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Lymphatic circulation

Sébastien D Pion, Céline Montavon, Cédric B Chesnais, Joseph Kamgno, Samuel Wanji, Amy D Klion, Thomas B Nutman, Michel Boussinesq
Since the mid-2000s, the immunochromatographic card test (ICT), a point-of-care test for detecting Wuchereria bancrofti circulating filarial antigens (CFAs), has been the backbone for mapping and monitoring lymphatic filariasis (LF) worldwide. Recently, there have been instances in which CFA positivity has been associated with Loa loa microfilaremia. Here, we examined the association, at both the community and individual levels, between L. loa and CFA using additional diagnostic tools (quantitative polymerase chain reaction [qPCR], Og4C3 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and IgG4 antibodies to Wb123 assays) to demonstrate the relationship between L...
October 10, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Jonas Steenbrugge, Koen Breyne, Sofie Denies, Melissa Dekimpe, Kristel Demeyere, Olivier De Wever, Peter Vermeulen, Steven Van Laere, Niek N Sanders, Evelyne Meyer
Breast tumorigenesis is classically studied in mice by inoculating tumor cells in the fat pad, the adipose compartment of the mammary gland. Alternatively, the mammary ducts, which constitute the luminal mammary gland compartment, also provide a suitable inoculation site to induce breast cancer in murine models. The microenvironments in these compartments influence tumor cell progression, yet this effect has not been investigated in an immunocompetent context. Here, we compared both mammary gland compartments as distinct inoculation sites, taking into account the immunological aspect by inoculating 4T1 tumor cells in immunocompetent mice...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Matthew T Haynes, Leaf Huang
Traditional liposomes degrade into lower-order micelles when PEGylated to even minor degrees (6-7 mol %) and therefore can offer only limited steric exclusion against opsonization during in vivo delivery. In this work, we present for the first time a liposome coated exclusively by PEGylated phospholipids, utilizing lipid-coated calcium phosphate (CaP) cores of diverse sizes (10-15 nm, 30-40 nm) as well as varying polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain lengths (350-5000 Da). Such fully-PEGylated liposome calcium phosphate (LCP) particles exhibit a PEG chain length-dependent circulation longevity and robust immune evasion, while facilitating both strong accumulation within solid tumors upon intravenous injection and a more rapid and extensive lymphatic drainage upon subcutaneous administration...
September 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Raphael Suy, Sarah Thomis, Inge Fourneau
In the seventeenth century, opportunities to discover chyle came about through the revival of vivisection. Gaspare Aselli discovered chyle vessels in a living well-fed dog in 1622. He introduced the term 'lacteals' or milky veins. According to Aselli, the lacteals passed through a mesenteric gland which he called 'pancreas'. The 1627 edition of Aselli's booklet was the start of a 'lymphomania', which led to the dissection and vivisection of hundreds of animals, with the University of Leiden being the clear leader in this field...
August 26, 2016: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
Jingxing Si, Shiqun Shao, Youqing Shen, Kai Wang
Taking advantage of the highly permeable vasculature and lack of lymphatic drainage in solid tumors (EPR effect), nanosized drug delivery systems or nanomedicines have been extensively explored for tumor-targeted drug delivery. However, in most clinical cases tumors such as the early stage tumors and post-surgery microscopic residual tumors have not yet developed such pathological EPR features, i.e., EPR-deficient. Therefore, nanomedicines may not be applicable for such these tumors. Macrophages by nature can actively home and extravasate through the tight vascular wall into tumors and migrate to their hypoxic regions, and possess perfect stealth ability for long blood circulation and impressive phagocytosis for drug loadings...
October 2016: Small
Niyanta N Kumar, Mohan Gautam, Jeffrey J Lochhead, Daniel J Wolak, Vamsi Ithapu, Vikas Singh, Robert G Thorne
Intranasal administration provides a non-invasive drug delivery route that has been proposed to target macromolecules either to the brain via direct extracellular cranial nerve-associated pathways or to the periphery via absorption into the systemic circulation. Delivering drugs to nasal regions that have lower vascular density and/or permeability may allow more drug to access the extracellular cranial nerve-associated pathways and therefore favor delivery to the brain. However, relative vascular permeabilities of the different nasal mucosal sites have not yet been reported...
