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Adipose tissue vascularization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781904/adipose-stromal-vascular-fraction-gel-grafting-a-new-method-for-tissue-volumization-and-rejuvenation
#1
Yao Yao, Junrong Cai, Pan Zhang, Yunjun Liao, Yi Yuan, Ziqing Dong, Feng Lu
BACKGROUND: The clinical outcomes of fat grafting vary and are technique-dependent. Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) gel is a novel, mechanically processed fat product with high concentrations of adipose tissue-derived stem cells and other SVF cells. This study evaluated the volumization and rejuvenation effects of SVF-gel. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the volumization and rejuvenation effects of SVF-gel. METHODS: This retrospective, single-center study included 126 patients who underwent SVF-gel grafting and 78 who underwent conventional lipoinjection for various indications from March 2015 to February 2017...
May 16, 2018: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773671/targeted-inhibition-of-cd74-attenuates-adipose-cox-2-mif-mediated-m1-macrophage-polarization-and-retards-obesity-related-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance
#2
Pei-Chi Chan, Ting-Ni Wu, Ying-Chuan Chen, Chieh-Hua Lu, Martin Wabitsch, Yu-Feng Tian, Po-Shiuan Hsieh
Adipose tissue (AT) inflammation is crucial to the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance. Our aim was to investigate the contribution of COX-2/MIF-mediated crosstalk between hypertrophic adipocytes and macrophages to the etiology of AT inflammation and involvement of CD74 using human SGBS adipocytes, THP-1 macrophages and mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. The MIF and CD74 mRNA levels in the adipocytes and SVCs (stromal vascular cells) of white fat were highly correlated with body weight, HOMA-IR and adipose macrophage marker expression levels, especially those in SVCs...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768640/lipoprotein-profile-modifications-during-gestation-a-current-approach-to-cardiovascular-risk-surrogate-markers-and-maternal-fetal-unit-complications
#3
Ana Paula Caires Dos Santos, Ricardo David Couto
Several changes occur in lipid metabolism during gestation due to hormonal and metabolic changes, which are essential to satisfy the nutritional demands of the maternal-fetal unit development. The gestation shows two distinct periods that begin with fat accumulation, mainly in maternal adipose tissue, and the late phase, characterized by accelerated catabolism, with the increase of fatty acids in the circulation that causes hyperlipidemia, especially the one characterized as hypertriglyceridemia. Maternal hyperlipidemia may be associated with the development of maternal-fetal complications (preterm birth, preeclampsia, vascular complications) and the development of long-term cardiovascular disease...
May 16, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768198/myocardin-related-transcription-factor-a-promotes-recruitment-of-itga5-profibrotic-progenitors-during-obesity-induced-adipose-tissue-fibrosis
#4
Jean Z Lin, Nabil Rabhi, Stephen R Farmer
Adipose tissue fibrosis is associated with inflammation and insulin resistance in human obesity. In particular, visceral fat fibrosis is correlated with hyperlipidemia and ectopic fat accumulation. Myocardin-related transcription factor A (MRTFA) is an important coactivator that mediates the transcription of extracellular matrix and other fibrogenic genes. Here, we examine the role of MRTFA in the development of adipose tissue fibrosis and identify a signaling pathway that regulates the fate of vascular progenitors...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766760/osteoinduction-by-ex-vivo-bone-morphogenetic-protein-gene-delivery-is-independent-of-cell-type
#5
Loek Loozen, Moyo C Kruyt, Angela Vandersteen, Angela H M Kragten, Michiel Croes, F Cumhur Oner, Jacqueline Alblas
Ex vivo non-viral gene delivery of bone-inductive factors has the potential to heal bone defects. Due to their inherent role in new bone formation, multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) have been studied as the primary target cell for gene delivery in a preclinical setting. The relative contribution of autocrine and paracrine mechanisms, and the need of osteogenic cells, remains unclear. This study investigates the contribution of MSCs as producer of transgenic BMPs and to what extent the seeded MSCs participate in actual osteogenesis...
