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Renal stone disease

Anandan Murugesan, Lakshman Kumar, P Janarthanan
Background: Urine is a supersaturated solution with solutes in very high concentration. Matrix gla protein (MGP) is one of the proteins involved in inhibition of extracellular calcification. Among the various polymorphisms studied, polymorphism of SNP rs4236 in the MGP gene is found to have association with nephrolithiasis. We evaluated the significance of SNP rs4236 polymorphism in nephrolithiasis among the Indian population. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 2013 and 2014 among fifty participants...
January 2018: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
Duncan R Morhardt, Miriam Hadj-Moussa, He Chang, J Stuart Wolf, William W Roberts, John T Stoffel, Gary J Faerber, Anne P Cameron
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of clinical factors on outcomes in SCI patients undergoing ureteroscopy. Immobility, recurrent urinary tract infection, and lower urinary tract dysfunction contribute to renal stone formation in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. Ureteroscopy is a commonly utilized treatment modality, however, surgical complication rates and outcomes have been poorly defined. Evidence guiding safe and effective treatment of stones in this cohort remains scarce. METHODS: Records were retrospectively reviewed for SCI patients who underwent ureteroscopy for kidney stones from 1996-2014 at a single institution...
March 12, 2018: Urology
Nilubon Singhto, Rattiyaporn Kanlaya, Angkhana Nilnumkhum, Visith Thongboonkerd
In kidney stone disease, macrophages secrete various mediators via classical secretory pathway and cause renal interstitial inflammation. However, whether their extracellular vesicles, particularly exosomes, are involved in kidney stone pathogenesis remained unknown. This study investigated alterations in exosomal proteome of U937-derived macrophages (by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate activation) after exposure to calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals for 16-h using 2-DE-based proteomics approach. Six significantly altered proteins in COM-treated exosomes were successfully identified by nanoscale liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-electron transfer dissociation tandem mass spectrometry as proteins involved mainly in immune processes, including T-cell activation and homeostasis, Fcγ receptor-mediated phagocytosis, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) regulation, and cell migration/movement...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Douglas W Jones, Philip P Goodney, Jens Eldrup-Jorgensen, Marc L Schermerhorn, Jeffrey J Siracuse, Jeanwan Kang, Jesse A Columbo, Bjoern D Suckow, David H Stone
OBJECTIVE: Performing lower extremity bypass (LEB) in actively smoking claudicants remains controversial. Whereas some surgeons advocate a strict nonoperative approach to active smokers, citing perceived inferior outcomes, others will proceed with surgical bypass if the patient is anatomically suited and medical management has failed. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of active smoking on LEB outcomes among claudicants. METHODS: All patients undergoing infrainguinal LEB for claudication in the Vascular Study Group of New England from 2003 to 2016 were analyzed...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Ozgur Haki Yuksel, Caglar Yildirim, Ahmet Urkmez, Nurver Ozbay, Fatih Uruc, Aytac Sahin, Serkan Akan, Ayhan Verit
OBJECTIVES: The most important treatment strategy for obstructive nephropathy is to protect renal tissue from the deleterious effects of fibrosis. Therefore, we sought to investigate the renoprotective effects of darbepoetin alfa on unilateral ureteral obstructions. METHODS: We used 12 female and 12 male 3-monthold Wistar rats weighing between 250 and 350 g. The rats were divided equally into sham, darbepoetin and control groups. With the exception of the sham group, left unilateral obstructions were applied to all of the rats...
March 2018: Archivos Españoles de Urología
Patrick Jones, Muhammad Elmussareh, Omar M Aboumarzouk, Phillip Mucksavage, Bhaskar K Somani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The role of PCNL and the expertise surrounding it has expanded in recent decades. Miniaturisation of equipment and instrument size has formed a part of this innovation. Although an increasing number of studies have been performed on miniaturised PCNL (Mi-PCNL) recently, a critical appraisal on these is lacking. We therefore conducted a systematic review of the literature to evaluate the efficacy, safety and feasibility of Mi-PCNL techniques (< 15 Fr). RECENT FINDINGS: A systematic review was conducted from 1990 to March 2017 on outcomes of Mi-PCNL [micro PCNL (m-PCNL) and ultra-mini PCNL (UMP)] in adult patients...