2016: Scientific Reports
Toshikazu Kurahashi, Katsuyuki Iwatsuki, Tetsuro Onishi, Tetsuya Arai, Katsunori Teranishi, Hitoshi Hirata
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Onankoy A Onyangunga, Jagidesa Moodley, Vesselina Merhar, David A Ofusori, Thajasvarie Naicker
INTRODUCTION: Lymphangiogenesis is the formation of new vessels from pre-existing lymphatic vessels. Data on lymphangiogenesis in the placenta of HIV-infected pre-eclamptics are sparse and the findings are conflicting. The aim of this novel study was to evaluate LYVE-1 immunoexpression in the placenta of HIV infected normotensive versus pre-eclamptic women. METHODS: Placental tissue was obtained from normotensive and pre-eclamptic women stratified according to their HIV status...
September 2016: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Mariana Maia Freire de Oliveira, Maria Salete Costa Gurgel, Maria Teresa Pace do Amaral, Bárbara Juarez Amorim, Celso Darío Ramos, José Geraldo Almeida Filho, Laura Ferreira de Rezende, Luís Otávio Zanatta Sarian
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate manual lymphatic drainage (MLD) and active exercise effects on lymphatic alterations of the upper limb (UL), range of motion (ROM) of shoulder, and scar complications after breast cancer surgery. DESIGN: Clinical trial. SETTING: Health care center. PARTICIPANTS: Women (N=105) undergoing radical breast cancer surgery who were matched for staging, age, and body mass index. INTERVENTIONS: Women (n=52) were submitted to MLD and 53 to active exercises for UL for 1 month and followed up...
August 9, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Inge Kroidl, Elmar Saathoff, Lucas Maganga, Williams H Makunde, Achim Hoerauf, Christof Geldmacher, Petra Clowes, Leonard Maboko, Michael Hoelscher
BACKGROUND: The past decades have seen an ongoing controversial debate about whether the immune activation induced by helminths has an effect on the susceptibility of individuals to HIV. In view of this, we assessed the effect of lymphatic filariasis, a chronic helminth disease elicited by Wuchereria bancrofti, on HIV incidence in southwest Tanzania. METHODS: In this population-based cohort study, we enrolled a geographically stratified randomly chosen sample of about 10% of the households in nine distinct sites in southwest Tanzania...
October 15, 2016: Lancet
Ulrich Andergassen, Michael Zebisch, Alexandra C Kölbl, Alexander König, Sabine Heublein, Lennard Schröder, Stefan Hutter, Klaus Friese, Udo Jeschke
BACKGROUND: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are cells that detach from a primary tumor, circulate through the blood stream and lymphatic vessels, and are considered to be the main reason for remote metastasis. Due to their origin, tumor cells have different gene expression levels than the surrounding blood cells. Therefore, they might be detectable in blood samples from breast cancer patients by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood samples of healthy donors and adjuvant breast cancer patients were withdrawn and the cell fraction containing white blood cells and tumor cells was enriched by density gradient centrifugation...
June 2016: Breast Care
Amarnath Mukherjee, Binod Kumar, Koji Hatano, Luisa M Russell, Bruce J Trock, Peter C Searson, Alan K Meeker, Martin G Pomper, Shawn E Lupold
Macromolecular reagents can be targeted to tumors through active and passive mechanisms. "Active" targeting involves moieties, such as receptor ligands, to direct tumor cell binding, whereas "passive" targeting relies on long reagent circulating half-life, abnormal tumor vasculature, and poor lymphatic drainage for tumor entrapment. Here, we sought to study the impact of reagent circulating half-life on "active" and "passive" tumor uptake. The humanized prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeting antibody HuJ591 was used as the "active" targeting agent...
October 2016: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Alexander A Goldberg, Kwang-Bo Joung, Asma Mansuri, Yujin Kang, Raquel Echavarria, Ljiljana Nikolajev, Yang Sun, Jane J Yu, Stephane A Laporte, Adel Schwertani, Arnold S Kristof
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a destructive lung disease that can arise sporadically or in adults suffering from the tumor syndrome tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Microscopic tumors ('LAM nodules') in the lung interstitium arise from lymphatic invasion and metastasis. These consist of smooth muscle-like cells (LAM cells) that exhibit markers of neural crest differentiation and loss of the tumor suppressor protein 'tuberous sclerosis complex-2' (TSC2). Consistent with a neural phenotype, expression of the neuropeptide urotensin-II and its receptor was detected in LAM nodules...
