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Adipose tissue vascularization

Joao Incio, Jennifer A Ligibel, Daniel T McManus, Priya Suboj, Keehoon Jung, Kosuke Kawaguchi, Matthias Pinter, Suboj Babykutty, Shan M Chin, Trupti D Vardam, Yuhui Huang, Nuh N Rahbari, Sylvie Roberge, Dannie Wang, Igor L Gomes-Santos, Stefan B Puchner, Christopher L Schlett, Udo Hoffmman, Marek Ancukiewicz, Sara M Tolaney, Ian E Krop, Dan G Duda, Yves Boucher, Dai Fukumura, Rakesh K Jain
Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy has failed to improve survival in patients with breast cancer (BC). Potential mechanisms of resistance to anti-VEGF therapy include the up-regulation of alternative angiogenic and proinflammatory factors. Obesity is associated with hypoxic adipose tissues, including those in the breast, resulting in increased production of some of the aforementioned factors. Hence, we hypothesized that obesity could contribute to anti-VEGF therapy's lack of efficacy. We found that BC patients with obesity harbored increased systemic concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and/or fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), and their tumor vasculature was less sensitive to anti-VEGF treatment...
March 14, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Annie C Bowles, Rachel M Wise, Brittany Y Gerstein, Robert C Thomas, Roberto Ogelman, Regan C Manayan, Bruce A Bunnell
BACKGROUND: The therapeutic efficacy of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) has been investigated for numerous clinical indications, including autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases. Less is known using the crude adipose product called stromal vascular fraction (SVF) as therapy, although our previous studies demonstrated greater efficacy at late-stage disease compared to ASCs in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse, a model of multiple sclerosis. In this study, SVF cells and ASCs were administered during the pathogenic progression, designated as early disease, to elucidate immunomodulatory mechanisms when high immune cell activities associated with autoimmune signaling occur...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Tianyi Qiu, Min Li, Miles A Tanner, Yan Yang, James R Sowers, Ronald J Korthuis, Michael A Hill
BACKGROUND: Accumulation of multiple subtypes of immune cells in perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) has been proposed to cause vascular inflammation and dysfunction in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). This study was designed to investigate specific roles for dendritic cells in PVAT in the development of vascular inflammation and impaired PVAT-mediated vasorelaxation in T2DM. METHODS AND RESULTS: Studies were performed using db/db mice (model of T2DM) and their Db heterozygote (DbHET), lean and normoglycemic controls...
March 9, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Chakradhari Inampudi, Emmanuel Akintoye, Tomo Ando, Alexandros Briasoulis
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) refers to narrowing of the peripheral arteries and atherosclerosis is the most important cause. In patients with PAD, revascularization is the preferred therapeutic strategy; nonetheless several patients are not deemed candidates for it due to advanced disease or several comorbidities. The main target of therapeutic angiogenesis is to promote development of new arterial vessels and improve perfusion of ischemic tissue. Angiogenic growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), administered intramuscularly or intra-arterially, have been shown to promote angiogenesis and development of collateral vasculature in preclinical studies...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Lingyan Wu, Lina Zhang, Bohan Li, Haowen Jiang, Yanan Duan, Zhifu Xie, Lin Shuai, Jia Li, Jingya Li
Obesity occurs when excess energy accumulates in white adipose tissue (WAT), whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT), which is specialized in dissipating energy through thermogenesis, potently counteracts obesity. White adipocytes can be converted to thermogenic "brown-like" cells (beige cells; WAT browning) under various stimuli, such as cold exposure. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a crucial energy sensor that regulates energy metabolism in multiple tissues. However, the role of AMPK in adipose tissue function, especially in the WAT browning process, is not fully understood...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Jenny F López, Jertta-Riina Sarkanen, Outi Huttala, Ilkka S Kaartinen, Hannu O Kuokkanen, Timo Ylikomi
Growth factors are the key elements in wound healing signaling for cell migration, differentiation and proliferation. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), one of the most studied sources of growth factors, has demonstrated to promote wound healing in vitro and in vivo. Adipose tissue is an alternative source of growth factors. Through a simple lipoaspirate method, adipose derived growth factor-rich preparation (adipose tissue extract; ATE) can be obtained. The authors set out to compare the effects of these two growth factor sources in cell proliferation and migration (scratch) assays of keratinocyte, fibroblast, endothelial and adipose derived stem cells...
