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In vitro diagnostic technology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437039/microrna-1246-is-an-exosomal-biomarker-for-aggressive-prostate-cancer
#1
Divya Bhagirath, Thao Ly Yang, Nathan Bucay, Kirandeep Sekhon, Shahana Majid, Varahram Shahryari, Rajvir Dahiya, Yuichiro Tanaka, Sharanjot Saini
Due to high heterogeneity, molecular characterization of prostate cancer (PCa) based on biopsy sampling is often challenging. Hence, a minimally invasive method to determine the molecular imprints of a patient's tumor for risk stratification would be advantageous. In this study, we employ a novel, digital amplification-free quantification method using the nCounter technology (Nanostring Technologies) to profile exosomal serum miRNAs (ex-miRNA) from aggressive PCa cases, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and disease-free controls...
February 1, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431588/aptamers-in-hiv-research-diagnosis-and-therapy
#2
Jyoti Bala, Srinivasan Chinnapaiyan, Rajib Kumar Dutta, Hoshang Unwalla
Aptamers are high affinity single-stranded nucleic acid or protein ligands which exhibit specificity and avidity comparable to, or exceeding that of antibodies and can be generated against most targets. The functionality of aptamers is based on their unique tertiary structure, complexity and their ability to attain unique binding pockets by folding. Aptamers are selected in vitro by a process called Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment (SELEX). The Kd values for the selected aptamer are often in the picomolar to low nanomolar range...
February 12, 2018: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427548/multicenter-validation-study-for-the-certification-of-a-cftr-gene-scanning-method-using-next-generation-sequencing-technology
#3
Anne Bergougnoux, Valeria D'Argenio, Stefanie Sollfrank, Fanny Verneau, Antonella Telese, Irene Postiglione, Karl J Lackner, Mireille Claustres, Giuseppe Castaldo, Heidi Rossman, Francesco Salvatore, Caroline Raynal
BACKGROUND: Many European laboratories offer molecular genetic analysis of the CFTR gene using a wide range of methods to identify mutations causative of cystic fibrosis (CF) and CFTR-related disorders (CFTR-RDs). Next-generation sequencing (NGS) strategies are widely used in diagnostic practice, and CE marking is now required for most in vitro diagnostic (IVD) tests in Europe. The aim of this multicenter study, which involved three European laboratories specialized in CF molecular analysis, was to evaluate the performance of Multiplicom's CFTR MASTR Dx kit to obtain CE-IVD certification...
February 10, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416011/long-noncoding-rna-pandar-blocks-cdkn1a-gene-transcription-by-competitive-interaction-with-p53-protein-in-gastric-cancer
#4
Jun Liu, Qiwen Ben, Eryi Lu, Xiangyi He, Xiaoqun Yang, Jun Ma, Wen Zhang, Zhiming Wang, Tianshu Liu, Jianjun Zhang, Hongxia Wang
Emerging evidence indicates that lncRNAs play important roles in cancer tumourigenesis and could be used as potential diagnostic biomarkers or therapeutic targets. However, the clinical significance and molecular mechanism of lncRNAs in gastric cancer (GC) is still unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the expression and role of lncRNAs in GC. The relative expression level of lncRNAs in GC samples was examined by an lncRNA microarray analysis, northern blot analysis and qRT-PCR analysis. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were performed to evaluate the clinical and prognostic significance of PANDAR (promoter of CDKN1A antisense DNA damage activated RNA) in GC patients...
February 7, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395816/a-comparative-study-of-point-of-care-prothrombin-time-in-cardiopulmonary-bypass-surgery
#5
Shihoko Okabayashi, Satoru Ogawa, Kenichi A Tanaka, Takashi Nishiyama, Shusuke Takeshita, Yoshinobu Nakayama, Yasufumi Nakajima, Teiji Sawa, Toshiki Mizobe
OBJECTIVE: Point-of-care (POC) devices allow for prothrombin time/international normalized ratio (PT/INR) testing in whole blood (WB) and timely administration of plasma or prothrombin complex concentrate during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. This study evaluated the sensitivities of a new POC PT test, a dry-hematology method with heparin neutralization technology (DRIHEMATO PT-S [DRI PT-S]; A&T Corporation, Kanagawa, Japan), and compared it with other POC tests currently available. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359890/performance-comparison-of-two-ar-v7-detection-methods
#6
Christof Bernemann, Julie Steinestel, Verena Humberg, Martin Bögemann, Andres Jan Schrader, Jochen K Lennerz
OBJECTIVES: Paradoxical responses to next-generation androgen deprivation therapy in AR-V7 mRNA-positive circulating tumor cells of castration-resistant prostate cancer patients could be related to false-positive classification using detection systems with different sensitivities. A performance comparison of the two established AR-V7 mRNA detection systems has not been performed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here, we report a performance comparison of two established mRNA-based AR-V7 detection technologies using either SYBR Green or TaqMan chemistries...
