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In vitro diagnostic technology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183642/magnetic-nanoparticle-loaded-electrospun-polymeric-nanofibers-for-tissue-engineering
#1
Heng Zhang, JiYi Xia, XianLun Pang, Ming Zhao, BiQiong Wang, LingLin Yang, HaiSu Wan, JingBo Wu, ShaoZhi Fu
Magnetic nanoparticles have been one of the most attractive nanomaterials for various biomedical applications including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diagnostic contrast enhancement, magnetic cell separation, and targeted drug delivery. Three-dimensional (3-D) fibrous scaffolds have broad application prospects in the biomedical field, such as drug delivery and tissue engineering. In this work, a novel three-dimensional composite membrane composed of the tri-block copolymer poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL-PEG-PCL, PCEC) and magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) were fabricated using electrospinning technology...
April 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179154/managing-the-patient-identification-crisis-in-healthcare-and-laboratory-medicine
#2
REVIEW
Giuseppe Lippi, Camilla Mattiuzzi, Chiara Bovo, Emmanuel J Favaloro
Identification errors have emerged as a critical issue in health care, as testified by the ample scientific literature on this argument. Despite available evidence suggesting that the frequency of misidentification in vitro laboratory diagnostic testing may be relatively low compared to that of other laboratory errors (i.e., usually comprised between 0.01 and 0.1% of all specimens received), the potential adverse consequences remain particularly worrying, wherein 10-20% of these errors not only would translate into serious harm for the patient, but may also erode considerable human and economic resources, so that the entire healthcare system should be re-engineered to act proactively and limiting the burden of this important problem...
February 5, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164252/snap-tag-technology-a-promising-tool-for-ex-vivo-immunophenotyping
#3
Swati Choudhary, Stefan Barth, Rama S Verma
BACKGROUND: SNAP-tag, a self-labeling protein tag, is commonly used for in vitro and in vivo analysis of bound target proteins. We report the first evidence that SNAP-tag could be used for ex vivo detection of enriched biological markers. METHODS: Proof of concept was established for target c-kit receptor, a pathological and diagnostic marker for a variety of cancers. SNAP-tag conjugates with stem-cell factor (SCF) fusion proteins were designed and their binding and specificity was validated in vitro using flow cytometry and immunostaining...
February 6, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137508/nasal-pcr-assay-for-the-detection-of-mycobacterium-leprae-pra-gene-to-study-subclinical-infection-in-a-community
#4
Kamalanathan Arunagiri, Gopalakrishnan Sangeetha, Padmavathy Krishnan Sugashini, Sekar Balaraman, M K Showkath Ali
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Identification of Mycobacterium leprae is difficult in part due to the inability of the leprosy bacillus to grow in vitro. A number of diagnostic methods for leprosy diagnosis have been proposed. Both serological tests and molecular probes have shown certain potential for detection and identification of Mycobacterium leprae in patients. In this study, we have investigated whether Mycobacterium leprae DNA from the nasal secretion of healthy household contacts and the non contacts could be detected through PCR amplification as a method to study the sub clinical infection in a community...
January 27, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125016/testing-human-skin-and-respiratory-sensitizers-what-is-good-enough
#5
Anki Malmborg, Carl A K Borrebaeck
Alternative methods for accurate in vitro assessment of skin and respiratory sensitizers are urgently needed. Sensitization is a complex biological process that cannot be evaluated accurately using single events or biomarkers, since the information content is too restricted in these measurements. On the contrary, if the tremendous information content harbored in DNA/mRNA could be mined, most complex biological processes could be elucidated. Genomic technologies available today, including transcriptional profiling and next generation sequencing, have the power to decipher sensitization, when used in the right context...
January 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116852/reengineering-red-blood-cells-for-cellular-therapeutics-and-diagnostics
#6
REVIEW
Francesca Pierigè, Noemi Bigini, Luigia Rossi, Mauro Magnani
Recently optimized technologies that permit the reversible opening of nanopores across the red blood cell membrane, give the extraordinary opportunity for reengineering human erythrocytes to be used in different biomedical applications, both for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. Engineered erythrocytes have been exploited as a system for the controlled release of drugs in circulation upon encapsulation of prodrugs or small molecules; as bioreactors when they are endowed of recombinant enzymes able to catalyze the conversion of toxic metabolite into inert products; as drug targeting system for the delivery of compounds to the reticuloendothelial system inducing proper senescent signals on the drug-loaded erythrocyte membrane; as carrier of contrasting agents for diagnostic procedures...
January 24, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074431/detection-and-specific-elimination-of-egfr-ovarian-cancer-cells-using-a-near-infrared-photoimmunotheranostic-approach
#7
Dirk Bauerschlag, Ivo Meinhold-Heerlein, Nicolai Maass, Andreas Bleilevens, Karen Bräutigam, Wa'el Al Rawashdeh, Stefano Di Fiore, Anke Maria Haugg, Felix Gremse, Julia Steitz, Rainer Fischer, Elmar Stickeler, Stefan Barth, Ahmad Fawzi Hussain
PURPOSE: Targeted theranostics is an alternative strategy in cancer management that aims to improve cancer detection and treatment simultaneously. This approach combines potent therapeutic and diagnostic agents with the specificity of different cell receptor ligands in one product. The success of antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) in clinical practice has encouraged the development of antibody theranostics conjugates (ATCs). However, the generation of homogeneous and pharmaceutically-acceptable ATCs remains a major challenge...