March 6, 2018: Cytotechnology
Hyuek Jong Lee
White adipose tissue (WAT) expansion is associated with angiogenesis. Although, activation of lipolysis by exercise induces adipocyte hypotrophy and reduction of fat mass, it is poorly understood whether exercise regulates angiogenesis by altering angiogenic gene expression in WAT. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 6 weeks voluntary wheel running exercise on angiogenic gene expression in adipose tissues. Male C57BL/6J mice performed voluntary wheel running for 6 weeks. At 24 hr after the last exercise training, tibialis anterior (TA), soleus (Sol), epididymal WAT (eWAT), inguinal WAT (iWAT), and brown adipose tissue (BAT) were isolated and then the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), angiopoietin1 (Ang1), Ang2, platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF-B) and their corresponding receptors were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction...
February 2018: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Santiago Roura, Carolina Gálvez-Montón, Antoni Bayes-Genis
Chronic diseases, including myocardial scar healing and heart failure remission, impose huge social and economic burdens, and novel approaches are needed. Several therapeutic modalities are currently being evaluated, including cell therapy, stem cell conditioning, and cardiac tissue engineering. Areas covered: This review discusses the restoration of cardiac function after myocardial infarction using a vascularized flap of autologous cardiac adipose tissue over an akinetic scar. It addresses the risks and benefits of using cardiac adipose progenitors and the adipose graft transposition procedure (AGTP) to ameliorate cardiac dysfunction in preclinical and clinical trials...
March 6, 2018: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
Thomas Später, Florian S Frueh, Philipp Karschnia, Michael D Menger, Matthias W Laschke
Dermal substitutes are frequently used for the initial coverage of extensive skin defects. The seeding of these implants with adipose tissue-derived microvascular fragments (ad-MVF) has recently been shown to accelerate their vascularization and incorporation. In the present study we analyzed whether these processes are affected by a thromboprophylactic therapy with the low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) enoxaparin (enox). Green fluorescent protein (GFP)+ ad-MVF were isolated from enox- (8 mg/kg s.c.) and vehicle-treated (0...
March 5, 2018: Wound Repair and Regeneration
Eun Jung Rhee
The prevalence of obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide. One-thirds of world population is suffering from the deleterious effects of excessive fat and adipose tissue in their body. At the same time, the average life expectancy is becoming higher and higher every decade. Therefore, living healthy and longer is the dream for everyone. Simply being obese is not the primary cause for the consequence of obesity; rather, the depot where the fat is accumulated, is the primary key for the deleterious effects of obesity...
February 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Jordana Gilbert-Honick, Shama R Iyer, Sarah M Somers, Richard M Lovering, Kathryn Wagner, Hai-Quan Mao, Warren L Grayson
Tissue engineering strategies to treat patients with volumetric muscle loss (VML) aim to recover the structure and contractile function of lost muscle tissue. Here, we assessed the capacity of novel electrospun fibrin hydrogel scaffolds seeded with murine myoblasts to regenerate the structure and function of damaged muscle within VML defects to the mouse tibialis anterior muscle. The electrospun fibrin scaffolds provide pro-myogenic alignment and stiffness cues, myomimetic hierarchical structure, suturability, and scale-up capabilities...
February 20, 2018: Biomaterials
Sophie N Saxton, Katie E Ryding, Robert G Aldous, Sarah B Withers, Jacqueline Ohanian, Anthony M Heagerty
OBJECTIVE: Healthy perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) exerts an anticontractile effect on resistance arteries which is vital in regulating arterial tone. Activation of β3 -adrenoceptors by sympathetic nerve-derived NA (noradrenaline) may be implicated in this effect and may stimulate the release of the vasodilator adiponectin from adipocytes. Understanding the mechanisms responsible is vital for determining how PVAT may modify vascular resistance in vivo. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Electric field stimulation profiles of healthy C57BL/6J mouse mesenteric resistance arteries were characterized using wire myography...
March 1, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Kanza Benomar, Stéphanie Espiard, Camille Loyer, Arnaud Jannin, Marie-Christine Vantyghem
Natriuretic peptides are a group of hormones including atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), C type (CNP), urodilatin and guanilyn. ANP (half-life: 2-4 min), is secreted by the atrium, BNP (half-life: 20 min) by the ventricle, CNP by the vascular endothelium, urodilatin by the kidney and guanylin by the intestine. These natriuretic peptides prevent water and salt retention through renal action, vasodilatation and hormonal inhibition of aldosterone, vasopressin and cortisol. These peptides also have a recently demonstrated metabolic effect through an increase of lipolysis, thermogenesis, beta cell proliferation and muscular sensitivity to insulin...