January 23, 2018: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298913/cross-genus-rebooting-of-custom-made-synthetic-bacteriophage-genomes-in-l-form-bacteria
#7
Samuel Kilcher, Patrick Studer, Christina Muessner, Jochen Klumpp, Martin J Loessner
Engineered bacteriophages provide powerful tools for biotechnology, diagnostics, pathogen control, and therapy. However, current techniques for phage editing are experimentally challenging and limited to few phages and host organisms. Viruses that target Gram-positive bacteria are particularly difficult to modify. Here, we present a platform technology that enables rapid, accurate, and selection-free construction of synthetic, tailor-made phages that infect Gram-positive bacteria. To this end, custom-designed, synthetic phage genomes were assembled in vitro from smaller DNA fragments...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289816/electrochemical-sensor-and-biosensor-platforms-based-on-advanced-nanomaterials-for-biological-and-biomedical-applications
#8
REVIEW
Govindhan Maduraiveeran, Manickam Sasidharan, Vellaichamy Ganesan
Introduction of novel functional nanomaterials and analytical technologies signify a foremost possibility for the advance of electrochemical sensor and biosensor platforms/devices for a broad series of applications including biological, biomedical, biotechnological, clinical and medical diagnostics, environmental and health monitoring, and food industries. The design of sensitive and selective electrochemical biological sensor platforms are accomplished conceivably by offering new surface modifications, microfabrication techniques, and diverse nanomaterials with unique properties for in vivo and in vitro medical analysis via relating a sensibly planned electrode/solution interface...
December 22, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224409/intellectual-property-considerations-for-molecular-diagnostic-development-with-emphasis-on-companion-diagnostics
#9
Harry Glorikian, Richard Jeremy Warburg, Kelly Moore, Jennifer Malinowski
The development of molecular diagnostics is a complex endeavor, with multiple regulatory pathways to consider and numerous approaches to development and commercialization. Companion diagnostics, devices which are "essential for the safe and effective use of a corresponding drug or diagnostic product" (see U.S. Food & Drug Administration, In Vitro Diagnostics - Companion Diagnostics, U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Services(2016), available at https://www.fda.gov/medicaldevices/productsandmedicalprocedures/invitrodiagnostics/ucm407297...
December 9, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204328/the-role-of-affordable-point-of-care-technologies-for-cancer-care-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-review-and-commentary
#10
Karen Haney, Pushpa Tandon, Rao Divi, Miguel R Ossandon, Houston Baker, Paul C Pearlman
As the burden of non-communicable diseases such as cancer continues to rise in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), it is essential to identify and invest in promising solutions for cancer control and treatment. Point-of-care technologies (POCTs) have played critical roles in curbing infectious disease epidemics in both high- and low-income settings, and their successes can serve as a model for transforming cancer care in LMICs, where access to traditional clinical resources is often limited. The versatility, cost-effectiveness, and simplicity of POCTs warrant attention for their potential to revolutionize cancer detection, diagnosis, and treatment...
2017: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186366/human-endometrial-stromal-cell-decidualization-requires-transcriptional-reprogramming-by-plzf
#11
Maria M Szwarc, Lan Hai, William E Gibbons, Mary C Peavey, Lisa D White, Qianxing Mo, David M Lonard, Ramakrishna Kommagani, Rainer B Lanz, Francesco J DeMayo, John P Lydon
Infertility and early embryo-miscarriage is linked to inadequate endometrial decidualization. Although transcriptional reprogramming is known to drive decidualization in response to progesterone, the key signaling effectors that directly mediate this hormone response are not fully known. This knowledge-gap is clinically significant because identifying the early signals that directly mediate progesterone-driven decidualization will address some of the current limitations in diagnosing and therapeutically treating patients at most risk for early pregnancy loss...
November 25, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185372/recent-advances-in-the-microbiological-diagnosis-of-bloodstream-infections
#12
Walter Florio, Paola Morici, Emilia Ghelardi, Simona Barnini, Antonella Lupetti
Rapid identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of the causative agent(s) of bloodstream infections (BSIs) are essential for the prompt administration of an effective antimicrobial therapy, which can result in clinical and financial benefits. Immediately after blood sampling, empirical antimicrobial therapy, chosen on clinical and epidemiological data, is administered. When ID and AST results are available, the clinician decides whether to continue or streamline the antimicrobial therapy, based on the results of the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the pathogen...