May 16, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766656/microencapsulated-rabbit-adipose-stem-cells-initiate-tissue-regeneration-in-a-rabbit-ear-defect-model
#6
Shirae K Leslie, David J Cohen, Sharon L Hyzy, Christopher R Dosier, Anthony Nicolini, Janina Sedlaczek, Zvi Schwartz, Barbara D Boyan
Cell-based tissue engineering can promote cartilage tissue regeneration, but cell retention in the implant site post-delivery is problematic. Alginate microbeads containing adipose stem cells (ASCs) pretreated with chondrogenic media (CM) have been used successfully to regenerate hyaline cartilage in critical size defects in rat xiphoid suggesting that they may be used to treat defects in elastic cartilages like the ear. To test this, we used microbeads made with low viscosity, high mannuronate medical grade alginate using a high electrostatic potential and a calcium cross linking solution containing glucose...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764513/cellular-therapy-with-human-autologous-adipose-derived-adult-cells-of-stromal-vascular-fraction-for-alopecia-areata
#7
Rami Anderi, Nehman Makdissy, Albert Azar, Francine Rizk, Aline Hamade
BACKGROUND: Most common forms of hair loss (alopecia) are caused by aberrant hair follicle cycling and changes in hair follicle morphology. However, current treatments for alopecia do not specifically target these processes. Adipose-derived stromal vascular cells (ADSVCs) that can be harvested from fat cells are one of the latest breakthroughs in the aesthetic field. The potential use of stem cell-based therapies (SCBT) for the repair and regeneration of various tissues and organs offers a paradigm shift that may provide alternative therapeutic solutions, which can be applied to prevent hair loss...
May 15, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757253/association-of-cardiovascular-health-with-epicardial-adipose-tissue-and-intima-media-thickness-the-kardiovize-study
#8
Jana Hruskova, Andrea Maugeri, Helena Podroužková, Tatiana Štípalová, Juraj Jakubík, Martina Barchitta, Jose R Medina-Inojosa, Martin Homolka, Antonella Agodi, Sarka Kunzova, Ondrej Sochor, Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, Manlio Vinciguerra
Background: Intima-media thickness (IMT) has been proposed as a measurement of subclinical atherosclerosis and has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a fat depot between the pericardium and myocardium and has been associated with coronary atherosclerosis. The relationship between IMT and EAT thickness has not been reported before. We investigated the relationship between EAT thickness, IMT, CVD risk factors, and ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics using subjects from the Kardiovize Brno 2030 cohort study, a random urban sample population in Central Europe...
May 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753026/chronic-hyperinsulinemia-promotes-meta-inflammation-and-extracellular-matrix-deposition-in-adipose-tissue-implications-of-nitric-oxide
#9
Durgesh Kumar, Kripa Shankar, Saraswati Patel, Abhishek Gupta, Salil Varshney, Sanchita Gupta, Sujith Rajan, Ankita Srivastava, Achchhe Lal Vishwakarma, Anil N Gaikwad
Various imperative studies support the notion that hyperinsulinemia (HI) itself serves as the common link between adipose tissue inflammation (ATI) and metabolic syndrome. However, the contribution of HI mediated ATI and its metabolic consequences are yet to be explored. We induced chronic HI per se in mice by administration of exogenous insulin for 8 weeks through mini-osmotic pumps. For the reduction of circulating insulin in response to excess calorie intake, we have partially ablated β-cells by using streptozotocin (STZ) in the diet-induced obesity (DIO) and genetic mice models (db/db)...
May 9, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751821/improved-gmp-compliant-approach-to-manipulate-lipoaspirates-to-cryopreserve-stromal-vascular-fraction-and-to-expand-adipose-stem-cells-in-xeno-free-media
#10
Francesco Agostini, Francesca Maria Rossi, Donatella Aldinucci, Monica Battiston, Elisabetta Lombardi, Stefania Zanolin, Samuele Massarut, Pier Camillo Parodi, Alessandro Da Ponte, Giovanni Tessitori, Barbara Pivetta, Cristina Durante, Mario Mazzucato
BACKGROUND: The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) derived from adipose tissue contains adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASC) and can be used for regenerative applications. Thus, a validated protocol for SVF isolation, freezing, and thawing is required to manage product administration. To comply with Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP), fetal bovine serum (FBS), used to expand ASC in vitro, could be replaced by growth factors from platelet concentrates. METHODS: Throughout each protocol, GMP-compliant reagents and devices were used...
