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In vitro diagnostic technology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658818/a-long-non-coding-sineup-rna-boosts-semi-stable-production-of-fully-human-monoclonal-antibodies-in-hek293e-cells
#1
Emanuele Sasso, Debora Latino, Guendalina Froechlich, Mariangela Succoio, Margherita Passariello, Claudia De Lorenzo, Alfredo Nicosia, Nicola Zambrano
Use of monoclonal antibodies is emerging as a highly promising and fast-developing scenario for innovative treatment of viral, autoimmune and tumour diseases. The search for diagnostic and therapeutic antibodies currently depends on in vitro screening approaches, such as phage and yeast display technologies. Antibody production still represents a critical step for preclinical and clinical evaluations. Accordingly, improving production of monoclonal antibodies represents an opportunity, to facilitate downstream target validations...
April 16, 2018: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618499/comparison-of-an-in-vitro-diagnostic-next-generation-sequencing-assay-with-sanger-sequencing-for-hiv-1-genotypic-resistance-testing
#2
Philip L Tzou, Pramila Ariyaratne, Vici Varghese, Charlie Lee, Elian Rakhmanaliev, Carolin Villy, Meiqi Yee, Kevin Tan, Gerd Michel, Benjamin A Pinsky, Robert W Shafer
The ability of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to detect low frequency HIV-1 drug resistance mutations (DRMs) not detected by dideoxynucleotide Sanger sequencing has potential advantages for improved patient outcomes. We compared the performance of an in vitro diagnostic (IVD) NGS assay, the Sentosa® SQ HIV Genotyping Assay for HIV-1 genotypic resistance testing, with Sanger sequencing on 138 protease/reverse transcriptase (RT) and 39 integrase sequences. The NGS assay used a five percent threshold for reporting low-frequency variants...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616985/recording-characteristics-of-impedance-electromyography-needle-electrodes
#3
Hyeuknam Kwon, John F Di Cristina, Seward B Rutkove, Benjamin Sanchez
OBJECTIVE: Needle EMG remains the standard clinical test for neuromuscular disease (NMD) assessment, but it only characterizes myofiber membrane depolarization. On the other hand, electrical impedance provides non-electrically active structural and compositional data of tissues. Here, we designed a prototype of needle electrode integrating impedance and EMG measurement capabilities, the so-called I-EMG needle electrode. APPROACH: We use finite element method models to study the impedance recording characteristics of I-EMG needle electrodes...
April 4, 2018: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577645/a-novel-monoclonal-antibody-kmp1-has-potential-antitumor-activity-of-bladder-cancer-by-blocking-cd44-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#4
Yujin Chen, Haifeng Wang, Yigang Zuo, Ning Li, Mingxia Ding, Chong Li
Bladder cancer becomes a serious medical and social concern due to its high recurrence and mortality rates. Thus, it is urgent to search a novel prognostic biomarker and targeted therapy with high sensitivity and specificity. In this study, we used the human bladder cancer cell line EJ as an immunogen to generate a novel mouse monoclonal antibody KMP1 that specifically bound to bladder cancer, and then, the antitumor effect of KMP1 against bladder cancer was investigated both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that expression of the KMP1 epitope is consistent with clinical severity and prognosis of bladder cancer...
March 25, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566378/adrenal-insufficiency-sex-reversal-and-angelman-syndrome-due-to-uniparental-disomy-unmasking-a-mutation-in-cyp11a1
#5
Ahlee Kim, Masanobu Fujimoto, Vivian Hwa, Philippe Backeljauw, Andrew Dauber
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) deficiency is a rare genetic disorder causing primary adrenal insufficiency with or without a 46,XY disorder of sexual development (DSD). Herein, we report a case of the combination of primary adrenal insufficiency, a DSD (testes with female external genitalia in a setting of a 47,XXY karyotype), and Angelman syndrome. METHODS: Comprehensive genetic analyses were performed, including a single nucleotide polymorphism microarray and whole-exome sequencing...
