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Renal stone disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924845/caffeine-prevents-kidney-stone-formation-by-translocation-of-apical-surface-annexin-a1-crystal-binding-protein-into-cytoplasm-in-vitro-evidence
#1
Paleerath Peerapen, Visith Thongboonkerd
Recent large 3 cohorts have shown that caffeinated beverage consumption was associated with lower risk of kidney stone disease. However, its protective mechanisms remained unknown and had not been previously investigated. We thus evaluated protective effects of caffeine (1 μM-10 mM) on calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) kidney stone formation, using crystallization, crystal growth, cell-crystal adhesion, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence assays. The results showed that caffeine reduced crystal number but, on the other hand, increased crystal size, resulting in unchanged crystal mass, consistent with crystal growth that was not affected by caffeine...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920983/bacteremic-renal-stone-associated-urinary-tract-infection-caused-by-nontypable-haemophilus-influenzae-a-rare-invasive-disease-in-an-immunocompetent-patient
#2
Masanao Fujii, Harumi Gomi, Haruhiko Ishioka, Noriko Takamura
Haemophilus species are known to colonize the upper respiratory tract and can cause infections. However Haemophilus influenzae has been rarely described as a cause of genitourinary tract infection. We report a 44-year-old nonimmunocompromised Japanese man with bacteremic pyelonephritis caused by a nontypable H. influenzae associated with a left ureteral calculus. The organism was isolated from both blood and urine cultures. Treatment consisted of 14 days of intravenous ceftriaxone and oral amoxicillin one after than other and insertion of a left ureteral stent...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914711/proteomic-based-research-strategy-identified-laminin-subunit-alpha-2-as-a-potential-urinary-specific-biomarker-for-the-medullary-sponge-kidney-disease
#3
Antonia Fabris, Maurizio Bruschi, Laura Santucci, Giovanni Candiano, Simona Granata, Alessandra Dalla Gassa, Nadia Antonucci, Andrea Petretto, Gian Marco Ghiggeri, Giovanni Gambaro, Antonio Lupo, Gianluigi Zaza
Medullary sponge kidney (MSK) disease, a rare kidney malformation featuring recurrent renal stones and nephrocalcinosis, continues to be diagnosed using expensive and time-consuming clinical/instrumental tests (mainly urography). Currently, no molecular diagnostic biomarkers are available. To identify such we employed a proteomic-based research strategy utilizing urine from 22 patients with MSK and 22 patients affected by idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis (ICN) as controls. Notably, two patients with ICN presented cysts...
November 30, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913853/the-role-of-intestinal-oxalate-transport-in-hyperoxaluria-and-the-formation-of-kidney-stones-in-animals-and-man
#4
REVIEW
Jonathan M Whittamore, Marguerite Hatch
The intestine exerts a considerable influence over urinary oxalate in two ways, through the absorption of dietary oxalate and by serving as an adaptive extra-renal pathway for elimination of this waste metabolite. Knowledge of the mechanisms responsible for oxalate absorption and secretion by the intestine therefore have significant implications for understanding the etiology of hyperoxaluria, as well as offering potential targets for future treatment strategies for calcium oxalate kidney stone disease. In this review, we present the recent developments and advances in this area over the past 10 years, and put to the test some of the new ideas that have emerged during this time, using human and mouse models...
December 2, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904915/studies-using-a-porcine-model-what-insights-into-human-calcium-oxalate-stone-formation-mechanisms-has-this-model-facilitated
#5
REVIEW
Kristina L Penniston, Sutchin R Patel, Denise J Schwahn, Stephen Y Nakada
Animal models are useful in the study of many human diseases. Our current understanding of the biological, physiological, and biochemical aspects of hyperoxaluria and calcium oxalate urolithiasis has been greatly informed by studies using animals. Recently, limitations in the extrapolation to humans of research results derived from laboratory rodents have been identified. The use in biomedical research of a variety of organisms, including large animals, is increasingly encouraged. The purpose of this article is to review the use of pigs in biomedical and stone research, to provide a rationale for using pigs in metabolic stone research, and to describe our 8-year experience in developing a porcine platform for studying hyperoxaluria and calcium oxalate urolithiasis...
November 30, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896392/tubular-and-genetic-disorders-associated-with-kidney-stones
#6
REVIEW
Nilufar Mohebbi, Pietro Manuel Ferraro, Giovanni Gambaro, Robert Unwin
This concise review summarizes our current understanding and the recent developments in genetics and related renal tubular disorders that have been linked with, or have been shown to be causal in, renal stone disease. The aim is to provide a readily accessible quick and easy update for urologists, nephrologists and endocrine or metabolic physicians whose practice involves the diagnosis and management of nephrolithiasis. An important message is to always consider a seemingly rare, and usually genetic, cause of kidney stones, since some of these are emerging as more common than originally thought, especially in adult clinical practice in which a family history of stones is a common finding...