May 11, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750888/adiponectin-enhances-biological-functions-of-vascular-endothelial-progenitor-cells-through-the-mtor-stat3-signaling-pathway
#11
Xiaoying Dong, Xia Yan, Wei Zhang, Shengqiu Tang
Adiponectin (APN), an adipose tissue-excreted adipokine, plays protective roles in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, the effects and mechanisms of APN on biological functions of rat vascular endothelial progenitor cells (VEPCs) were investigated in vitro. After administrating APN in rat VEPCs, the proliferation was measured by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) method, the apoptotic rate was test by Flow cytometry assay, mRNA expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was determined by Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and protein expression of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and phospho-STAT3 (pSTAT3) was analyzed by Western Blot...
May 10, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744660/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-melatonin-in-obesity-and-hypertension
#12
REVIEW
Natalia Jorgelina Prado, León Ferder, Walter Manucha, Emiliano Raúl Diez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Here, we review the known relations between hypertension and obesity to inflammation and postulate the endogenous protective effect of melatonin and its potential as a therapeutic agent. We will describe the multiple effects of melatonin on blood pressure, adiposity, body weight, and focus on mitochondrial-related anti-inflammatory and antioxidant protective effects. RECENT FINDINGS: Hypertension and obesity are usually associated with systemic and tissular inflammation...
May 9, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742652/the-use-of-a-honeycomb-technique-combined-with-ultrasonic-aspirators-and-indocyanine-green-fluorescence-angiography-for-a-superthin-anterolateral-thigh-flap-a-pilot-study
#13
Song Fan, Han-Qing Zhang, Qun-Xing Li, Tian Tian, Wei-Xiong Chen, Guo-Kai Pan, Michael Ho-Young Ahn, Sheng Sun, Bing-Hao Wu, Jin-Song Li
BACKGROUND: Harvesting an optimally thinned anterolateral thigh flaps (ALTFs) is a challenge in overweight individuals and in the Western population. Here, we describe a novel honeycomb technique to achieve a superthin ALTF in overweight patients. METHODS: Forty patients with a body mass index(BMI) >25 kg/m who required a thinned ALTF for reconstruction were randomly assigned to a honeycomb technique (HCT) group or a microdissection technique (MDT) group. Patients in the HCT group received cavitron ultrasonic surgical aspiration (CUSA) to thin the flaps, and flap thinning was performed with a conventional MDT in the MDT group...
May 2, 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740325/extract-enriched-in-flavan-3-ols-and-mainly-procyanidin-dimers-improves-metabolic-alterations-in-a-mouse-model-of-obesity-related-disorders-partially-via-estrogen-receptor-alpha
#14
Daniela Leonetti, Raffaella Soleti, Nicolas Clere, Luisa Vergori, Caroline Jacques, Lucie Duluc, Catherine Dourguia, Maria C Martínez, Ramaroson Andriantsitohaina
Red wine polyphenol extracts improve cardiovascular and metabolic disorders linked to obesity. Their vascular protection is mediated by the activation of the alpha isoform of the estrogen receptor (ERα). In the present study, we explored the effects of a grape seed extract (GSE) enriched in the flavan-3-ols procyanidin dimers on obesity-related cardiovascular and metabolic disorders; with a particular interest in the role/contribution of ERα. Ovariectomized wild type or ERα knockout (KO) mice were fed with standard or western diet, supplemented or not with GSE, for 12 weeks...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739862/novel-gpihbp1-independent-pathway-for-clearance-of-plasma-tgs-in-angptl4-gpihbp1-mice
#15
Emily M Cushing, Kelli L Sylvers, Xun Chi, Shwetha K Shetty, Brandon Sj Davies
Mice lacking glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1) are unable to traffic LPL to the vascular lumen. Thus, TG clearance is severely blunted, and mice are extremely hypertriglyceridemic. Paradoxically, mice lacking both GPIHBP1 and the LPL regulator angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) are far less hypertriglyceridemic. We sought to determine the mechanism by which Angptl4 -/- Gpihbp1 -/- double knockout mice clear plasma triglycerides. We confirmed that, on a normal chow diet, plasma TG levels were lower in Angptl4 -/- Gpihbp1 -/- mice than in Gpihbp1 -/- mice; however, the difference disappeared with administration of a high-fat diet...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738484/human-macrophages-preferentially-infiltrate-the-superficial-adipose-tissue
