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Lymphatic circulation

Eric Lin, Thong Cao, Sunitha Nagrath, Michael R King
Metastasis contributes to poor prognosis in many types of cancer and is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Tumor cells metastasize to distant sites via the circulatory and lymphatic systems. In this review, we discuss the potential of circulating tumor cells for diagnosis and describe the experimental therapeutics that aim to target these disseminating cancer cells. We discuss the advantages and limitations of such strategies and how they may lead to the development of the next generation of antimetastasis treatments...
March 14, 2018: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
Kimberly Y Won, Keri Robinson, Katy L Hamlin, Joseph Tufa, Margaret Seespesara, Ryan E Wiegand, Katherine Gass, Joseph Kubofcik, Thomas B Nutman, Patrick J Lammie, Saipale Fuimaono
BACKGROUND: Current WHO recommendations for lymphatic filariasis (LF) surveillance advise programs to implement activities to monitor for new foci of transmission after stopping mass drug administration (MDA). A current need in the global effort to eliminate LF is to standardize diagnostic tools and surveillance activities beyond the recommended transmission assessment survey (TAS). METHODOLOGY: TAS was first conducted in American Samoa in 2011 (TAS 1) and a repeat TAS was carried out in 2015 (TAS 2)...
March 9, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Aneta Cymbaluk-Płoska, Anita Chudecka-Głaz, Ewa Pius-Sadowska, Agnieszka Sompolska-Rzechuła, Bogusław Machaliński, Janusz Menkiszak
Obesity is a well-known factor that leads to many diseases including endometrial cancer. The adipose tissue is a heterogeneous organ of internal secretion. Visfatin is a newly discovered protein produced by fat tissues. The purpose of this work was to evaluate serum level concentrations of visfatin in patients with endometrial cancer based on clinical progression and histopathological tumor differentiation. The diagnostic capabilities of visfatin protein in high differentiation (FIGO III and IV) from a lower (FIGO I and II) clinical stage and prognostic degree of cell differentiation (G1 versus G2, G2 versus G3) on the basis of the analysis of the area under the ROC curve are as follows: 0...
2018: BioMed Research International
Javier R Jaldin-Fincati, Rafaela V S Pereira, Philip J Bilan, Amira Klip
Whereas the blood microvasculature constitutes a biological barrier to the action of blood-borne insulin on target tissues, the lymphatic microvasculature might act as a barrier to subcutaneously administrated insulin reaching the circulation. Here, we evaluate the interaction of insulin with primary microvascular endothelial cells of lymphatic (HDLEC) and blood (HAMEC) origin, derived from human dermal and adipose tissues, respectively. HDLEC express higher levels of insulin receptor (IR) and signal in response to insulin as low as 2...
March 6, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Jian Dong, Jianfeng Xin, Wenbin Shen, Xiaobai Chen, Tingguo Wen, Chunyan Zhang, Rengui Wang
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to investigate the clinical value of diagnostic lymphangiography followed by sequential CT examinations in patients with idiopathic chyluria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six patients with idiopathic chyluria underwent unipedal diagnostic lymphangiography and then underwent sequential CT examinations. The examinations were reviewed separately by two radiologists. Abnormal distribution of contrast medium, lymphourinary leakages, and retrograde flow were noted, and the range and distribution of lymphatic vessel lesions were recorded...
February 22, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Patrick Tso, Mustafa Vurma, Chih-Wei Ko, Dana M Lee, Stephen DeMichele
Breastmilk lutein is better absorbed by infants than lutein delivered in infant formula. Therefore, we wish to better understand the possible absorption differences of lutein in breast milk versus infant formula by determining its bioavailability after gastric administration and whether the intestinal absorption of lutein can be improved by using new delivery vehicles. STUDY ONE compared the intestinal uptake, and the lymphatic and portal transport of lutein in conscious lymph fistula rats. Four groups of lymph and portal vein cannulated rats (n = 8-10/group) were randomized to receive via the gastric tube increasing doses (10,20,40,or 80mg/kg) of 20% lutein in safflower oil (SO) suspension to assess whether there was a saturable level of lutein that can be absorbed and transported in lymph...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Mark W Majesky
The vascular system forms as a branching network of endothelial cells that acquire identity as arterial, venous, hemogenic, or lymphatic. Endothelial specification depends on gene targets transcribed by Ets domain-containing factors, including Ets variant gene 2 (Etv2), together with the activity of chromatin-remodeling complexes containing Brahma-related gene-1 (Brg1). Once specified and assembled into vessels, mechanisms regulating lumen diameter and axial growth ensure that the structure of the branching vascular network matches the need for perfusion of target tissues...
