Read by QxMD icon Read

In vitro diagnostic technology

F Sarkodie, O Hassall, E Owusu-Dabo, S Owusu-Ofori, I Bates, I C Bygbjerg, A Owusu-Ofori, L H Harritshøj, H Ullum
BACKGROUND: Syphilis testing conventionally relies on a combination of non-treponemal and treponemal tests. The primary objective of this study was to describe the positive predictive value (PPV) of a screening algorithm in a combination of a treponemal rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Ghana. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From February 2014 to January 2015, 5 mL of venous blood samples were taken from 16 016 blood donors and tested with a treponemal RDT; 5 mL of venous blood was taken from 526 consenting initial syphilis sero-reactive blood donors...
October 10, 2016: Transfusion Medicine
Ka-Meng Lei, Pui-In Mak, Man-Kay Law, Rui P Martins
Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology enables low-cost and large-scale integration of transistors and physical sensing materials on tiny chips (e.g., <1 cm(2)), seamlessly combining the two key functions of biosensors: transducing and signal processing. Recent CMOS biosensors unified different transducing mechanisms (impedance, fluorescence, and nuclear spin) and readout electronics have demonstrated competitive sensitivity for in vitro diagnosis, such as detection of DNA (down to 10 aM), protein (down to 10 fM), or bacteria/cells (single cell)...
September 21, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Sanli Faez, Sela Samin, Dashdeleg Baasanjav, Stefan Weidlich, Markus Schmidt, Allard P Mosk
We introduce nanoCapillary Electrokinetic Tracking (nanoCET), an optofluidic platform for continuously measuring the electrophoretic mobility of a single colloidal nanoparticle or macromolecule in vitro with millisecond time resolution and high charge sensitivity. This platform is based on using a nanocapillary optical fiber in which liquids may flow inside a channel embedded inside the light-guiding core and nanoparticles are tracked using elastic light scattering. Using this platform we have experimentally measured the electrophoretic mobility of 60 nm gold nanoparticles in an aqueous environment...
September 13, 2016: Faraday Discussions
Richard F Neville, Samit K Gupta, David J Kuraguntla
OBJECTIVE: Prosthetic grafts used for lower extremity revascularization and dialysis access fail because of hyperplastic stenosis and thrombosis. Graft surveillance is advocated to monitor function; however, graft failure can occur between episodic examinations. An innovative sensor with wireless, microchip technology allows automated surveillance with assessment of graft function using a "cloud"-based algorithm. We performed proof-of-concept experiments with in vitro and in vivo models to assess the feasibility such a real-time graft surveillance system...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Franck A Atienzar, Eric A Blomme, Minjun Chen, Philip Hewitt, J Gerry Kenna, Gilles Labbe, Frederic Moulin, Francois Pognan, Adrian B Roth, Laura Suter-Dick, Okechukwu Ukairo, Richard J Weaver, Yvonne Will, Donna M Dambach
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major cause of late-stage clinical drug attrition, market withdrawal, black-box warnings, and acute liver failure. Consequently, it has been an area of focus for toxicologists and clinicians for several decades. In spite of considerable efforts, limited improvements in DILI prediction have been made and efforts to improve existing preclinical models or develop new test systems remain a high priority. While prediction of intrinsic DILI has improved, identifying compounds with a risk for idiosyncratic DILI (iDILI) remains extremely challenging because of the lack of a clear mechanistic understanding and the multifactorial pathogenesis of idiosyncratic drug reactions...
2016: BioMed Research International
Gábor L Kovács, Gergely Montskó, Zita Zrínyi, Nelli Farkas, Ákos Várnagy, József Bódis
Human reproduction is a relatively inefficient process and therefore the number of infertile couples is high. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have facilitated the birth of over five million children worldwide. ART, however, superimposes its own relative inefficiency on the preexisting inefficiency of normal reproduction. The efficiency (expressed as pregnancy rate) is generally not more than 30%. Modern reproductive medicine is gradually moving from multiple embryo transfer to the transfer of a single embryo, mainly because of obvious and unwanted side effects of multiple embryo transfer (e...
