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In vitro diagnostic technology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019482/novel-poly-vinyl-alcohol-based-amphiphilic-nanogels-by-non-covalent-boric-acid-crosslinking-of-polymeric-micelles
#1
Hen Moshe, Yuval Davizon, Maya Menaker Raskin, Alejandro Sosnik
In this work, we report a new type of poly(vinyl alcohol)-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PVA-g-PNiPAAm) amphiphilic nanogel produced by the non-covalent crosslinking of PVA polyol domains in preformed polymeric micelles with boric acid. The nanomaterials showed sizes in the 100-250 nm range (DLS) and a spherical morphology (HR-SEM). We demonstrated that the size of the polymeric micelles could be fine-tuned by changing the concentration (and the aggregation pattern) of the polymeric amphiphile in water. Upon crosslinking, the polymeric micelles turned into physically stable amphiphilic nanogels that displayed both size and size distribution similar to the micellar precursor for up to two weeks, even under disfavored conditions of concentration and temperature that, in the case of non-crosslinked counterparts, resulted in quick disassembly...
October 11, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992698/monitoring-of-heparin-activity-in-live-rats-using-metal-organic-framework-nanosheets-as-peroxidase-mimics
#2
Hanjun Cheng, Yufeng Liu, Yihui Hu, Yubin Ding, Shichao Lin, Wen Cao, Qian Wang, Jiangjiexing Wu, Faheem Muhammad, Xiaozhi Zhao, Dan Zhao, Zhe Li, Hang Xing, Hui Wei
Metal-organic framework (MOF) nanosheets are a class of two-dimensional (2D) porous and crystalline materials that hold promise for catalysis and biodetection. Although 2D MOF nanosheets have been utilized for in vitro assays, ways of engineering them into diagnostic tools for live animals are much less explored. In this work, a series of MOF nanosheets are successfully engineered into a highly sensitive and selective diagnostic platform for in vivo monitoring of heparin (Hep) activity. The iron-porphyrin derivative is selected as ligand to synthesize a series of archetypical MOF nanosheets with intrinsic heme-like catalytic sites, mimicking pe-roxidase...
October 10, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931913/cell-free-synthesis-of-functional-antibodies-using-a-coupled-in-vitro-transcription-translation-system-based-on-cho-cell-lysates
#3
M Stech, O Nikolaeva, L Thoring, W F M Stöcklein, D A Wüstenhagen, M Hust, S Dübel, S Kubick
Antibodies are indispensable tools for basic research as well as diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Consequently, the development of alternative manufacturing strategies which circumvent the hurdles connected to conventional antibody production technologies is of enormous interest. To address this issue, we demonstrate the synthesis of complex antibody formats, in particular immunoglobulin G (IgG) and single-chain variable fragment Fc fusion (scFv-Fc), in a microsome-containing cell-free system based on translationally active chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lysates...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911652/microbiological-histological-and-biochemical-evidence-for-the-adverse-effects-of-food-azo-dyes-on-rats
#4
Khaled Elbanna, Osama Mohamed Sarhan, Manal Khider, Mohamed Elmogy, Hussein Hasan Abulreesh, Mohamed Rabie Shaaban
In this study, 120 lactic acid bacterial strains from different fermented dairy products as well as 10 bacterial intestinal isolates were evaluated for in vitro and in vivo degradation of various food azo dyes. Of these isolates, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains 13 and 100 and the intestinal isolates Ent2 and Eco5 exhibited 96-98% degradation of the tested food azo dyes within 5-6 hours. High performance liquid chromatography mass spectra of sunset yellow (E110) and carmoisine (E122) anaerobic degradation products by the intestinal isolates showed that they were structurally related to toxic aromatic amines...
