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In vitro diagnostic technology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913044/clinical-validation-of-the-50-gene-ampliseq-cancer-panel-v2-for-use-on-a-next-generation-sequencing-platform-using-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-and-fine-needle-aspiration-tumour-specimens
#1
Vivek Rathi, Gavin Wright, Diana Constantin, Siok Chang, Huong Pham, Kerryn Jones, Atha Palios, Sue-Anne Mclachlan, Matthew Conron, Penny McKelvie, Richard Williams
The advent of massively parallel sequencing has caused a paradigm shift in the ways cancer is treated, as personalised therapy becomes a reality. More and more laboratories are looking to introduce next generation sequencing (NGS) as a tool for mutational analysis, as this technology has many advantages compared to conventional platforms like Sanger sequencing. In Australia all massively parallel sequencing platforms are still considered in-house in vitro diagnostic tools by the National Association of Testing Authorities (NATA) and a comprehensive analytical validation of all assays, and not just mere verification, is a strict requirement before accreditation can be granted for clinical testing on these platforms...
November 29, 2016: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865995/g-quadruplex-based-aptamers-against-protein-targets-in-therapy-and-diagnostics
#2
REVIEW
Chiara Platella, Claudia Riccardi, Daniela Montesarchio, Giovanni N Roviello, Domenica Musumeci
Nucleic acid aptamers are single-stranded DNA or RNA molecules identified to recognize with high affinity specific targets including proteins, small molecules, ions, whole cells and even entire organisms, such as viruses or bacteria. They can be identified from combinatorial libraries of DNA or RNA oligonucleotides by SELEX technology, an in vitro iterative selection procedure consisting of binding (capture), partitioning and amplification steps. Remarkably, many of the aptamers selected against biologically relevant protein targets are G-rich sequences that can fold into stable G-quadruplex (G4) structures...
November 16, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837499/commercial-molecular-tests-for-fungal-diagnosis-from-a-practical-point-of-view
#3
Michaela Lackner, Cornelia Lass-Flörl
The increasing interest in molecular diagnostics is a result of tremendously improved knowledge on fungal infections in the past 20 years and the rapid development of new methods, in particular polymerase chain reaction. High expectations have been placed on molecular diagnostics, and the number of laboratories now using the relevant technology is rapidly increasing-resulting in an obvious need for standardization and definition of laboratory organization. In the past 10 years, multiple new molecular tools were marketed for the detection of DNA, antibodies, cell wall components, or other antigens...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836978/a-homozygous-nobox-truncating-variant-causes-defective-transcriptional-activation-and-leads-to-primary-ovarian-insufficiency
#4
Lin Li, Binbin Wang, Wei Zhang, Beili Chen, Minna Luo, Jing Wang, Xi Wang, Yunxia Cao, Kehkooi Kee
STUDY QUESTION: Does a novel homozygous NOBOX truncating variant, identified in whole exome sequencing (WES) of patients with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), cause defective transcriptional activation of multiple oocyte-related genes? SUMMARY ANSWER: A novel homozygous truncating mutation of NOBOX was confirmed to exhibit a loss-of-function effect using well-defined molecular and functional analyses. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Several NOBOX mutations have been reported to be associated with POI but all of them are heterozygous mutations...
November 11, 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825889/carcinoembryonic-antigen-detection-with-handing-controlled-fluorescence-spectroscopy-using-a-color-matrix-for-point-of-care-applications
#5
Weijian Qin, Kan Wang, Kun Xiao, Yafei Hou, Wenting Lu, Hao Xu, Yan Wo, Shaoqing Feng, Daxiang Cui
In this study, we developed a power-free, accurate, and portable diagnostic platform called Handing based on embedded technology, which can rapidly detect fluorescent signals from quantum dots (QDs) on lateral flow test strips (LFTSs). The Handing system has three components: a hand-held test terminal, LFTS cartridge, and data server. The hand-held test terminal is the primary system component and it is integrated with tiny components using printed circuit board packaging for image acquisition, processing, and data handling by a specific program...