April 2016: EJIFCC
Stefan C Kane, Elissa Willats, Sammya Bezerra Maia E Holanda Moura, Jonathan Hyett, Fabrício da Silva Costa
Chromosomal aneuploidy is responsible for a significant proportion of pregnancy failures, whether conceived naturally or through in vitro fertilization (IVF). In an effort to improve the success rate of IVF, screening embryos for aneuploidy - or pre-implantation genetic screening (PGS) - has been proposed as a means of ensuring only euploid embryos are selected for transfer. Early PGS approaches were based on fluorescence in situ hybridization testing, and have been shown not to improve live birth rates. Recent developments in genetic testing technologies - such as next-generation sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, coupled with embryo biopsy at the blastocyst stage - have shown promise in improving IVF outcomes, but they remain to be validated in adequately powered, prospective randomized trials...
September 29, 2016: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
J Salvaing, N Peynot, M N Bedhane, S Veniel, E Pellier, C Boulesteix, N Beaujean, N Daniel, V Duranthon
STUDY QUESTION: In comparison to in vivo development, how do different conditions of in vitro culture ('one step' versus 'sequential medium') impact DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in preimplantation embryos? SUMMARY ANSWER: Using rabbit as a model, we show that DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation are both affected by in vitro culture of preimplantation embryos and the effect observed depends on the culture medium used. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Correct regulation of DNA methylation is essential for embryonic development and DNA hydroxymethylation appears more and more to be a key player...
September 22, 2016: Human Reproduction
Ivone M Martins, Rui L Reis, Helena S Azevedo
The field of regenerative medicine has been gaining momentum steadily over the past few years. The emphasis in regenerative medicine is to use various in vitro and in vivo approaches that leverage the intrinsic healing mechanisms of the body to treat patients with disabling injuries and chronic diseases such as diabetes, osteoarthritis, and degenerative disorders of the cardiovascular and central nervous system. Phage display has been successfully employed to identify peptide ligands for a wide variety of targets, ranging from relatively small molecules (enzymes, cell receptors) to inorganic, organic, and biological (tissues) materials...
October 10, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
Elsbeth Heinzelmann
In vitro diagnostics (IVD) has huge potential. Primary drivers in the global market are the patient's awareness of infectious diseases, the introduction of advanced molecular and tissue diagnostic tests for patient-stratified and targeted anti-cancer therapy and, last but not least, the growing geriatric population. Rapid progress in device miniaturization and information technology (IT) offers new possibilities in decentralized testing. Grand View Research Inc. expects the global market for IVD to reach US $ 74...
September 2016: Chimia
G Tosto, C Reitz
Over the past 5 years, the advent of massively parallel technologies for understanding disease at the molecular level accompanied by simultaneous rapid development of the computational tools needed to analyze and filter such data has revolutionized medical science. These "next-generation" "omics" technologies include next-generation sequencing technology for detection of disease-associated DNA sequence variants, RNA sequencing for transcriptome and noncoding RNA analysis, quantitative detection of epigenomic dynamics, and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing analysis for DNA-protein interactions, interactome analysis for networks formed by protein-protein interactions, and metabolome analysis for metabolic systems...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Fran Van Heuverswyn, Maria Karczmarczyk, Heinz Schimmel, Stefanie Trapmann, Hendrik Emons
Compared to other PCR technologies, digital PCR is a potentially highly accurate approach for the quantification of nucleic acid fragments. This study describes the impact of four experimental factors, namely primer and probe chemistry, PCR amplification target, duplexing, and template type, on the measurement results obtained by reverse transcription digital PCR (RT-dPCR) of viral RNA using influenza A virus as a model. Along conventional dual labelled probes (DLP), alternative primer and probe chemistries, including Zip Nucleic Acids (ZNAs), Locked Nucleic Acids (LNAs), and Scorpions(®), were compared with two RNA template types: i) total genomic RNA extracted from cell cultured influenza A and ii) a synthetically prepared RNA transcript (In vitro transcribed RNA)...
September 2016: Biomolecular Detection and Quantification
François Patou, Fatima AlZahra'a Alatraktchi, Claus Kjægaard, Maria Dimaki, Jan Madsen, Winnie E Svendsen
The association of smart mobile devices and lab-on-chip technologies offers unprecedented opportunities for the emergence of direct-to-consumer in vitro medical diagnostics applications. Despite their clear transformative potential, obstacles remain to the large-scale disruption and long-lasting success of these systems in the consumer market. For instance, the increasing level of complexity of instrumented lab-on-chip devices, coupled to the sporadic nature of point-of-care testing, threatens the viability of a business model mainly relying on disposable/consumable lab-on-chips...