March 7, 2018: Current Urology Reports
Tilahun Alelign, Beyene Petros
Kidney stone disease is a crystal concretion formed usually within the kidneys. It is an increasing urological disorder of human health, affecting about 12% of the world population. It has been associated with an increased risk of end-stage renal failure. The etiology of kidney stone is multifactorial. The most common type of kidney stone is calcium oxalate formed at Randall's plaque on the renal papillary surfaces. The mechanism of stone formation is a complex process which results from several physicochemical events including supersaturation, nucleation, growth, aggregation, and retention of urinary stone constituents within tubular cells...
2018: Advances in Urology
Spatola Leonardo, Ferraro Manuel Pietro, Gambaro Giovanni, Badalamenti Salvatore, Dauriz Marco
Uric acid nephrolithiasis (UAN) is an increasingly common disease in ethnically diverse populations and constitutes about 10% of all kidney stones. Metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus are accounted amongst the major risk factors for UAN, together with environmental exposure, individual lifestyle habits and genetic predisposition. The development and overt manifestation of UAN appears to stem on the background of insulin resistance, which acts at the kidney level by reducing urinary pH, thus hampering the ability of the kidney to generate renal ammonium in response to an acid load...
March 3, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Ching-Chia Li, Tsu-Ming Chien, Wen-Jeng Wu, Chun-Nung Huang, Yii-Her Chou
The aim of this study was to compare the clinical characteristics of uric acid stones and their potential risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD). A total of 401 patients (196 with uric acid stone and 205 without) were enrolled from our database of patients with urolithiasis. We analyzed the clinical demographic features, stone location, urine chemistries, and renal function. There was a significant difference (p < 0.001) between the two groups in terms of age, with the higher mean age in the uric acid group...
February 28, 2018: Urolithiasis
Yunlong Liu, Quan Liu, Xiang Wang, Ziqi He, Derong Li, Xiaofeng Guan, Zhiwei Tao, Yaoliang Deng
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Nephrolithiasis is a common and frequently occurring disease, its exact pathogenesis is remains unclear. Emerging data suggest that autophagy plays a vital role in the pathophysiological processes of kidney diseases. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the potential role of autophagy in the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) kidney stones in rat model. METHODS: Thirty-two rats were randomly divided into four groups (eight rats/group): untreated control group, stone model group, rapamycin-treated group, chloroquine-treated group...
February 22, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
G Gambaro, D S Goldfarb, R Baccaro, J Hirsch, N Topilow, S D'Alonzo, G Gambassi, P M Ferraro
Medullary sponge kidney (MSK) is a cause of nephrocalcinosis, associated with hematuria, renal colic, pyelonephritis. There are rare and atypical MSK cases characterized by chronic severe pain (CP), whose features are unknown, in particular the relationship with the stone disease activity. This study analyzes a cohort of MSK-CP patients belonging to three North-America self-support Facebook groups. Patients had to self-administer an on-line questionnaire (on intensity, progression and MSK-associated conditions, stone-related disease, pain features, drug use), the Brief Pain Inventory, the Fatigue Severity Score, and Wisconsin Quality of Life (WQL) in stone formers questionnaires...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Nephrology
Shu-Yu Wu, Hann-Chorng Kuo
AIMS: To investigate the real treatment outcomes after augmentation enterocystoplasty (AE) of patients with refractory neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. METHODS: Retrospective follow-up in a single center. The videourodynamic data, renal function, incontinence grade, voiding pattern and management, clinical outcome, and complications were evaluated. RESULTS: Seventy-nine patients (62 men and 17 women) were included. The mean age at operation was 39...
February 21, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Cátia Pereira, Patrícia Costa-Reis, José Esteves da Silva, Rosário Stone
Tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis syndrome is an uncommon disease, probably underdiagnosed in clinical practice. Its aetiology and pathogenesis remain unknown. This syndrome is defined by an association of uveitis and tubulointerstitial nephritis, with no evidence of systemic disease or infection that might cause both ocular and renal inflammation. Renal and ocular manifestations may not occur simultaneously, making the diagnosis even more challenging. Treatment includes topical and oral corticosteroids...