January 10, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068664/fusion-peptide-improves-stability-and-bioactivity-of-single-chain-antibody-against-rabies-virus
#8
Hualong Xi, Kaixin Zhang, Yanchun Yin, Tiejun Gu, Qing Sun, Linqing Shi, Renxia Zhang, Chunlai Jiang, Wei Kong, Yongge Wu
The combination of rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) with a vaccine is currently effective against rabies infections, but improvements are needed. Genetic engineering antibody technology is an attractive approach for developing novel antibodies to replace RIG. In our previous study, a single-chain variable fragment, scFv57R, against rabies virus glycoprotein (RVGP) was constructed. However, its inherent weak stability and short half-life compared with the parent RIG may limit its diagnostic and therapeutic application...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993967/an-fda-perspective-on-the-regulatory-implications-of-complex-signatures-to-predict-response-to-targeted-therapies
#9
Julia A Beaver, Abraham Tzou, Gideon M Blumenthal, Amy E McKee, Geoffrey Kim, Richard Pazdur, Reena Philip
As technologies evolve, and diagnostics move from detection of single biomarkers toward complex signatures, an increase in the clinical use and regulatory submission of complex signatures is anticipated. However, to date, no complex signatures have been approved as companion diagnostics. In this article, we will describe the potential benefit of complex signatures and their unique regulatory challenges including analytical performance validation, complex signature simulation, and clinical performance evaluation...
December 19, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990088/impact-of-office-hysteroscopy-in-repeated-implantation-failure-experience-of-a-single-center
#10
Emre Göksan Pabuçcu, İbrahim Yalçın, Taylan Bodur, Gamze Sinem Çağlar, Recai Pabuçcu
OBJECTIVE: Repeated implantation failure (RIF) is a clinical entity affecting many couples undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART). Various intrauterine pathologies contribute to RIF. Nevertheless, vaginal sonography and hysterosalpingography, which are the common diagnostic tools for the initial follow-up, have limited sensitivities. In this context, we aimed to evaluate the impact of office hysteroscopy (oHS) on live birth rates (LBRs) when performed prior to subsequent ART cycles in women with a history of RIF...
2016: Journal of the Turkish German Gynecological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978590/laboratory-testing-for-von-willebrand-disease-the-past-present-and-future-state-of-play-for-von-willebrand-factor-assays-that-measure-platelet-binding-activity-with-or-without-ristocetin
#11
Sarah Just
von Willebrand disease (VWD) was first described nearly a century ago in 1924 by Erik Adolf von Willebrand. Diagnostic testing at the time was very limited and it was not until the mid to late 1900s that more tests became available to assist with the diagnosis and classification of VWD. Two of these tests are based on ristocetin, one being ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation (RIPA) and the other the von Willebrand factor (VWF) ristocetin cofactor assay (VWF:RCo). The VWF:RCo assay provides functional assessment of in vitro VWF binding to the platelet glycoprotein (Gp) complex, GPIb-IX-V...
February 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965777/potential-of-molecular-based-diagnostics-and-its-impact-on-allergen-immunotherapy
#12
Giovanni Melioli, Eleonora Savi, Maria Angiola Crivellaro, Giovanni Passalacqua
Molecular based in vitro technologies greatly changed the diagnostic approaches in allergy. At present, sensitization profiles can be dissected according to IgE subsets, which are specific for genuine or cross-reacting components and potentially dangerous or virtually harmless components. The identification of IgE in components with specific characteristics has a direct impact on the accuracy of the diagnosis (indeed, it is possible at present to not only identify the allergen derived from a given allergen source but also the family of molecules to which the patient is sensitized), on the prognosis of the patient's allergy, and on the prevention activities to be implemented...
2016: Asthma research and practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933281/pet-imaging-of-urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator-receptor-upar-in-prostate-cancer-current-status-and-future-perspectives
#13
REVIEW
Dorthe Skovgaard, Morten Persson, Andreas Kjaer
Overexpression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptors (uPAR) represents an important biomarker for aggressiveness in most common malignant diseases, including prostate cancer (PC). Accordingly, uPAR expression either assessed directly in malignant PC tissue or assessed directly in plasma (intact/cleaved forms)-provides independent additional clinical information to that contributed by PSA, Gleason score, and other relevant pathological and clinical parameters. In this respect, non-invasive molecular imaging by positron emission tomography (PET) offers a very attractive technology platform, which can provide the required quantitative information on the uPAR expression profile, without the need for invasive procedures and the risk of missing the target due to tumor heterogeneity...