September 3, 2016: Diagnostics
Fei Ma, Ying Li, Bo Tang, Chun-Yang Zhang
Biosensors for highly sensitive, selective, and rapid quantification of specific biomolecules make great contributions to biomedical research, especially molecular diagnostics. However, conventional methods for biomolecular assays often suffer from insufficient sensitivity and poor specificity. In some case (e.g., early disease diagnostics), the concentration of target biomolecules is too low to be detected by these routine approaches, and cumbersome procedures are needed to improve the detection sensitivity...
September 20, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Abdulazeez Salawu, Malee Fernando, David Hughes, Malcolm W R Reed, Penella Woll, Claire Greaves, Chris Day, Meshal Alhajimohammed, Karen Sisley
BACKGROUND: Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) are a diverse group of malignancies that remain a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Relatively few reliable cell lines currently exist. Rapidly developing technology for genomic profiling with emerging insights into candidate functional (driver) aberrations raises the need for more models for in vitro functional validation of molecular targets. METHODS: Primary cell culture was performed on STS tumours utilising a differential attachment approach...
August 25, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Adrienne C Showman, George Aranjuez, Philip P Adams, Mollie W Jewett
A greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms that Borrelia burgdorferi uses to survive during mammalian infection is critical for the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic tools to improve the clinical management of Lyme disease. Using an In Vivo Expression Technology (IVET)-based approach to identify B. burgdorferi in vivo expressed genes, we discovered gene bb0318, which is thought to encode the ATPase component of a putative riboflavin ABC transport system. Riboflavin is a critical metabolite for all organisms to maintain redox homeostasis...
August 22, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Matthew B Coppock, Candice R Warner, Brandi Dorsey, Joshua A Orlicki, Deborah A Sarkes, Bert T Lai, Suresh M Pitram, Rosemary D Rohde, Jacquie Malette, Jeré A Wilson, Paul Kearney, Kenneth C Fang, Scott M Law, Sherri L Candelario, Blake Farrow, Amethist S Finch, Heather D Agnew, James R Heath, Dimitra N Stratis-Cullum
We report on peptide-based ligands matured through the Protein Catalyzed Capture (PCC) agent method to tailor molecular binders for in vitro sensing/diagnostics and in vivo pharmacokinetics parameters. A Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) binding peptide and a peptide against the Protective Antigen (PA) protein of Bacillus anthracis discovered through phage and bacterial display panning technologies, respectively, were modified with click handles and subjected to iterative in situ click chemistry screens using synthetic peptide libraries...
August 19, 2016: Biopolymers
Ji-Hun Kim, Dae-Won Sim, Dongsun Park, Tai-Geun Jung, Seonghwan Lee, Taeheun Oh, Jong-Ryul Ha, Seung-Hyeon Seok, Min-Duk Seo, Ho Chul Kang, Young Pil Kim, Hyung-Sik Won
Fragment engineering of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has emerged as an excellent paradigm to develop highly efficient therapeutic and/or diagnostic agents. Engineered mAb fragments can be economically produced in bacterial systems using recombinant DNA technologies. In this work, we established recombinant production in Escherichia coli for monovalent antigen-binding fragment (Fab) adopted from a clinically used anticancer mAB drug cetuximab targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Recombinant DNA constructs were designed to express both polypeptide chains comprising Fab in a single vector and to secrete them to bacterial periplasmic space for efficient folding...
July 28, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Ke Deng, Chenjing Zhu, Xuelei Ma, Hongyuan Jia, Zhigong Wei, Yue Xiao, Jing Xu
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Raman spectroscopy system in the detection of malignant breast lesions through a systemic review and meta-analysis of published studies. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive literature search of PubMed and Embase from 2000 to June 2015. Published studies that evaluated the diagnostic performance of Raman spectroscopy in distinguishing malignant breast lesions from benign lesions and normal tissues were included in our study...
2016: PloS One
K de Heer, S I Vonk, M Kok, M Kolader, A H Zwinderman, M H J van Oers, P J Sterk, C E Visser
Invasive pulmonary mold disease (IPMD) is often fatal in neutropenic patients. This is because IPMD is difficult to diagnose timely, especially when non-Aspergillus molds are the causative agent, as they are usually not associated with a positive galactomannan assay. In 2013 we showed that exhaled breath analysis might be used to diagnose invasive aspergillosis through profiling of patterns in exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by electronic nose (eNose) technology. The current study aimed to determine (1) whether molds can be discriminated from other microorganisms (using two mold species: Aspergillus fumigatus and a pathogenic mold not associated with a positive galactomannan assay, i...
2016: Journal of Breath Research
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"