March 22, 2018: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561796/disease-modeling-using-3d-organoids-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#6
REVIEW
Beatrice Xuan Ho, Nicole Min Qian Pek, Boon-Seng Soh
The rising interest in human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived organoid culture has stemmed from the manipulation of various combinations of directed multi-lineage differentiation and morphogenetic processes that mimic organogenesis. Organoids are three-dimensional (3D) structures that are comprised of multiple cell types, self-organized to recapitulate embryonic and tissue development in vitro. This model has been shown to be superior to conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell culture methods in mirroring functionality, architecture, and geometric features of tissues seen in vivo...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536992/mobile-diagnostics-next-generation-technologies-for-in-vitro-diagnostics
#7
Joonchul Shin, Sudesna Chakravarty, Wooseok Choi, Kyungyeon Lee, Dongsik Han, Hyundoo Hwang, Jaekyu Choi, Hyo-Il Jung
The emergence of a wide range of applications of smartphones along with advances in 'liquid biopsy' has significantly propelled medical research particularly in the field of in vitro diagnostics (IVD). Herein, we have presented a detailed analysis of IVD, its associated critical concerns and probable solutions. It also demonstrates the transition in terms of analytes from minimally invasive (blood) to non-invasive (urine, saliva and sweat) and depicts how the different features of a smartphone can be integrated for specific diagnostic purposes...
March 14, 2018: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509709/cell-free-approaches-in-synthetic-biology-utilizing-microfluidics
#8
REVIEW
Samar Damiati, Rami Mhanna, Rimantas Kodzius, Eva-Kathrin Ehmoser
Synthetic biology is a rapidly growing multidisciplinary branch of science which aims to mimic complex biological systems by creating similar forms. Constructing an artificial system requires optimization at the gene and protein levels to allow the formation of entire biological pathways. Advances in cell-free synthetic biology have helped in discovering new genes, proteins, and pathways bypassing the complexity of the complex pathway interactions in living cells. Furthermore, this method is cost- and time-effective with access to the cellular protein factory without the membrane boundaries...
March 6, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504623/clinical-applications-of-infrared-and-raman-spectroscopy-state-of-play-and-future-challenges
#9
REVIEW
Matthew J Baker, Hugh J Byrne, John Chalmers, Peter Gardner, Royston Goodacre, Alex Henderson, Sergei G Kazarian, Francis L Martin, Julian Moger, Nick Stone, Josep Sulé-Suso
Vibrational spectroscopies, based on infrared absorption and/or Raman scattering provide a detailed fingerprint of a material, based on the chemical content. Diagnostic and prognostic tools based on these technologies have the potential to revolutionise our clinical systems leading to improved patient outcome, more efficient public services and significant economic savings. However, despite these strong drivers, there are many fundamental scientific and technological challenges which have limited the implementation of this technology in the clinical arena, although recent years have seen significant progress in addressing these challenges...
March 5, 2018: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474672/leptomeninges-derived-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-and-directly-converted-neurons-from-autopsy-cases-with-varying-neuropathologic-backgrounds
#10
Shannon E Rose, Harald Frankowski, Allison Knupp, Bonnie J Berry, Refugio Martinez, Stephanie Q Dinh, Lauren T Bruner, Sherry L Willis, Paul K Crane, Eric B Larson, Thomas Grabowski, Martin Darvas, C Dirk Keene, Jessica E Young
Patient-specific stem cell technology from skin and other biopsy sources has transformed in vitro models of neurodegenerative disease, permitting interrogation of the effects of complex human genetics on neurotoxicity. However, the neuropathologic changes that underlie cognitive and behavioral phenotypes can only be determined at autopsy. To better correlate the biology of derived neurons with age-related and neurodegenerative changes, we generated leptomeningeal cell lines from well-characterized research subjects that have undergone comprehensive postmortem neuropathologic examinations...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473735/the-use-of-ex-vivo-organ-cultures-in-tick-borne-virus-research
#11
Jeffrey M Grabowski, Danielle K Offerdahl, Marshall E Bloom
Each year there are more than 15 000 cases of human disease caused by infections with tick-borne viruses (TBVs). These illnesses occur worldwide and can range from very mild illness to severe encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever. Although TBVs are currently identified as neglected vector-borne pathogens and receive less attention than mosquito-borne viruses, TBVs are expanding into new regions, and infection rates are increasing. Furthermore, effective vaccines, diagnostic tools, and other countermeasures are limited...