#16
Giuseppe Cappellano, Evi M Morandi, Johannes Rainer, Philipp Grubwieser, Katharina Heinz, Dolores Wolfram, David Bernhard, Susanne Lobenwein, Gerhard Pierer, Christian Ploner
Human abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue consists of two individual layers—the superficial adipose tissue (SAT) and deep adipose tissue (DAT)—separated by the Scarpa’s fascia. The present study focuses on the analysis of morphological and immunological differences of primary adipocytes, adipose-derived stem cells (ASC), and tissue-infiltrating immune cells found in SAT and DAT. Adipocytes and stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells were isolated from human SAT and DAT specimens and phenotypically characterized by in vitro assays...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737535/neural-differentiation-of-human-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-induced-by-glial-cell-conditioned-media
#17
Debora Lo Furno, Giuliana Mannino, Rosario Giuffrida, Elisa Gili, Carlo Vancheri, Maria S Tarico, Rosario E Perrotta, Rosalia Pellitteri
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) may transdifferentiate into cells belonging to mesodermal, endodermal, and ectodermal lineages. The aim of this study was to verify whether a neural differentiation of ASCs could be induced by a conditioned medium (CM) obtained from cultures of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) or Schwann cells (SCs). ASCs were isolated from the stromal vascular fraction of adipose tissue and expanded for 2-3 passages. They were then cultured in OEC-CM or SC-CM for 24 hr or 7 days...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736674/modulation-of-vascular-reactivity-by-perivascular-adipose-tissue-pvat
#18
REVIEW
Claudia Agabiti-Rosei, Anna Paini, Carolina De Ciuceis, Sarah Withers, Adam Greenstein, Anthony M Heagerty, Damiano Rizzoni
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we discuss the role of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) in the modulation of vascular contractility and arterial pressure, focusing on the role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and oxidative stress/inflammation. RECENT FINDINGS: PVAT possesses a relevant endocrine-paracrine activity, which may be altered in several pathophysiological and clinical conditions. During the last two decades, it has been shown that PVAT may modulate vascular reactivity...
May 7, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729271/decreased-serum-estrogen-improves-fat-graft-retention-by-enhancing-early-macrophage-infiltration-and-inducing-adipocyte-hypertrophy
#19
Hsiaopei Mok, Jingwei Feng, Wansheng Hu, Jing Wang, Junrong Cai, Feng Lu
BACKGROUND: Fat grafting is a commonly used procedure; however, the mechanisms that regulate graft outcomes are not clear. Estrogen has been associated with vascularization, inflammation and fat metabolism, yet its role in fat grafting is unclear. METHODS: Mice were implanted with 17β-estradiol pellets (high estrogen, HE), underwent ovariectomy (low estrogen level, OVX) or sham surgery (normal estrogen level, CON). 45 days later, inguinal fat of mice was autografted subcutaneously...
May 2, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723883/adipose-derived-stem-cells-ameliorates-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-a-rat-skin-free-flap-model
#20
Alberto Ballestín, Javier G Casado, Elena Abellán, Francisco Javier Vela, Verónica Álvarez, Alejandra Usón, Rebeca Blázquez, Francisco M Sánchez-Margallo
BACKGROUND:  Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is inevitable during free tissue transfers. When the period of ischemia exceeds the tissue tolerance, it causes necrosis and flap failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) embedded in a collagen type I scaffold on the survival of free skin flaps to counteract I/R injury. METHODS:  Left superficial caudal epigastric skin flaps (3 × 6 cm) were performed in 28 Wistar rats that were divided into four groups...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
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