March 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Yves d'Udekem, Marc de Leval
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Jianping Qi, Jie Zhuang, Yongjiu Lv, Yi Lu, Wei Wu
The microfold cells (M cells) residing in the outmost follicle-associated epithelia (FAE) of Peyer's patches capture foreign particles and hand over to sub-FAE lymphatics, where the particles are retained and disposed subsequently. A concept of "dome trap" is proposed to highlight the significance of this mechanism. For oral immunization, it is better to exploit the entrapment capacity to maximize immune response, whereas for drug delivery it is better to overcome the dome trap to transport drugs into the systemic circulation...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
John C Kraft, Lisa A McConnachie, Josefin Koehn, Loren Kinman, Jianguo Sun, Ann C Collier, Carol Collins, Danny D Shen, Rodney J Y Ho
Existing oral antiretroviral (ARV) agents have been shown in human studies to exhibit limited lymph node penetration and lymphatic drug insufficiency. As lymph nodes are a reservoir of HIV, it is critical to deliver and sustain effective levels of ARV combinations in these tissues. To overcome lymph node drug insufficiency of oral combination ARV therapy (cART), we developed and reported a long-acting and lymphocyte-targeting injectable that contains three ARVs-hydrophobic lopinavir (LPV) and ritonavir (RTV), and hydrophilic tenofovir (TFV)-stabilized by lipid excipients in a nanosuspension...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Brenda Naemi Nakagaki, Angélica Thomaz Vieira, Rafael Machado Rezende, Bruna Araujo David, Gustavo Batista Menezes
Mammals and microorganisms have evolved a complex and tightly controlled mutual relationship. This interaction grants protection and energy source for the microorganisms, and on the other hand, provides several immunologic, metabolic and physiological advantages for the host. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) harbors the largest bacteria diversity within the body and complex mechanisms control microbiota community under homeostasis. However, once disrupted, microbiota imbalance can lead to overt growth of resident and invasive populations, with potential risk for lethal diseases...
February 2, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Wendy K Steagall, Gustavo Pacheco-Rodriguez, Thomas N Darling, Olga Torre, Sergio Harari, Joel Moss
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a multisystem disease of women, affecting lungs, kidneys, and lymphatics. It is caused by the proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle-like LAM cells, with mutations and loss of heterozygosity in the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) 1 or, more frequently, 2 genes. Isolated pulmonary LAM cells have been difficult to maintain in culture and most studies of LAM lung cells involve mixtures of TSC2 wild-type and TSC2-null cells. A clonal population of LAM lung cells has not been established, making analysis of the cells challenging...
February 6, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Shinya Yamashita, Masahiro Tanemura, Genta Sawada, Jeongho Moon, Yosuke Shimizu, Toshiki Yamaguchi, Toshio Kuwai, Yasuo Urata, Kazuya Kuraoka, Nobutaka Hatanaka, Yoshinori Yamashita, Kiyomi Taniyama
The placement of a self-expanding metallic stent (SEMS) in obstructive colorectal cancer (OCRC) is acknowledged to be a safe and effective procedure for the relief of obstruction. However, there is concern that shear forces acting on the tumor during stent expansion may release cancer cells into the circulation, resulting in a poor prognosis. The aim of the present study was to determine whether colonic stent insertion increases viable circulating tumor cells (v-CTCs). A telomerase-specific replication-selective adenovirus-expressing GFP (TelomeScanF35) detection system was used to detect v-CTCs in 8 OCRC patients with a SEMS before and after stent insertion and after surgical resection...