July 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902847/first-insights-in-the-variability-of-borrelia-recurrentis-genomes
#5
Durdica Marosevic, Gabriele Margos, Reinhard Wallich, Andreas Wieser, Andreas Sing, Volker Fingerle
BACKGROUND: Borrelia recurrentis is the causative agent of louse-borne relapsing fever, endemic to the Horn of Africa. New attention was raised in Europe, with the highest number of cases (n = 45) reported among migrants in 2015 in Germany and sporadically from other European countries. So far only one genome was sequenced, hindering the development of specific molecular diagnostic and typing tools. Here we report on modified culture conditions for B. recurrentis and the intraspecies genome variability of six isolates isolated and cultured in different years in order to explore the possibility to identify new targets for typing and examine the molecular epidemiology of the pathogen...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877177/an-in-vitro-diagnostic-certified-point-of-care-single-nucleotide-test-for-il28b-polymorphisms
#6
Darragh Duffy, Estelle Mottez, Shaun Ainsworth, Tan-Phuc Buivan, Aurelie Baudin, Muriel Vray, Ben Reed, Arnaud Fontanet, Alexandra Rohel, Ventzislava Petrov-Sanchez, Laurent Abel, Ioannis Theodorou, Gino Miele, Stanislas Pol, Matthew L Albert
Numerous genetic polymorphisms have been identified as associated with disease or treatment outcome, but the routine implementation of genotyping into actionable medical care remains limited. Point-of-care (PoC) technologies enable rapid and real-time treatment decisions, with great potential for extending molecular diagnostic approaches to settings with limited medical infrastructure (e.g., CLIA certified diagnostic laboratories). With respect to resource-limited settings, there is a need for simple devices to implement biomarker guided treatment strategies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861798/real-time-quaking-induced-conversion-for-diagnosis-of-prion-disease
#7
Katsuya Satoh, Ryuichiro Atarashi, Noriyuki Nishida
Sporadic human prion diseases are defined on the basis of clinical features, with periodic sharp discharge (PSD) on electroencephalograms (EEG), a positive 14-3-3 protein assay of CSF samples, and abnormal signals on cerebral cortex on diffusion-weighted (DWI) MR images. It is essential to detect the abnormal prion protein in neuropathological or immunochemical detection of brain tissues when we diagnose definite cases for human prion disease. We performed definite diagnosis of sporadic human prion disease in alive patients...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799951/surface-engineered-blood-adsorption-device-for-hyperphosphatemia-treatment
#8
Quan Shi, Michael Jolly, Marian G Mccord, Melanie S Joy
Correspondence: Melanie S. Joy, PharmD, PhD, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mail Stop C238, Room V20-4108, 12850 East Montview Blvd, Aurora, CO 80045. Email: Melanie.Joy@ucdenver.eduThe research employed surface engineering methods to develop, optimize, and characterize a novel textile-based hemoadsorption device for hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis-dependent end-stage kidney disease. Phosphate adsorbent fabrics (PAFs) were prepared by thermopressing alumina powders to polyester filtration fabrics and treatment with trimesic acid (TMA)...
August 8, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798911/tissue-engineering-approaches-in-the-design-of-healthy-and-pathological-in-vitro-tissue-models
#9
REVIEW
Silvia Caddeo, Monica Boffito, Susanna Sartori
In the tissue engineering (TE) paradigm, engineering and life sciences tools are combined to develop bioartificial substitutes for organs and tissues, which can in turn be applied in regenerative medicine, pharmaceutical, diagnostic, and basic research to elucidate fundamental aspects of cell functions in vivo or to identify mechanisms involved in aging processes and disease onset and progression. The complex three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment in which cells are organized in vivo allows the interaction between different cell types and between cells and the extracellular matrix, the composition of which varies as a function of the tissue, the degree of maturation, and health conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789584/monoclonal-antibodies-technologies-for-early-discovery-and-engineering
#10
Patrick J Kennedy, Carla Oliveira, Pedro L Granja, Bruno Sarmento
Antibodies are essential in modern life sciences biotechnology. Their architecture and diversity allow for high specificity and affinity to a wide array of biochemicals. Combining monoclonal antibody (mAb) technology with recombinant DNA and protein expression links antibody genotype with phenotype. Yet, the ability to select and screen for high affinity binders from recombinantly-displayed, combinatorial libraries unleashes the true power of mAbs and a flood of clinical applications. The identification of novel antibodies can be accomplished by a myriad of in vitro display technologies from the proven (e...
August 8, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765408/when-laboratory-tests-can-mislead-even-when-they-appear-plausible
#11
Adel Aa Ismail
A laboratory test has three phases, pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical. The purpose of this review is to highlight an issue concerning the analytical phase of one of the most widely deployed groups of in vitro diagnostic tests using a common technology - namely immunoassay.Immunoassay entails an inherently high error rate and, therefore, has the potential for inaccurate and misleading results susceptible to misinterpretation and/or diagnostic misapplication by clinicians. An approach based on Bayesian inference (without mathematics or equations) - illustrated by examples - is presented; this may help clinicians in discerning potentially erroneous results even when they appear plausible and not unreasonable...
July 2017: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760229/point-of-care-endocrine-diagnostics
#12
REVIEW
Joel Ehrenkranz
Endocrinology relies on hormone and metabolite measurement for public health screening, diagnostics, and disease management. Advances in microfluidics, immunoassay technology, electronics, and software are moving in vitro endocrine diagnostics from the laboratory to the point of care. Point-of-care endocrine diagnostics provide results clinically equivalent to those produced by expensive laboratory instrumentation for a fraction of the cost and with a substantially more rapid turnaround time. Similar to the transformation of mainframe computers into laptops, tablets, and smartphones, clinical laboratories are evolving into point-of-care technologies...
