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Lymphatic circulation

Behzad Mansoori, Ali Mohammadi, Neda Shajari, Sadaf Davudian, Shima Salehi, Behzad Baradaran
Despite using lots of progression in hypersensitivity, it is not yet a cure. Current treatment for allergy focuses on two approaches, including treats only the symptoms of allergy by utilizing drugs and the other is desensitization therapy (immunotherapy), which involves administration of specific allergens. The main obstacle to hypersensitivity permanent treatment is the IgE producing subclass of B-lymphocytes which is the source of IgE- producing in hypersensitive patients. Removal of these lymphocytes causes noticeable reduction in the levels of IgE and allergic responses significantly...
November 29, 2016: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Lydia K Lee, Yasamine Ghorbanian, Wenyuan Wang, Yanling Wang, Yeon Joo Kim, Irving L Weissman, Matthew A Inlay, Hanna K A Mikkola
The contribution of the different waves and sites of developmental hematopoiesis to fetal and adult blood production remains unclear. Here, we identify lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE1) as a marker of yolk sac (YS) endothelium and definitive hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Endothelium in mid-gestation YS and vitelline vessels, but not the dorsal aorta and placenta, were labeled by Lyve1-Cre. Most YS HSPCs and erythro-myeloid progenitors were Lyve1-Cre lineage traced, but primitive erythroid cells were not, suggesting that they represent distinct lineages...
November 22, 2016: Cell Reports
K Athisaya Mary, K Krishnamoorthy, S L Hoti
Filarial antigen detection is an appropriate epidemiological indicator for mapping lymphatic filariasis and impact evaluation of filariasis elimination programme in view of low sensitivity of parasite detection. Monoclonal antibody-based Og4C3 immunological test requires 100 µl serum, which is difficult to collect by finger prick method during community based surveys. Hence, we tested lesser volume of serum compared to standard volume of 100 µl to compare its sensitivity and specificity in detecting the circulating filarial antigens...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Maosheng Xia, Li Yang, Guangfeng Sun, Shuang Qi, Baoman Li
BACKGROUND: Many studies have indicated that a history of depression increases the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the potential pathogenestic mechanism by which depression functions as a high risk factor for AD remains unknown. Recently, a "cerebral lymphatic system" referred to as "glymphatic system" has been demonstrated to be responsible for neuronal extracellular waste protein clearance via a paravascular pathway. However, the function of glymphatic pathway has not been determined in depressive disorders...
November 12, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Maxim Itkin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Keisuke Yanagida, Timothy Hla
Vertebrates are endowed with a closed circulatory system, the evolution of which required novel structural and regulatory changes. Furthermore, immune cell trafficking paradigms adapted to the barriers imposed by the closed circulatory system. How did such changes occur mechanistically? We propose that spatial compartmentalization of the lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) may be one such mechanism. In vertebrates, S1P is spatially compartmentalized in the blood and lymphatic circulation, thus comprising a sharp S1P gradient across the endothelial barrier...
October 21, 2016: Annual Review of Physiology
Roberta Bianchi, Erica Russo, Samia B Bachmann, Steven T Proulx, Marko Sesartic, Nora Smaadahl, Steve P Watson, Christopher D Buckley, Cornelia Halin, Michael Detmar
OBJECTIVE: The lymphatic vascular system exerts major physiological functions in the transport of interstitial fluid from peripheral tissues back to the blood circulation and in the trafficking of immune cells to lymph nodes. Previous studies in global constitutive knockout mice for the lymphatic transmembrane molecule podoplanin reported perinatal lethality and a complex phenotype with lung abnormalities, cardiac defects, lymphedema, blood-filled lymphatic vessels, and lack of lymph node organization, reflecting the importance of podoplanin expression not only by the lymphatic endothelium but also by a variety of nonendothelial cell types...