March 9, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437039/microrna-1246-is-an-exosomal-biomarker-for-aggressive-prostate-cancer
#12
Divya Bhagirath, Thao Ly Yang, Nathan Bucay, Kirandeep Sekhon, Shahana Majid, Varahram Shahryari, Rajvir Dahiya, Yuichiro Tanaka, Sharanjot Saini
Due to high heterogeneity, molecular characterization of prostate cancer (PCa) based on biopsy sampling is often challenging. Hence, a minimally invasive method to determine the molecular imprints of a patient's tumor for risk stratification would be advantageous. In this study, we employ a novel, digital amplification-free quantification method using the nCounter technology (Nanostring Technologies) to profile exosomal serum miRNAs (ex-miRNA) from aggressive PCa cases, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and disease-free controls...
February 1, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431588/aptamers-in-hiv-research-diagnosis-and-therapy
#13
Jyoti Bala, Srinivasan Chinnapaiyan, Rajib Kumar Dutta, Hoshang Unwalla
Aptamers are high affinity single-stranded nucleic acid or protein ligands which exhibit specificity and avidity comparable to, or exceeding that of antibodies and can be generated against most targets. The functionality of aptamers is based on their unique tertiary structure, complexity and their ability to attain unique binding pockets by folding. Aptamers are selected in vitro by a process called Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment (SELEX). The Kd values for the selected aptamer are often in the picomolar to low nanomolar range...
February 12, 2018: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427548/multicenter-validation-study-for-the-certification-of-a-cftr-gene-scanning-method-using-next-generation-sequencing-technology
#14
Anne Bergougnoux, Valeria D'Argenio, Stefanie Sollfrank, Fanny Verneau, Antonella Telese, Irene Postiglione, Karl J Lackner, Mireille Claustres, Giuseppe Castaldo, Heidi Rossman, Francesco Salvatore, Caroline Raynal
BACKGROUND: Many European laboratories offer molecular genetic analysis of the CFTR gene using a wide range of methods to identify mutations causative of cystic fibrosis (CF) and CFTR-related disorders (CFTR-RDs). Next-generation sequencing (NGS) strategies are widely used in diagnostic practice, and CE marking is now required for most in vitro diagnostic (IVD) tests in Europe. The aim of this multicenter study, which involved three European laboratories specialized in CF molecular analysis, was to evaluate the performance of Multiplicom's CFTR MASTR Dx kit to obtain CE-IVD certification...
February 10, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416011/long-noncoding-rna-pandar-blocks-cdkn1a-gene-transcription-by-competitive-interaction-with-p53-protein-in-gastric-cancer
#15
Jun Liu, Qiwen Ben, Eryi Lu, Xiangyi He, Xiaoqun Yang, Jun Ma, Wen Zhang, Zhiming Wang, Tianshu Liu, Jianjun Zhang, Hongxia Wang
Emerging evidence indicates that lncRNAs play important roles in cancer tumourigenesis and could be used as potential diagnostic biomarkers or therapeutic targets. However, the clinical significance and molecular mechanism of lncRNAs in gastric cancer (GC) is still unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the expression and role of lncRNAs in GC. The relative expression level of lncRNAs in GC samples was examined by an lncRNA microarray analysis, northern blot analysis and qRT-PCR analysis. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were performed to evaluate the clinical and prognostic significance of PANDAR (promoter of CDKN1A antisense DNA damage activated RNA) in GC patients...