October 21, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818705/fluorescent-nanoprobes-for-sensing-and-imaging-of-metal-ions-recent-advances-and-future-perspectives
#6
JingJing Zhang, FangFang Cheng, JingJing Li, Jun-Jie Zhu, Yi Lu
Recent advances in nanoscale science and technology have generated nanomaterials with unique optical properties. Over the past decade, numerous fluorescent nanoprobes have been developed for highly sensitive and selective sensing and imaging of metal ions, both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent development of the design and optical properties of the different classes of fluorescent nanoprobes based on noble metal nanomaterials, upconversion nanoparticles, semiconductor quantum dots, and carbon-based nanomaterials...
June 2016: Nano Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802166/cabyr-is-essential-for-fibrous-sheath-integrity-and-progressive-motility-in-mouse-spermatozoa
#7
Samantha A M Young, Haruhiko Miyata, Yuhkoh Satouh, Robert John Aitken, Mark A Baker, Masahito Ikawa
Ca(2+)-binding tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated protein (CABYR) has been implicated in sperm physiological function in several in vitro studies. It has also been implicated as a potential cause of and diagnostic tool in asthenozoospermic human males. CABYR is known to be localized to the fibrous sheath, an accessory structure in the flagellar principal piece. Utilizing the CRISPR-Cas9 technology, we have knocked out this gene in mice to understand its role in male fertility. Cabyr-knockout male mice showed severe subfertility with a defect in sperm motility as well as a significant disorganization in the fibrous sheath...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723157/improving-the-screening-of-blood-donors-with-syphilis-rapid-diagnostic-test-rdt-and-rapid-plasma-reagin-rpr-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-lmic
#8
F Sarkodie, O Hassall, E Owusu-Dabo, S Owusu-Ofori, I Bates, I C Bygbjerg, A Owusu-Ofori, L H Harritshøj, H Ullum
BACKGROUND: Syphilis testing conventionally relies on a combination of non-treponemal and treponemal tests. The primary objective of this study was to describe the positive predictive value (PPV) of a screening algorithm in a combination of a treponemal rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Ghana. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From February 2014 to January 2015, 5 mL of venous blood samples were taken from 16 016 blood donors and tested with a treponemal RDT; 5 mL of venous blood was taken from 526 consenting initial syphilis sero-reactive blood donors...
October 10, 2016: Transfusion Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713991/cmos-biosensors-for-in-vitro-diagnosis-transducing-mechanisms-and-applications
#9
Ka-Meng Lei, Pui-In Mak, Man-Kay Law, Rui P Martins
Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology enables low-cost and large-scale integration of transistors and physical sensing materials on tiny chips (e.g., <1 cm(2)), seamlessly combining the two key functions of biosensors: transducing and signal processing. Recent CMOS biosensors unified different transducing mechanisms (impedance, fluorescence, and nuclear spin) and readout electronics have demonstrated competitive sensitivity for in vitro diagnosis, such as detection of DNA (down to 10 aM), protein (down to 10 fM), or bacteria/cells (single cell)...
September 21, 2016: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711894/nanocapillary-electrokinetic-tracking-for-monitoring-charge-fluctuations-on-a-single-nanoparticle
#10
Sanli Faez, Sela Samin, Dashdeleg Baasanjav, Stefan Weidlich, Markus Schmidt, Allard P Mosk
We introduce nanoCapillary Electrokinetic Tracking (nanoCET), an optofluidic platform for continuously measuring the electrophoretic mobility of a single colloidal nanoparticle or macromolecule in vitro with millisecond time resolution and high charge sensitivity. This platform is based on using a nanocapillary optical fiber in which liquids may flow inside a channel embedded inside the light-guiding core and nanoparticles are tracked using elastic light scattering. Using this platform we have experimentally measured the electrophoretic mobility of 60 nm gold nanoparticles in an aqueous environment...