November 28, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872836/urolithiasis-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-bariatric-surgery
#7
Agapios Gkentzis, Michael Kimuli, Jon Cartledge, Olivier Traxer, Chandra Shekhar Biyani
AIM: To analyse current literature focusing on pathogenesis and therapeutic aspects of urolithiasis with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and following bariatric surgery. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, supplemented with additional references. Studies assessing the association of IBD or bariatric surgery with renal stones in both paediatric and adulthood were included. RESULTS: Certain types of stones are seen more frequently with IBD...
November 6, 2016: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865972/paediatric-urolithiasis-in-emerging-economies
#8
REVIEW
S Adibul Hasan Rizvi, Sajid Sultan, Mirza Naqi Zafar, Sadaf Aba Umar, Bashir Ahmed, S A Anwar Naqvi
BACKGROUND: Paediatric urolithiasis remains endemic in low resource countries. This review highlights the epidemiology, causation and management of urolithiasis in an Asian country in the context of emerging economies. METHODS: A literature review of recent articles with key words paediatric urolithiasis, developing countries, endemic stone disease, stone composition, metabolic risk factors, management of paediatric urolithiasis was undertaken and 51 relevant articles were selected with the main focus on experience of this center in managing stone disease in the last two decades...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864113/chenopodium-album-linn-leaves-prevent-ethylene-glycol-induced-urolithiasis-in-rats
#9
Indu Sikarwar, Yadu Nandan Dey, Manish M Wanjari, Ajay Sharma, Sudesh N Gaidhani, Ankush D Jadhav
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The leaves of Chenopodium album Linn. are traditionally used for correction of kidney diseases and urinary stones. The present work investigated the effect of methanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves of Chenopodium album on experimentally induced urolithiasis in rats to substantiate its traditional use as antilithiatic agent. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The leaf extract was standardized by HPLC. Urolithiasis was induced in rats by administration 0...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852120/kim-1-is-a-potential-urinary-biomarker-of-obstruction-results-from-a-prospective-cohort-study
#10
Daniel Olvera-Posada, Thamara Dayarathna, Marie Dion, Husain Alenezi, Alp Sener, John D Denstedt, Stephen E Pautler, Hassan Razvi
INTRODUCTION: Partial or complete obstruction of the urinary tract is a common and challenging urological condition that may occur in patients of any age. Serum creatinine is the most commonly used method to evaluate global renal function, although it has low sensitivity for early changes in the glomerular filtration rate or unilateral renal pathology. Hence, finding another measurable parameter that reflects the adaptation of the renal physiology to these circumstances is important. Several recent studies have assessed the use of new biomarkers of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI), but the information among patients with stone disease and those with obstructive uropathy is limited...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847293/clinical-value-of-crystalluria-and-quantitative-morphoconstitutional-analysis-of-urinary-calculi
#11
REVIEW
Vincent Frochot, Michel Daudon
Crystalluria is a marker of urine supersaturation with substances deriving from metabolic disorders, inherited diseases or drugs. The investigation of crystalluria must be done according to a protocol which includes the delivery to the laboratory of a proper urine sample, the use of a microscope equipped with polarized light, the accurate knowledge of urine pH, and a comprehensive examination of the crystals, which is based on their identification, quantification and size measurement. For unusual crystals, infrared spectroscopy may also be needed...
November 12, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847292/the-role-of-the-microbiome-in-kidney-stone-formation
#12
REVIEW
Mansi Mehta, David S Goldfarb, Lama Nazzal
Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease of worldwide prevalence that is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. About 75% of kidney stones are predominantly composed of calcium oxalate and urinary oxalate is considered a crucial risk factor. Microorganisms may have a role in the pathogenesis and prevention of kidney stones and the involvement of the intestinal microbiome in this renal disease has been a recent area of interest. Oxalobacter formigenes is a gram negative bacteria that degrades oxalate in the gut decreasing urinary oxalate excretion...
November 12, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847291/rna-interference-in-the-treatment-of-renal-stone-disease-current-status-and-future-potentials
#13
REVIEW
Kyle D Wood, Ross P Holmes, John Knight
Recent advances in RNA interference (RNAi) delivery and chemistry have resulted in the development of more than 20 RNAi-based therapeutics, several of which are now in Phase III trials. The most advanced clinical trials have utilized modifications such as lipid nanoparticles and conjugation to N-acetyl galactosamine to treat liver specific diseases. Recent reports have suggested that reducing endogenous oxalate synthesis by RNAi may be a safe and effective therapy for patients with the rare disease, Primary Hyperoxaluria (PH)...