February 7, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395816/a-comparative-study-of-point-of-care-prothrombin-time-in-cardiopulmonary-bypass-surgery
#16
Shihoko Okabayashi, Satoru Ogawa, Kenichi A Tanaka, Takashi Nishiyama, Shusuke Takeshita, Yoshinobu Nakayama, Yasufumi Nakajima, Teiji Sawa, Toshiki Mizobe
OBJECTIVE: Point-of-care (POC) devices allow for prothrombin time/international normalized ratio (PT/INR) testing in whole blood (WB) and timely administration of plasma or prothrombin complex concentrate during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. This study evaluated the sensitivities of a new POC PT test, a dry-hematology method with heparin neutralization technology (DRIHEMATO PT-S [DRI PT-S]; A&T Corporation, Kanagawa, Japan), and compared it with other POC tests currently available. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359890/performance-comparison-of-two-androgen-receptor-splice-variant-7-ar-v7-detection-methods
#17
Christof Bernemann, Julie Steinestel, Verena Humberg, Martin Bögemann, Andres Jan Schrader, Jochen K Lennerz
OBJECTIVES: To compare the performance of two established androgen receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) mRNA detection systems, as paradoxical responses to next-generation androgen-deprivation therapy in AR-V7 mRNA-positive circulating tumour cells (CTC) of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) could be related to false-positive classification using detection systems with different sensitivities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compared the performance of two established mRNA-based AR-V7 detection technologies using either SYBR Green or TaqMan chemistries...
January 23, 2018: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298913/cross-genus-rebooting-of-custom-made-synthetic-bacteriophage-genomes-in-l-form-bacteria
#18
Samuel Kilcher, Patrick Studer, Christina Muessner, Jochen Klumpp, Martin J Loessner
Engineered bacteriophages provide powerful tools for biotechnology, diagnostics, pathogen control, and therapy. However, current techniques for phage editing are experimentally challenging and limited to few phages and host organisms. Viruses that target Gram-positive bacteria are particularly difficult to modify. Here, we present a platform technology that enables rapid, accurate, and selection-free construction of synthetic, tailor-made phages that infect Gram-positive bacteria. To this end, custom-designed, synthetic phage genomes were assembled in vitro from smaller DNA fragments...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289816/electrochemical-sensor-and-biosensor-platforms-based-on-advanced-nanomaterials-for-biological-and-biomedical-applications
#19
REVIEW
Govindhan Maduraiveeran, Manickam Sasidharan, Vellaichamy Ganesan
Introduction of novel functional nanomaterials and analytical technologies signify a foremost possibility for the advance of electrochemical sensor and biosensor platforms/devices for a broad series of applications including biological, biomedical, biotechnological, clinical and medical diagnostics, environmental and health monitoring, and food industries. The design of sensitive and selective electrochemical biological sensor platforms are accomplished conceivably by offering new surface modifications, microfabrication techniques, and diverse nanomaterials with unique properties for in vivo and in vitro medical analysis via relating a sensibly planned electrode/solution interface...
April 30, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224409/intellectual-property-considerations-for-molecular-diagnostic-development-with-emphasis-on-companion-diagnostics
#20
REVIEW
Harry Glorikian, Richard Jeremy Warburg, Kelly Moore, Jennifer Malinowski
The development of molecular diagnostics is a complex endeavor, with multiple regulatory pathways to consider and numerous approaches to development and commercialization. Companion diagnostics, devices which are "essential for the safe and effective use of a corresponding drug or diagnostic product" (see U.S. Food & Drug Administration, In Vitro Diagnostics - Companion Diagnostics, U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Services(2016), available at https://www.fda.gov/medicaldevices/productsandmedicalprocedures/invitrodiagnostics/ucm407297...
February 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
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