July 21, 2016: Oncotarget
Raphael Suy, Sarah Thomis, Inge Fourneau
The early history of lymphatic anatomy from Hippocrates (ca. 460-377 B.C.) to Eustachius (1510-1574). The presence of lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes was reported by ancient anatomists without any accurate knowledge of their true functions. Lymph nodes were described as spongy structures, spread over the whole body for the support of vulnerable body parts. Digestion was explained as being the resorption of clear chyle from digested food by the open endings of chyle vessels. The first insights into the place of lymphatic components within nutrition emanated from the medical school of Alexandria (fourth century B...
June 2, 2016: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
Boksik Cha, R Sathish Srinivasan
The Wnt/β-catenin signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that plays a pivotal role in embryonic development and adult homeostasis. However, we have limited information about the involvement of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the lymphatic vascular system that regulates fluid homeostasis by absorbing interstitial fluid and returning it to blood circulation. In this recent publication we report that canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling is highly active and critical for the formation of lymphovenus valves (LVVs) and lymphatic valves (LVs)...
August 2016: BMB Reports
Gyan Chand, Laxman Singh Kaushal, Narendra Kumar Choudhari, Neeru Singh
OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of filarial infection in the districts of Madhya Pradesh, which were classified as non-endemic by the national program for control of filariasis. These districts showed evidence of clinical symptoms related to filariasis. To confirm the presence of filariasis, night blood surveys and entomological surveys were carried out to detect microfilaria in humans and filarial infection in vectors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For microfilaria surveys, thick blood smears were prepared by taking 60 μL of blood between 8...
June 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
Elisabeth Schuh, Kerstin Berer, Matthias Mulazzani, Katharina Feil, Ingrid Meinl, Harald Lahm, Markus Krane, Rüdiger Lange, Kristina Pfannes, Marion Subklewe, Robert Gürkov, Monika Bradl, Reinhard Hohlfeld, Tania Kümpfel, Edgar Meinl, Markus Krumbholz
Monoclonal Abs against CD20 reduce the number of relapses in multiple sclerosis (MS); commonly this effect is solely attributed to depletion of B cells. Recently, however, a subset of CD3(+)CD20(+) T cells has been described that is also targeted by the anti-CD20 mAb rituximab. Because the existence of cells coexpressing CD3 and CD20 is controversial and features of this subpopulation are poorly understood, we studied this issue in detail. In this study, we confirm that 3-5% of circulating human T cells display CD20 on their surface and transcribe both CD3 and CD20...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Hen Prizant, Stephen R Hammes
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a devastating rare lung disease affecting primarily childbearing age women in which tumors consisting of abnormal smooth-muscle-like cells grow within the lungs and progressively lead to loss of pulmonary function. LAM cells metastasize to the lungs, predominantly through the lymphatics; however, the source of the LAM cell is still unknown. LAM cells contain inactivating mutations in genes encoding tuberous sclerosis 1 or 2, proteins that normally limit cell growth through suppression of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1...
September 2016: Endocrinology
John D Welsh, Mark L Kahn, Daniel T Sweet
Aside from the established role for platelets in regulating hemostasis and thrombosis, recent research has revealed a discrete role for platelets in the separation of the blood and lymphatic vascular systems. Platelets are activated by interaction with lymphatic endothelial cells at the lymphovenous junction, the site in the body where the lymphatic system drains into the blood vascular system, resulting in a platelet plug that, with the lymphovenous valve, prevents blood from entering the lymphatic circulation...
September 1, 2016: Blood
Akinori Sato, Ryuta Kamekura, Koji Kawata, Masaya Kawada, Sumito Jitsukawa, Keiji Yamashita, Noriyuki Sato, Tetsuo Himi, Shingo Ichimiya
Leptin is a hormone produced by adipose tissue that regulates various physiological processes. Recent studies have shown that the level of circulating leptin is elevated in obese patients and have suggested a relationship between obesity and postoperative lymphedema. However, the mechanisms by which postoperative lymphedema develops in obese patients and the mechanisms by which leptin regulates lymphatic endothelial cell homeostasis such as tube formation and cell proliferation remain unknown. Here we report that leptin regulates tube formation and cell proliferation in human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (HDLECs) by activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway, which is downstream signaling of the leptin receptor...
2016: PloS One
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