CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist, AM251, administered systemically or by infusion into the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) prevented the aversive affective properties of MWD as measured by conditioned place aversion learning...
August 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703809/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-a-prototypic-chemopreventative-agent-for-protection-against-cisplatin-based-ototoxicity
#14
Vikrant Borse, Raheem F H Al Aameri, Kelly Sheehan, Sandeep Sheth, Tejbeer Kaur, Debashree Mukherjea, Srinivasan Tupal, Michelle Lowy, Sumana Ghosh, Asmita Dhukhwa, Puspanjali Bhatta, Leonard P Rybak, Vickram Ramkumar
Cisplatin-induced ototoxicity is one of the major factors limiting cisplatin chemotherapy. Ototoxicity results from damage to outer hair cells (OHCs) and other regions of the cochlea. At the cellular level, cisplatin increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to cochlear inflammation and apoptosis. Thus, ideal otoprotective drugs should target oxidative stress and inflammatory mechanisms without interfering with cisplatin's chemotherapeutic efficacy. In this study, we show that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a prototypic agent exhibiting these properties of an effect otoprotective agent...
July 13, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701225/association-of-schizophrenia-onset-age-and-white-matter-integrity-with-treatment-effect-of-d-cycloserine-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-crossover-study
#15
Kazuo Takiguchi, Akihito Uezato, Michio Itasaka, Hidenori Atsuta, Kenji Narushima, Naoki Yamamoto, Akeo Kurumaji, Makoto Tomita, Kazunari Oshima, Kosaku Shoda, Mai Tamaru, Masahito Nakataki, Mitsutoshi Okazaki, Sayuri Ishiwata, Yasuyoshi Ishiwata, Masato Yasuhara, Kunimasa Arima, Tetsuro Ohmori, Toru Nishikawa
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that drugs which promote the N-Methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptor function by stimulating the glycine modulatory site in the receptor improve negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia patients being treated with antipsychotic drugs. METHODS: We performed a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover study involving 41 schizophrenia patients in which D-cycloserine 50 mg/day was added-on, and the influence of the onset age and association with white matter integrity on MR diffusion tensor imaging were investigated for the first time...
July 12, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699305/enhancement-of-the-lh-surge-by-male-olfactory-signals-is-associated-with-avpv-kiss1-cell-activation-in-female-rats
#16
Youki Watanabe, Kana Ikegami, Ren Ishigaki, Nahoko Ieda, Yoshihisa Uenoyama, Kei-Ichiro Maeda, Hiroko Tsukamura, Naoko Inoue
Olfactory stimuli play an important role in regulating reproductive functions in mammals. The present study investigated the effect of olfactory signals derived from male rats on kisspeptin neuronal activity and luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in female rats. Wistar-Imamichi strain female rats were ovariectomised (OVX) and implanted with preovulatory levels of oestradiol-17β (E2). OVX+E2 rats were sacrificed 1 hour after exposure to either: clean bedding, female-soiled bedding or male-soiled bedding. Dual staining for Kiss1 mRNA in situ hybridization and c-Fos immunohistochemistry revealed that the numbers of Kiss1-expressing cells and c-Fos-immunopositive Kiss1-expressing cells in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) were significantly higher in OVX+E2 rats exposed to male-soiled bedding than those of the other groups...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695319/acute-impact-of-selected-pyridoindole-derivatives-on-fos-expression-in-different-structures-of-the-rat-brain
#17
Romana Koprdova, Jana Osacka, Mojmir Mach, Alexander Kiss
The impacts of three pyridoindole derivatives (PDs), designated as PD144, PD143, and PD104, which have previously been shown to have antidepressant (PD144) and anxiolytic (PD143, PD104) properties, were investigated on the Fos expressions in 11 different rat brain areas, including the medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, septum, accumbens nucleus (shell, core), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, central amygdala, locus coeruleus, dorsal raphe nucleus, and the solitary tract nucleus...
July 10, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694172/macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-mediates-viability-and-apoptosis-of-pvm-ms-through-pi3k-akt-pathway
#18
Wenjing Zhang, Jian Zheng, Juan Meng, Lingling Neng, Xiaohua Chen, Zhaobing Qin
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays an important role in hearing function; however, the underlying mechanism remains indistinct. PVM/Ms from the stria vascularis of lateral wall of cochlea in young and aged mice were isolated, and the mRNA and protein expression levels were detected. MIF was knocked down or overexpresssed in vitro, and transfection was performed in vivo. Cell viability and apoptosis were determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. The hearing ability was tested by the auditory brain stem response...
July 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687930/spatiotemporal-expression-patterns-of-clusterin-in-the-mouse-inner-ear
#19
Seokwon Lee, Jeong-Oh Shin, Borum Sagong, Un-Kyung Kim, Jinwoong Bok
Clusterin (CLU) is an extracellular chaperone protein that is implicated in diverse physiological and pathophysiological cellular processes. CLU expression is upregulated in response to cellular stress and under certain conditions, such as neurodegenerative disease and cancer. CLU primarily functions as a chaperone that exerts cytoprotective effects by removing cellular debris and misfolded proteins and also acts as a signaling molecule that regulates pro-survival pathways. Deafness is caused by genetic factors and various extrinsic insults, including ototoxic drugs, exposure to loud sounds and aging...
July 8, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671956/a-multiscale-cerebral-neurochemical-connectome-of-the-rat-brain
#20
Hamid R Noori, Judith Schöttler, Maria Ercsey-Ravasz, Alejandro Cosa-Linan, Melinda Varga, Zoltan Toroczkai, Rainer Spanagel
Understanding the rat neurochemical connectome is fundamental for exploring neuronal information processing. By using advanced data mining, supervised machine learning, and network analysis, this study integrates over 5 decades of neuroanatomical investigations into a multiscale, multilayer neurochemical connectome of the rat brain. This neurochemical connectivity database (ChemNetDB) is supported by comprehensive systematically-determined receptor distribution maps. The rat connectome has an onion-type structural organization and shares a number of structural features with mesoscale connectomes of mouse and macaque...
July 2017: PLoS Biology
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