November 3, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Jiehua Hong, Yan Li, Xiuguo Hua, Yajie Bai, Chunyan Wang, Caixia Zhu, Yuming Du, Zhibiao Yang, Congli Yuan
The hallmark of Bartonella infection is long-lasting intra-erythrocytic parasitism. However, the process of Bartonella bacteremia is still enigmatic. Here, we used Bartonella tribocorum (Bt) to understand how Bartonella invasion into the bloodstream from dermal inoculation might occur. Bartonella was poorly phagocytized by peritoneal macrophages in vitro. Intracellular Bartonella survived and replicated in macrophages at early stage of infection. Intracellular Bartonella inhibited spontaneous cell death of macrophage...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Aleksandra J Ozga, Federica Moalli, Jun Abe, Jim Swoger, James Sharpe, Dietmar Zehn, Mario Kreutzfeldt, Doron Merkler, Jorge Ripoll, Jens V Stein
During adaptive immune responses, CD8(+) T cells with low TCR affinities are released early into the circulation before high-affinity clones become dominant at later time points. How functional avidity maturation is orchestrated in lymphoid tissue and how low-affinity cells contribute to host protection remains unclear. In this study, we used intravital imaging of reactive lymph nodes (LNs) to show that T cells rapidly attached to dendritic cells irrespective of TCR affinity, whereas one day later, the duration of these stable interactions ceased progressively with lowering peptide major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) affinity...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Theresa Vilsmaier, Brigitte Rack, Alexander König, Klaus Friese, Wolfgang Janni, Udo Jeschke, Tobias Weissenbacher
BACKGROUND: Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) have been found to be a prognostic marker for reduced disease-free survival (DFS), distant DFS, breast cancer-specific survival, and overall survival (OS) before the start of systemic treatment. Determination of CTCs with the CellSearch System (Veridex, Raritan, NJ, USA) is a valuable but time-consuming and costly method. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate cytokine profiles as a marker for CTC involvement. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients chosen for this study were defined as women with breast cancer who agreed to participate in the phase I SUCCESS study...
October 2016: Anticancer Research
Deanna R Worley, Ryan J Hansen, Luke A Wittenburg, Laura S Chubb, Daniel L Gustafson
BACKGROUND: The circulatory pathway for particles deposited outside of blood capillaries has not been well characterized for non-traditionally-delivered chemotherapeutics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood and lymph pharmacokinetics of docetaxel (5 mg/kg) and carboplatin (14 and 28 mg/kg) following subcutaneous (s.c.) versus intravenous (i.v.) delivery were determined in a rodent model with catheterizations of both the thoracic lymphatic duct and jugular vein for prolonged synchronous blood and lymph sampling...
October 2016: Anticancer Research
Sébastien D Pion, Céline Montavon, Cédric B Chesnais, Joseph Kamgno, Samuel Wanji, Amy D Klion, Thomas B Nutman, Michel Boussinesq
Since the mid-2000s, the immunochromatographic card test (ICT), a point-of-care test for detecting Wuchereria bancrofti circulating filarial antigens (CFAs), has been the backbone for mapping and monitoring lymphatic filariasis (LF) worldwide. Recently, there have been instances in which CFA positivity has been associated with Loa loa microfilaremia. Here, we examined the association, at both the community and individual levels, between L. loa and CFA using additional diagnostic tools (quantitative polymerase chain reaction [qPCR], Og4C3 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and IgG4 antibodies to Wb123 assays) to demonstrate the relationship between L...
October 10, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Jonas Steenbrugge, Koen Breyne, Sofie Denies, Melissa Dekimpe, Kristel Demeyere, Olivier De Wever, Peter Vermeulen, Steven Van Laere, Niek N Sanders, Evelyne Meyer
Breast tumorigenesis is classically studied in mice by inoculating tumor cells in the fat pad, the adipose compartment of the mammary gland. Alternatively, the mammary ducts, which constitute the luminal mammary gland compartment, also provide a suitable inoculation site to induce breast cancer in murine models. The microenvironments in these compartments influence tumor cell progression, yet this effect has not been investigated in an immunocompetent context. Here, we compared both mammary gland compartments as distinct inoculation sites, taking into account the immunological aspect by inoculating 4T1 tumor cells in immunocompetent mice...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Matthew T Haynes, Leaf Huang
Traditional liposomes degrade into lower-order micelles when PEGylated to even minor degrees (6-7 mol %) and therefore can offer only limited steric exclusion against opsonization during in vivo delivery. In this work, we present for the first time a liposome coated exclusively by PEGylated phospholipids, utilizing lipid-coated calcium phosphate (CaP) cores of diverse sizes (10-15 nm, 30-40 nm) as well as varying polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain lengths (350-5000 Da). Such fully-PEGylated liposome calcium phosphate (LCP) particles exhibit a PEG chain length-dependent circulation longevity and robust immune evasion, while facilitating both strong accumulation within solid tumors upon intravenous injection and a more rapid and extensive lymphatic drainage upon subcutaneous administration...