November 29, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171901/current-advances-in-aptamer-assisted-technologies-for-detecting-bacterial-and-fungal-toxins
#13
REVIEW
Naser Alizadeh, Mohammad Yousef Memar, Bahareh Mehramuz, Saeed Shirgir Abibiglou, Fateme Hemmati, Hossein Samadi Kafil
Infectious diseases are among the common leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Associated with the emergence of new infectious diseases, the increasing number of antimicrobial resistant isolates presents a seriousthreat to public health and hospitalized patients. A microbial pathogen may elicit several host responses and use a variety of mechanisms to evade host defenses. These methods and mechanisms include capsule, LPS or cell wall components, adhesions and toxins. Toxins inhibit phagocytosis, cause septic shock and host cell damages by binding to host surface receptors and invasion...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170163/micrornas-tiny-molecules-with-significant-role-in-mammalian-follicular-and-oocyte-development
#14
Dawit Tesfaye, Samuel Gebremedhn, Dessie Salilew-Wondim, Tsige Hailay, Michael Hoelker, Christine Grosse-Brinkhaus, Karl Schellander
The genetic regulation of female fertility (follicular development, oocyte maturation, and early preimplantation embryo development) involves the spatio-temporal regulation of those genes that play key roles in various stages of the female reproductive axis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNA, are known to regulate the expression of a large proportion of such genes. In recent decades, multiple studies have aimed to determine the roles of these non-coding RNAs in mammalian follicular development, oocyte growth, and embryo development...
November 23, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143053/recent-advances-in-microfluidic-technologies-for-cell-to-cell-interaction-studies
#15
REVIEW
Mario Rothbauer, Helene Zirath, Peter Ertl
Microfluidic cell cultures are ideally positioned to become the next generation of in vitro diagnostic tools for biomedical research, where key biological processes such as cell signalling and dynamic cell-to-cell interactions can be reliably analysed under reproducible physiological cell culture conditions. In the last decade, a large number of microfluidic cell analysis systems have been developed for a variety of applications including drug target optimization, drug screening and toxicological testing. More recently, advanced in vitro microfluidic cell culture systems have emerged that are capable of replicating the complex three-dimensional architectures of tissues and organs and thus represent valid biological models for investigating the mechanism and function of human tissue structures, as well as studying the onset and progression of diseases such as cancer...
November 16, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141509/relative-morphokinetics-assessed-by-time-lapse-imaging-are-altered-in-embryos-from-patients-with-endometriosis
#16
Alexander Freis, Jens Erik Dietrich, Moritz Binder, Verena Holschbach, Thomas Strowitzki, Ariane Germeyer
INTRODUCTION: Time-lapse technology allows almost continuous noninvasive assessment of embryonic development. It was shown previously that relative kinetics defining cleavage synchronicity are better predictors of blastocyst quality than absolute time points. This study aims to compare relative kinetics in embryos from patients with and without endometriosis. METHODS: Time-lapse data were collected retrospectively from 596 patients undergoing infertility treatment for in vitro fertilization from January 2011 to July 2016...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134742/innovative-technologies-for-point-of-care-testing-of-viral-hepatitis%C3%A2-in-low-resource-and-decentralized-settings
#17
Léa Duchesne, Karine Lacombe
According to the Global Burden of Diseases, chronic viral hepatitis B and C are one of the most challenging global health conditions that rank among the first causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Low and middle income countries are particularly affected by the health burden associated with HBV or HCV infection. One major gap in efficiently addressing the issue of viral hepatitis is universal screening. However, the costs and chronic lack of human resources for using traditional screening strategies based on serology and molecular biology preclude any scaling-up...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116510/parallelized-antibody-selection-in-microtiter-plates
#18
Giulio Russo, Doris Meier, Saskia Helmsing, Esther Wenzel, Fabian Oberle, André Frenzel, Michael Hust
The most common in vitro technology to generate human antibodies is phage display. This technology is a key technology to select recombinant antibodies for the use as research tools, in diagnostic tests, and for the development of therapeutics.In this review, the high-throughput compatible selection of antibodies (scFv) in microtiter plates is described. The given detailed protocols allow the antibody selection ("panning"), screening and identification of monoclonal antibodies in less than 1 week.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116497/construction-of-human-immune-and-naive-scfv-libraries
#19
Jonas Kügler, Florian Tomszak, André Frenzel, Michael Hust
Antibody phage display is the most commonly used in vitro selection technology for the generation of human recombinant antibodies and has yielded thousands of useful antibodies for research, diagnostics, and therapy. The prerequisite for successful generation of antibodies using phage display is the construction of high-quality antibody gene libraries. Here, we give the detailed methods for the construction of human immune and naive scFv gene libraries.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099693/comparative-analysis-of-sperm-selection-methods-before-the-intra-cytoplasmic-sperm-injection-procedure
#20
O Lohinova, V Pitko, N Sinilo, Ya Cherkashyna, N Hanzha
In recent years, one of the methods of assisted reproductive technologies has become increasingly widespread, namely the ICSI procedure (ICSI - Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection). This method is based on artificial introduction of the spermatozoon into the cytoplasm of the oocyte. However, the complexity of this method is that the choice of a morphologically and biochemically mature spermatozoon becomes subjective. However, not so long ago, an innovative method for selecting mature, ready-to-fertilize spermatozoa was proposed...
October 2017: Georgian Medical News
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