September 13, 2016: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693031/initial-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-evaluation-of-a-self-monitoring-prosthetic-bypass-graft
#11
Richard F Neville, Samit K Gupta, David J Kuraguntla
OBJECTIVE: Prosthetic grafts used for lower extremity revascularization and dialysis access fail because of hyperplastic stenosis and thrombosis. Graft surveillance is advocated to monitor function; however, graft failure can occur between episodic examinations. An innovative sensor with wireless, microchip technology allows automated surveillance with assessment of graft function using a "cloud"-based algorithm. We performed proof-of-concept experiments with in vitro and in vivo models to assess the feasibility such a real-time graft surveillance system...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689095/key-challenges-and-opportunities-associated-with-the-use-of-in-vitro-models-to-detect-human-dili-integrated-risk-assessment-and-mitigation-plans
#12
Franck A Atienzar, Eric A Blomme, Minjun Chen, Philip Hewitt, J Gerry Kenna, Gilles Labbe, Frederic Moulin, Francois Pognan, Adrian B Roth, Laura Suter-Dick, Okechukwu Ukairo, Richard J Weaver, Yvonne Will, Donna M Dambach
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major cause of late-stage clinical drug attrition, market withdrawal, black-box warnings, and acute liver failure. Consequently, it has been an area of focus for toxicologists and clinicians for several decades. In spite of considerable efforts, limited improvements in DILI prediction have been made and efforts to improve existing preclinical models or develop new test systems remain a high priority. While prediction of intrinsic DILI has improved, identifying compounds with a risk for idiosyncratic DILI (iDILI) remains extremely challenging because of the lack of a clear mechanistic understanding and the multifactorial pathogenesis of idiosyncratic drug reactions...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683524/non-invasive-assessment-of-viability-in-human-embryos-fertilized-in-vitro
#13
Gábor L Kovács, Gergely Montskó, Zita Zrínyi, Nelli Farkas, Ákos Várnagy, József Bódis
Human reproduction is a relatively inefficient process and therefore the number of infertile couples is high. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have facilitated the birth of over five million children worldwide. ART, however, superimposes its own relative inefficiency on the preexisting inefficiency of normal reproduction. The efficiency (expressed as pregnancy rate) is generally not more than 30%. Modern reproductive medicine is gradually moving from multiple embryo transfer to the transfer of a single embryo, mainly because of obvious and unwanted side effects of multiple embryo transfer (e...
April 2016: EJIFCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682145/pre-implantation-genetic-screening-techniques-implications-for-clinical-prenatal-diagnosis
#14
Stefan C Kane, Elissa Willats, Sammya Bezerra Maia E Holanda Moura, Jonathan Hyett, Fabrício da Silva Costa
Chromosomal aneuploidy is responsible for a significant proportion of pregnancy failures, whether conceived naturally or through in vitro fertilization (IVF). In an effort to improve the success rate of IVF, screening embryos for aneuploidy - or pre-implantation genetic screening (PGS) - has been proposed as a means of ensuring only euploid embryos are selected for transfer. Early PGS approaches were based on fluorescence in situ hybridization testing, and have been shown not to improve live birth rates. Recent developments in genetic testing technologies - such as next-generation sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, coupled with embryo biopsy at the blastocyst stage - have shown promise in improving IVF outcomes, but they remain to be validated in adequately powered, prospective randomized trials...
September 29, 2016: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664206/assessment-of-one-step-versus-sequential-embryo-culture-conditions-through-embryonic-genome-methylation-and-hydroxymethylation-changes
#15
J Salvaing, N Peynot, M N Bedhane, S Veniel, E Pellier, C Boulesteix, N Beaujean, N Daniel, V Duranthon
STUDY QUESTION: In comparison to in vivo development, how do different conditions of in vitro culture ('one step' versus 'sequential medium') impact DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in preimplantation embryos? SUMMARY ANSWER: Using rabbit as a model, we show that DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation are both affected by in vitro culture of preimplantation embryos and the effect observed depends on the culture medium used. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Correct regulation of DNA methylation is essential for embryonic development and DNA hydroxymethylation appears more and more to be a key player...