January 2018: Oncology Letters
Ania Bogoslowski, Eugene C Butcher, Paul Kubes
Staphylococcus aureus is a skin- and respiratory tract-colonizing bacterium and is the leading cause of community-acquired skin infections. Dissemination of these bacteria into systemic circulation causes bacteremia, which has a high mortality rate. Therefore, understanding the immunologic barriers that prevent dissemination is critical to developing novel treatments. In this study, we demonstrate that an S. aureus breach across skin leads to some migration of the pathogen to the draining lymph node, but no further...
January 29, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Chandana H Mallawarachchi, T G A Nilmini Chandrasena, Ranjan Premaratna, S M N S M Mallawarachchi, Nilanthi R de Silva
BACKGROUND: Post-mass drug administration (MDA) surveillance during the lymphatic filariasis (LF) elimination program in Sri Lanka, revealed the re-emergence of brugian filariasis after four decades. This study was done with the objectives of investigating the epidemiology and age-specific vulnerability to infection. Surveillance was done using night blood smears (NBS) and the Brugia rapid test (BRT), to detect microfilaria (MF) and anti-Brugia IgG4 antibodies in blood samples collected from an age-stratified population enrolled from two high-risk study areas (SA)s, Pubudugama and Wedamulla in the Gampaha District...
January 29, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Toshiaki Taoka, Shinji Naganawa
After Kanda's first report in 2014 on gadolinium (Gd) deposition in brain tissue, a considerable number of studies have investigated the explanation for the observation. Gd deposition in brain tissue after repeated administration of gadolinium-based contrast medium (GBCM) has been histologically proven, and chelate stability has been shown to affect the deposition. However, the mechanism for this deposition has not been fully elucidated. Recently, a hypothesis was introduced that involves the 'glymphatic system', which is a coined word that combines 'gl' for glia cell and 'lymphatic' system...
January 25, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
Walter E Cromer, Scott D Zawieja, Karen M Doersch, Hayden Stagg, Felicia Hunter, Binu Tharakan, Ed Childs, David C Zawieja
It is theorized that toxic agents are transported from the hyperpermeable gut of burn victims through the lymph, to the systemic circulation, causing global injury. We believe that immune cells respond to leakage of "toxic lymph" following trauma causing the attraction of these cells to the perilymphatic space. To test this, we utilized a model of burn on rats to examine changes in a single immune cell population associated with mesenteric lymphatic dysfunction. We examined the ability of serum from these animals to increase permeability in lymphatic endothelial monolayers and disrupt cellular junctions...
January 23, 2018: Lymphatic Research and Biology
Jadwiga Jablonska, Stephan Lang, Ronit Vogt Sionov, Zvi Granot
Metastasis is a multistep process requiring tumor cell detachment from the primary tumor and migration to target organs through the lymphatic or blood circulatory systems. Specific organs are predisposed to metastases in certain cancers and the formation of supportive metastatic microenvironment determines tumor cell homing. Such an environment is provided by a pre-metastatic niche that is formed through the recruitment of bone marrow-derived myeloid cells, however the mechanisms of its formation are not fully understood...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
Alex J McCarthy, Richard A Stabler, Peter W Taylor
Escherichia coli K1 strains are major causative agents of invasive disease of the new born. The age dependency of infection can be reproduced in the neonatal rat. Colonization of the small intestine following oral administration of K1 bacteria leads rapidly to invasion of the blood circulation; bacteria that avoid capture by the mesenteric lymphatic system and evade antibacterial mechanisms in the blood may disseminate to cause organ-specific infections such as meningitis. Some E. coli K1 surface constituents, in particular the polysialic acid capsule, are known to contribute to invasive potential but a comprehensive picture of the factors that determine the fully virulent phenotype has not so far emerged...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Yu-Jen Chen, Tung-Hu Tsai, Li-Ying Wang, Chen-Hsi Hsieh
PURPOSE: Concurrent chemoradiation therapy is the mainstay of treatment for many types of malignancies. However, concurrent chemoradiation therapy is associated with a greater number of systemic adverse effects than radiotherapy or chemotherapy alone. SUMMARY: Pharmacokinetics is the study of a drug and/or its metabolite kinetics in the body, including absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination. The incidences of adverse effects are markedly higher in patients who receive concurrent chemoradiation therapy than in those who receive either radiotherapy or chemotherapy alone...
December 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
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