November 12, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825102/microvillar-injury-in-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells-induced-by-calcium-oxalate-crystal-and-the-protective-role-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate
#14
Kedsarin Fong-Ngern, Arada Vinaiphat, Visith Thongboonkerd
Pathogenic mechanisms of kidney stone disease remained unclear. This study investigated its initial cellular/molecular mechanisms when calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystal adhered to renal tubular cells. Transmission electron microscopy revealed decreased length and density of microvilli, whereas Western blot analysis showed that whole-cell ezrin (a microvilli-stabilizing protein), not β-actin, was decreased in COM-treated cells. Immunofluorescence staining, followed by laser-scanning confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionations, revealed decreases in both ezrin and F-/β-actin at apical membrane...
October 7, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824271/endoscopic-evidence-that-randall-s-plaque-is-associated-with-surface-erosion-of-the-renal-papilla
#15
Andrew Cohen, Michael Borofsky, Blake B Anderson, Casey A Dauw, Dan Gillen, Glenn S Gerber, Elaine M Worcester, Fred Coe, James E Lingeman
OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability and precision of an endoscopic grading scale to identify renal papillary abnormalities across a spectrum of equipment, locations, graders, and patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Intra- and inter-observer reliability of the papillary grading system was assessed using weighted kappa scoring among 4 graders reviewing a single renal papilla from 50 separate patients on two occasions. Grading was then applied to a cohort of patients undergoing endoscopic stone removal procedures at 2 centers...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822582/are-there-any-predictors-of-pyonephrosis-in-patients-with-renal-calculus-disease
#16
Madhusudan Patodia, Apul Goel, Vishwajeet Singh, Bhupendra Pal Singh, Rahul Janak Sinha, Manoj Kumar, Divakar Dalela, Satya Narayan Sankhwar
The objective of the study is to identify factors predicting development of pyonephrosis in patients of renal calculus disease (RCD), as this knowledge is largely unknown. Patients of RCD without pyonephrosis (Group 1) or with pyonephrosis (Group 2) presenting between December 2013 and November 2015 were evaluated. All patients of RCD who had undergone either percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) or surgical management (percutaneous nephrolithotomy/pyelolithotomy/nephrectomy) were included. Patients treated conservatively, by extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy and patients of bilateral RCD were excluded...
November 7, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819765/nephrolithiasis-in-primary-hyperparathyroidism-a-comparison-between-silent-and-symptomatic-patients
#17
E Castellano, R Attanasio, A Latina, G Visconti, S Cassibba, G Borretta
OBJECTIVE: To characterize PHPT patients with renal stones and to compare silent with symptomatic stone formers. METHODS: We reviewed clinical data of 234 patients with PHPT, comparing those with and without renal stones (n = 109 and 125, respectively), and among stone formers those symptomatic vs silent (n = 93 and 16, respectively). RESULTS: Stone formers were younger, had higher urinary calcium levels and higher eGFR vs patients without stones...
November 7, 2016: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819138/super-mini-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy-in-the-treatment-of-pediatric-nephrolithiasis-evaluation-of-the-initial-results
#18
Yongda Liu, Wenqi Wu, Aierken Tuerxun, Yang Liu, Abulizi Simayi, Jinxing Huang, Abudukahaer Batuer, Yizhou Zhou, Jiawei Luo, Wen Zhong, Zhijian Zhao, Wei Zhu, Guohua Zeng
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of super-mini percutaneous nephrolithotomy (SMP) in the treatment of pediatric kidney stones. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed the records of 111 children with renal stones treated with SMP technique in four different centers between September 2014 and September 2015. The indications for SMP treatment in all these kids were either previously failed shock wave lithotripsy or retrograde intrarenal surgery approaches, according to their parents' preferences...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819017/trends-in-inpatient-urological-surgery-practice-patterns
#19
Scott R Hawken, Lindsey A Herrel, Chandy Ellimoottil, Zaojun Ye, J Quentin Clemens, David C Miller
INTRODUCTION: As the nation's population ages and the number of practicing urologists per capita declines, characterization of practice patterns is essential to understand the current state of the urological workforce and anticipate future needs. Accordingly, we examined trends in adult inpatient urological surgery practice patterns over a five-year period. METHODS: We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) data from 2005 through 2009 to identify both surgeons and urological surgeries...
November 2016: Urology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816704/radiology-of-renal-stone-disease
#20
REVIEW
Colin J McCarthy, Vinit Baliyan, Hamed Kordbacheh, Zafar Sajjad, Dushyant Sahani, Avinash Kambadakone
Nephrolithiasis is a common cause of abdominal pain and will affect approximately 1 in 10 people in their lifetime. In the past two decades, there have been several technological advances that have changed the imaging approach to stone diagnosis and follow-up. We present a review of the current imaging evaluation for renal stone disease, and outline how new technology has helped with diagnosis and management.
November 2, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
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