February 26, 2018: La Presse Médicale
Hongzeng Wu, Xiaotong Ma, Ze Li, Helin Feng
A hibernoma is a benign soft tissue tumor consisting of brown adipose tissue. The tumors are mostly located in the thigh, back, and shoulder region. They are rarely found in the supraclavicular fossa. We report a 39-year-old woman who presented with a painless, slow-growing mass on the left supraclavicular fossa for nearly 15 years. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an inhomogeneous round mass with a slightly hyperintense signal on fat-suppression T2-weighted imaging that compressed the adjacent tissues and subclavian vessels...
February 2018: Radiology Case Reports
Kimie Tanaka, Masataka Sata
Traditionally, it is believed that white adipose tissues serve as energy storage, heat insulation, and mechanical cushion, whereas non-shivering thermogenesis occurs in brown adipose tissue. Recent evidence revealed that adipose tissue secretes many types of cytokines, called as adipocytokines, which modulate glucose metabolism, lipid profile, appetite, fibrinolysis, blood pressure, and inflammation. Most of the arteries are surrounded by perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). PVAT has been thought to be simply a structurally supportive tissue for vasculature...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Alison C Ludzki, Mark W Pataky, Gregory D Cartee, Jeffrey F Horowitz
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of acute exercise on key factors regulating angiogenesis in adipose tissue. Adipose tissue Vegf-a mRNA expression was upregulated immediately after acute exercise (p<0.05) in HFD rats, but was lower after exercise (p<0.05) in LFD rats. Our working hypothesis is that acute exercise augments angiogenic signaling under conditions when adipose tissue is expanding, and with repeated exercise sessions these signals can accrue to enhance vascularization.
February 27, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Tarek A M Almabrouk, Anna D White, Azizah B Ugusman, Dominik S Skiba, Omar J Katwan, Husam Alganga, Tomasz J Guzik, Rhian M Touyz, Ian P Salt, Simon Kennedy
Background and aim: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) positively regulates vascular function through production of factors such as adiponectin but this effect is attenuated in obesity. The enzyme AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is present in PVAT and is implicated in mediating the vascular effects of adiponectin. In this study, we investigated the effect of an obesogenic high fat diet (HFD) on aortic PVAT and whether any changes involved AMPK. Methods: Wild type Sv129 (WT) and AMPKα1 knockout (KO) mice aged 8 weeks were fed normal diet (ND) or HFD (42% kcal fat) for 12 weeks...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Staffan Hildebrand, Jasmin Stümer, Alexander Pfeifer
Adipose tissue is commonly categorized into three types with distinct functions, phenotypes, and anatomical localizations. White adipose tissue (WAT) is the major energy store; the largest depots of WAT are found in subcutaneous or intravisceral sites. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is responsible for energy dissipation during cold-exposure (i.e., non-shivering thermogenesis) and is primarily located in the interscapular region. Beige or brite (brown-in-white) adipose tissue can be found interspersed in WAT and can attain a brown-like phenotype...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Isabel Quesada, Jimena Cejas, Rodrigo García, Beatriz Cannizzo, Analía Redondo, Claudia Castro
AIM: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is in intimate contact with the vessel wall and extravascular PVAT-derived inflammatory mediators may adversely influence atherosclerotic plaque formation and stability through outside-to-inside signalling. We sought to investigate the role of PVAT on the atheroma development in an experimental animal model of Metabolic Syndrome (MS) associated with oxidative stress and low-grade inflammatory state. We also studied the effect of Pioglitazone an insulin sensitizer, on the aortic wall and its surrounding PVAT, considering a bi-directional communication between both layers...
February 21, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Jonathan D Packer, Wen-Teh Chang, Jason L Dragoo
Background: Adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC)-based treatments have the potential to treat numerous soft-tissue pathologies. It would be beneficial to develop an efficient and reliable intraoperative, nonenzymatic method of isolating ADSCs for clinical use. This study aims to determine the (1) viability and proliferative capacity of ADSCs after exposure to vibrational energies and (2) efficacy of vibrational energy as a method of ADSC isolation from surgically harvested infrapatellar fat pad (IFP)...
January 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
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