September 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Raphael Suy, Sarah Thomis, Inge Fourneau
In the seventeenth century, opportunities to discover chyle came about through the revival of vivisection. Gaspare Aselli discovered chyle vessels in a living well-fed dog in 1622. He introduced the term 'lacteals' or milky veins. According to Aselli, the lacteals passed through a mesenteric gland which he called 'pancreas'. The 1627 edition of Aselli's booklet was the start of a 'lymphomania', which led to the dissection and vivisection of hundreds of animals, with the University of Leiden being the clear leader in this field...
August 26, 2016: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
Jingxing Si, Shiqun Shao, Youqing Shen, Kai Wang
Taking advantage of the highly permeable vasculature and lack of lymphatic drainage in solid tumors (EPR effect), nanosized drug delivery systems or nanomedicines have been extensively explored for tumor-targeted drug delivery. However, in most clinical cases tumors such as the early stage tumors and post-surgery microscopic residual tumors have not yet developed such pathological EPR features, i.e., EPR-deficient. Therefore, nanomedicines may not be applicable for such these tumors. Macrophages by nature can actively home and extravasate through the tight vascular wall into tumors and migrate to their hypoxic regions, and possess perfect stealth ability for long blood circulation and impressive phagocytosis for drug loadings...
October 2016: Small
Niyanta N Kumar, Mohan Gautam, Jeffrey J Lochhead, Daniel J Wolak, Vamsi Ithapu, Vikas Singh, Robert G Thorne
Intranasal administration provides a non-invasive drug delivery route that has been proposed to target macromolecules either to the brain via direct extracellular cranial nerve-associated pathways or to the periphery via absorption into the systemic circulation. Delivering drugs to nasal regions that have lower vascular density and/or permeability may allow more drug to access the extracellular cranial nerve-associated pathways and therefore favor delivery to the brain. However, relative vascular permeabilities of the different nasal mucosal sites have not yet been reported...
2016: Scientific Reports
Toshikazu Kurahashi, Katsuyuki Iwatsuki, Tetsuro Onishi, Tetsuya Arai, Katsunori Teranishi, Hitoshi Hirata
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Onankoy A Onyangunga, Jagidesa Moodley, Vesselina Merhar, David A Ofusori, Thajasvarie Naicker
INTRODUCTION: Lymphangiogenesis is the formation of new vessels from pre-existing lymphatic vessels. Data on lymphangiogenesis in the placenta of HIV-infected pre-eclamptics are sparse and the findings are conflicting. The aim of this novel study was to evaluate LYVE-1 immunoexpression in the placenta of HIV infected normotensive versus pre-eclamptic women. METHODS: Placental tissue was obtained from normotensive and pre-eclamptic women stratified according to their HIV status...
September 2016: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Mariana Maia Freire de Oliveira, Maria Salete Costa Gurgel, Maria Teresa Pace do Amaral, Bárbara Juarez Amorim, Celso Darío Ramos, José Geraldo Almeida Filho, Laura Ferreira de Rezende, Luís Otávio Zanatta Sarian
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate manual lymphatic drainage (MLD) and active exercise effects on lymphatic alterations of the upper limb (UL), range of motion (ROM) of shoulder, and scar complications after breast cancer surgery. DESIGN: Clinical trial. SETTING: Health care center. PARTICIPANTS: Women (N=105) undergoing radical breast cancer surgery who were matched for staging, age, and body mass index. INTERVENTIONS: Women (n=52) were submitted to MLD and 53 to active exercises for UL for 1 month and followed up...
August 9, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
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