September 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735483/amlprofiler-a-diagnostic-and-prognostic-microarray-for-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#13
Marco Alessandrini, Sharon S Kappala, Michael S Pepper
Acute myeloid leukemia is characterized by the proliferation and accumulation of immature hematopoietic cells of the myeloid lineage in the bone marrow. The disease is typified by diverse genetic abnormalities and marked heterogeneity both with regard to response to treatment and survival. The AMLprofiler is a qualitative in vitro diagnostic microarray developed by SkylineDx for use with Affymetrix technology. The AMLprofiler makes use of RNA chemistry and incorporates seven separate assays based on three different technologies-cytogenetics, mutation, and expression analysis-to predict post-therapy survival rates in patients with acute myeloid leukemia...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723610/pediatric-reference-intervals-for-29-ortho-vitros-5600-immunoassays-using-the-caliper-cohort-of-healthy-children-and-adolescents
#14
Victoria Higgins, Angela W S Fung, Man Khun Chan, Joseph Macri, Khosrow Adeli
BACKGROUND: Accurate reference intervals (RIs) based on a healthy pediatric population are essential for pediatric test result interpretation. The CALIPER project has recruited a large healthy cohort and completed a series of a priori studies to address gaps in pediatric RIs. As immunoassays from different manufacturers for endocrine and special chemistry markers are not standardized and show marked intermethod differences, direct RI studies are needed for each major analytical platform...
July 19, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714192/secreted-tumor-antigens-immune-biomarkers-for-diagnosis-and-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Els N Meeusen, Elgene Lim, Suresh Mathivanan
With the advent of immunotherapies for cancer, there is growing interest in the identification of tumor antigens. Tumor antigens are self-molecules altered through genetic mutations (neoantigens), protein truncation, protein misfolding or abnormal post translational modifications. To induce an immune response, tumor antigens need to be secreted into the tumor environment and presented to the immune system in the draining lymph nodes, resulting in the generation of tumor-specific effector cells and antibodies...
July 17, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670371/circulating-tumor-cells-what-we-know-what-do-we-want-to-know-about-them-and-are-they-ready-to-be-used-in-clinics
#16
Zuzana Bielčiková, Anna Jakabová, Michael Pinkas, Milada Zemanová, Katarína Kološtová, Vladimír Bobek
Circulating tumor cells (CTC) present in peripheral blood are assigned precursors of advanced tumor disease. Simplicity of blood withdrawal procedure adds practically an unlimited possibility of the CTC-monitoring and the advantages of the repeated biopsies over time. CTC got prognostic, predictive and diagnostic status with the technologic advance. Although the clinical utility of CTC has reached the high evidence, the significance of CTC testing was presented in the treatment strategy mostly with palliative intention...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660853/fluorescence-lifetime-based-bioassays
#17
Franz-Josef Meyer-Almes
Fluorescence lifetime (FLT) is a robust intrinsic property and material constant of fluorescent matter. Measuring this important physical indicator has evolved from a laboratory curiosity to a powerful and established technique for a variety of applications in drug discovery, medical diagnostics and basic biological research. This distinct trend was mainly driven by improved and meanwhile affordable laser and detection instrumentation on the one hand and the development of suitable FLT probes and biological assays on the other...
June 29, 2017: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644873/circular-rna-expression-profiling-of-human-granulosa-cells-during-maternal-aging-reveals-novel-transcripts-associated-with-assisted-reproductive-technology-outcomes
#18
Jing Cheng, Jia Huang, Suzhen Yuan, Su Zhou, Wei Yan, Wei Shen, Yun Chen, Xi Xia, Aiyue Luo, Da Zhu, Shixuan Wang
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a unique class of endogenous RNAs which could be used as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of many diseases. Our study aimed to investigate circRNA profiles in human granulosa cells (GCs) during maternal aging and to uncover age-related circRNA variations that potentially reflect decreased oocyte competence. CircRNAs in GCs from in vitro fertilization (IVF) patients with young age (YA, ≤ 30 years) and advanced age (AA, ≥ 38 years) were profiled by microarray, and validated in 20 paired samples...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615034/novel-methodologies-and-technologies-to-assess-mid-palatal-suture-maturation-a-systematic-review
#19
Darren Isfeld, Manuel Lagravere, Vladimir Leon-Salazar, Carlos Flores-Mir
INTRODUCTION: A reliable method to assess midpalatal suture maturation to drive clinical decision-making, towards non-surgical or surgical expansion, in adolescent and young adult patients is needed. The objectives were to systematically review and evaluate what is known regarding contemporary methodologies capable of assessing midpalatal suture maturation in humans. METHODS: A computerized database search was conducted using Medline, PubMed, Embase and Scopus to search the literature up until October 5, 2016...
June 14, 2017: Head & Face Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590117/nanotechnology-enhanced-no-wash-biosensors-for-in-vitro-diagnostics-of-cancer
#20
Xiaolin Huang, Yijing Liu, Bryant Yung, Yonghua Xiong, Xiaoyuan Chen
In vitro biosensors have been an integral component for early diagnosis of cancer in the clinic. Among them, no-wash biosensors, which only depend on the simple mixing of the signal generating probes and the sample solution without additional washing and separation steps, have been found to be particularly attractive. The outstanding advantages of facile, convenient, and rapid response of no-wash biosensors are especially suitable for point-of-care testing (POCT). One fast-growing field of no-wash biosensor design involves the usage of nanomaterials as signal amplification carriers or direct signal generating elements...
June 27, 2017: ACS Nano
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