November 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661443/phage-display-technology-in-biomaterials-engineering-progress-and-opportunities-for-applications-in-regenerative-medicine
#16
Ivone M Martins, Rui L Reis, Helena S Azevedo
The field of regenerative medicine has been gaining momentum steadily over the past few years. The emphasis in regenerative medicine is to use various in vitro and in vivo approaches that leverage the intrinsic healing mechanisms of the body to treat patients with disabling injuries and chronic diseases such as diabetes, osteoarthritis, and degenerative disorders of the cardiovascular and central nervous system. Phage display has been successfully employed to identify peptide ligands for a wide variety of targets, ranging from relatively small molecules (enzymes, cell receptors) to inorganic, organic, and biological (tissues) materials...
October 10, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646548/thematic-platform-in-vitro-diagnostics-technological-progress-with-a-powerful-network
#17
Elsbeth Heinzelmann
In vitro diagnostics (IVD) has huge potential. Primary drivers in the global market are the patient's awareness of infectious diseases, the introduction of advanced molecular and tissue diagnostic tests for patient-stratified and targeted anti-cancer therapy and, last but not least, the growing geriatric population. Rapid progress in device miniaturization and information technology (IT) offers new possibilities in decentralized testing. Grand View Research Inc. expects the global market for IVD to reach US $ 74...
September 2016: Chimia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637954/use-of-omics-technologies-to-dissect-neurologic-disease
#18
G Tosto, C Reitz
Over the past 5 years, the advent of massively parallel technologies for understanding disease at the molecular level accompanied by simultaneous rapid development of the computational tools needed to analyze and filter such data has revolutionized medical science. These "next-generation" "omics" technologies include next-generation sequencing technology for detection of disease-associated DNA sequence variants, RNA sequencing for transcriptome and noncoding RNA analysis, quantitative detection of epigenomic dynamics, and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing analysis for DNA-protein interactions, interactome analysis for networks formed by protein-protein interactions, and metabolome analysis for metabolic systems...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617229/influence-of-primer-probe-chemistry-and-amplification-target-on-reverse-transcription-digital-pcr-quantification-of-viral-rna
#19
Fran Van Heuverswyn, Maria Karczmarczyk, Heinz Schimmel, Stefanie Trapmann, Hendrik Emons
Compared to other PCR technologies, digital PCR is a potentially highly accurate approach for the quantification of nucleic acid fragments. This study describes the impact of four experimental factors, namely primer and probe chemistry, PCR amplification target, duplexing, and template type, on the measurement results obtained by reverse transcription digital PCR (RT-dPCR) of viral RNA using influenza A virus as a model. Along conventional dual labelled probes (DLP), alternative primer and probe chemistries, including Zip Nucleic Acids (ZNAs), Locked Nucleic Acids (LNAs), and Scorpions(®), were compared with two RNA template types: i) total genomic RNA extracted from cell cultured influenza A and ii) a synthetically prepared RNA transcript (In vitro transcribed RNA)...
September 2016: Biomolecular Detection and Quantification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598208/evolvable-smartphone-based-platforms-for-point-of-care-in-vitro-diagnostics-applications
#20
François Patou, Fatima AlZahra'a Alatraktchi, Claus Kjægaard, Maria Dimaki, Jan Madsen, Winnie E Svendsen
The association of smart mobile devices and lab-on-chip technologies offers unprecedented opportunities for the emergence of direct-to-consumer in vitro medical diagnostics applications. Despite their clear transformative potential, obstacles remain to the large-scale disruption and long-lasting success of these systems in the consumer market. For instance, the increasing level of complexity of instrumented lab-on-chip devices, coupled to the sporadic nature of point-of-care testing, threatens the viability of a business model mainly relying on disposable/consumable lab-on-chips...
September 3, 2016: Diagnostics
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