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932550/spermaurin-an-la1-like-peptide-from-the-venom-of-the-scorpion-scorpio-maurus-palmatus-improves-sperm-motility-and-fertilization-in-different-mammalian-species
#14
Guillaume Martinez, Jean-Pascal Hograindleur, Sébastien Voisin, Roland Abi Nahed, Tarek M Abd El Aziz, Jessica Escoffier, Julien Bessonnat, Claire-Maëlle Fovet, Michel De Waard, Sylviane Hennebicq, Vincent Aucagne, Pierre F Ray, Eric Schmitt, Philippe Bulet, Christophe Arnoult
STUDY QUESTION: Is it possible to identify original compounds that are able to enhance sperm motility from the venom of the scorpion Scorpio maurus palmatus? SUMMARY ANSWER: We identified a potent disulfide-rich peptide (DRP) of 73 amino acids that significantly improved the motility of fresh and frozen-thawed sperm in different mammalian species, including human, and improved fertilization outcome in mouse IVF experiments. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Any disturbance of sperm motility has a strong impact on fertilization and can lead to subfertility or infertility...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924602/genome-wide-analysis-of-periodontal-and-peri-implant-cells-and-tissues
#15
Moritz Kebschull, Claudia Hülsmann, Per Hoffmann, Panos N Papapanou
Omics analyses, including the systematic cataloging of messenger RNA and microRNA sequences or DNA methylation patterns in a cell population, organ or tissue sample, are powerful means of generating comprehensive genome-level data sets on complex diseases. We have systematically assessed the transcriptome, miRNome and methylome of gingival tissues from subjects with different diagnostic entities of periodontal disease, and studied the transcriptome of primary cells ex vivo, or in vitro after infection with periodontal pathogens...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918161/-current-options-of-preimplantion-genetic-screening-and-preimplantation-genetic-diagnostics
#16
V Šimečková
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work is to summarize the current knowledge about preimplantation genetic screening and diagnostics. DESIGN: A review article. SETTING: Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, District Hospital Šternberk, IVF Clinic, Olomouc. RESULTS: Preimplantation genetic testing is a complex of genetic and molecular cytogenetic examinations, which can help to detect abnormalities in embryos before transfer into the uterus of the mother...
2016: Ceská Gynekologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914804/nutrition-and-chronic-inflammatory-rheumatic-disease
#17
Luca Semerano, Chantal Julia, Ouidade Aitisha, Marie-Christophe Boissier
Nutrition is a major environmental influence on human health. Epidemiological and interventional studies suggest a pathophysiological or therapeutic role, respectively, for nutrition in inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRDs). Nevertheless, the associations between nutrition and IRDs are often weak and inconsistent, and the available clinical trials on nutrition are methodologically flawed. Experimental evidence is accumulating that micronutrients in the diet may influence intestinal and systemic immune responses via complex interactions involving the gut microbiota...
November 30, 2016: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913044/clinical-validation-of-the-50-gene-ampliseq-cancer-panel-v2-for-use-on-a-next-generation-sequencing-platform-using-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-and-fine-needle-aspiration-tumour-specimens
#18
Vivek Rathi, Gavin Wright, Diana Constantin, Siok Chang, Huong Pham, Kerryn Jones, Atha Palios, Sue-Anne Mclachlan, Matthew Conron, Penny McKelvie, Richard Williams
The advent of massively parallel sequencing has caused a paradigm shift in the ways cancer is treated, as personalised therapy becomes a reality. More and more laboratories are looking to introduce next generation sequencing (NGS) as a tool for mutational analysis, as this technology has many advantages compared to conventional platforms like Sanger sequencing. In Australia all massively parallel sequencing platforms are still considered in-house in vitro diagnostic tools by the National Association of Testing Authorities (NATA) and a comprehensive analytical validation of all assays, and not just mere verification, is a strict requirement before accreditation can be granted for clinical testing on these platforms...
January 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865995/g-quadruplex-based-aptamers-against-protein-targets-in-therapy-and-diagnostics
#19
REVIEW
Chiara Platella, Claudia Riccardi, Daniela Montesarchio, Giovanni N Roviello, Domenica Musumeci
Nucleic acid aptamers are single-stranded DNA or RNA molecules identified to recognize with high affinity specific targets including proteins, small molecules, ions, whole cells and even entire organisms, such as viruses or bacteria. They can be identified from combinatorial libraries of DNA or RNA oligonucleotides by SELEX technology, an in vitro iterative selection procedure consisting of binding (capture), partitioning and amplification steps. Remarkably, many of the aptamers selected against biologically relevant protein targets are G-rich sequences that can fold into stable G-quadruplex (G4) structures...
November 16, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837499/commercial-molecular-tests-for-fungal-diagnosis-from-a-practical-point-of-view
#20
Michaela Lackner, Cornelia Lass-Flörl
The increasing interest in molecular diagnostics is a result of tremendously improved knowledge on fungal infections in the past 20 years and the rapid development of new methods, in particular polymerase chain reaction. High expectations have been placed on molecular diagnostics, and the number of laboratories now using the relevant technology is rapidly increasing-resulting in an obvious need for standardization and definition of laboratory organization. In the past 10 years, multiple new molecular tools were marketed for the detection of DNA, antibodies, cell wall components, or other antigens...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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