February 17, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Ralph V Clayman, Roshan M Patel, Margaret S Pearle
In this review, a simplified straightforward algorithmic approach to the metabolic evaluation and treatment of the at-risk or recurrent urolithiasis patient is provided. Eight diagnoses and eight therapies are provided which cover over 95% of renal stone disease.
February 14, 2018: Journal of Endourology
Rikki Singal, Siddharth Dhar
Background: The introduction of endourological procedures such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy and ureterorenoscopy have led to a revolution in the the management of urinary stone disease. The indications for open stone surgery have been narrowed significantly, making it a second- or third-line treatment option. Aims and Objectives: To study the safety and efficacy of retroperitoneal laparoscopic pyelolithotomy in retroperitoneal renal stone. We compared the results of laparoscopic and open surgery in terms of easy accessibility, operative period, renal injuries, and early recovery...
2018: Clujul Medical (1957)
Yunlong Liu, Derong Li, Ziqi He, Quan Liu, Jihua Wu, Xiaofeng Guan, Zhiwei Tao, Yaoliang Deng
Accumulating evidence suggests that autophagy is involved in the pathophysiological processes of kidney diseases. However, the role of autophagy in the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) nephrolithiasis remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of autophagy on renal tubular epithelial cell injury induced by CaOx crystals in vivo and in vitro . We first observed that the expression levels of LC3-II and BECN1 and number of autophagic vacuoles were markedly increased in the renal tissue of CaOx stone patients...
January 12, 2018: Oncotarget
Roman-Ulrich Müller, Christian S Haas, John A Sayer
Background: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited kidney disease worldwide. The renal phenotype is characterized by progressive cystic enlargement of the kidneys leading to a decline in renal function, hypertension and often end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Supportive care with blood pressure control and management of pain, urinary infections and renal stone disease has, until recently, been the mainstay of treatment. With the recent approval of tolvaptan for use in ADPKD, the disease progression may now be targeted specifically...
February 2018: Clinical Kidney Journal
Kandarp Priyakant Parikh, Ravi Jineshkumar Jain, Aditya Parikh Kandarp
Introduction: Success of any modality for stone disease needs to be evaluated in terms of Stone Free Rates (SFR), auxiliary procedures needed; complications and follow up. SFR in RIRS is subject to parameters like stone burden, location, number, hardness, composition; calyceal and ureter anatomy; use of ureteric access sheath (UAS); surgeon experience etc. Methods: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of RIRS for managing upper tract stones...
January 2018: Urology Annals
Stefano Salciccia, Alessandro Sciarra, Milena Polese, Alpi Giorgio, Martina Maggi, Alessandro Gentilucci, Mauro Ciccariello, Giuseppe D'Eramo, Houssain Shahabadi, Silvia Lai, Gian Piero Ricciuti
Background: Ureteral strictures are a recurrent chronic condition that leads to severe side effects and poor quality of life. Management of ureteral stricture is a great challenge for urologists and no specific guidelines exist. Retrograde Allium® ureteral stent (AUS) is a newly developed ureteral stent to treat either bulbar urethral or ureteral stenosis. Case Presentation: We describe a case of a 74-year-old Caucasian adult male presenting with a severe ureteral stricture secondary to an ureteroscopy for stone disease...
2018: Journal of Endourology Case Reports
Ki Choon Sim
Ultrasonography is a useful tool for the differential diagnosis of acute flank pain. Renal stones appear as a focal area of echogenicity with acoustic shadowing on ultrasonography. In acute pyelonephritis (APN), the kidneys may be enlarged and have a hypoechoic parenchyma with loss of the normal corticomedullary junction. However, clinical and laboratory correlations are essential for the diagnosis of renal stones and APN through imaging studies. This review describes the typical ultrasonography features of renal stones and APN...
November 26, 2017: Ultrasonography
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