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In vitro diagnostic technology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204328/the-role-of-affordable-point-of-care-technologies-for-cancer-care-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-review-and-commentary
#1
Karen Haney, Pushpa Tandon, Rao Divi, Miguel R Ossandon, Houston Baker, Paul C Pearlman
As the burden of non-communicable diseases such as cancer continues to rise in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), it is essential to identify and invest in promising solutions for cancer control and treatment. Point-of-care technologies (POCTs) have played critical roles in curbing infectious disease epidemics in both high- and low-income settings, and their successes can serve as a model for transforming cancer care in LMICs, where access to traditional clinical resources is often limited. The versatility, cost-effectiveness, and simplicity of POCTs warrant attention for their potential to revolutionize cancer detection, diagnosis, and treatment...
2017: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186366/human-endometrial-stromal-cell-decidualization-requires-transcriptional-reprogramming-by-plzf
#2
Maria M Szwarc, Lan Hai, William E Gibbons, Mary C Peavey, Lisa D White, Qianxing Mo, David M Lonard, Ramakrishna Kommagani, Rainer B Lanz, Francesco J DeMayo, John P Lydon
Infertility and early embryo-miscarriage is linked to inadequate endometrial decidualization. Although transcriptional reprogramming is known to drive decidualization in response to progesterone, the key signaling effectors that directly mediate this hormone response are not fully known. This knowledge-gap is clinically significant because identifying the early signals that directly mediate progesterone-driven decidualization will address some of the current limitations in diagnosing and therapeutically treating patients at most risk for early pregnancy loss...
November 25, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185372/recent-advances-in-the-microbiological-diagnosis-of-bloodstream-infections
#3
Walter Florio, Paola Morici, Emilia Ghelardi, Simona Barnini, Antonella Lupetti
Rapid identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of the causative agent(s) of bloodstream infections (BSIs) are essential for the prompt administration of an effective antimicrobial therapy, which can result in clinical and financial benefits. Immediately after blood sampling, empirical antimicrobial therapy, chosen on clinical and epidemiological data, is administered. When ID and AST results are available, the clinician decides whether to continue or streamline the antimicrobial therapy, based on the results of the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the pathogen...
November 29, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171901/current-advances-in-aptamer-assisted-technologies-for-detecting-bacterial-and-fungal-toxins
#4
REVIEW
Naser Alizadeh, Mohammad Yousef Memar, Bahareh Mehramuz, Saeed Shirgir Abibiglou, Fateme Hemmati, Hossein Samadi Kafil
Infectious diseases are among the common leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Associated with the emergence of new infectious diseases, the increasing number of antimicrobial resistant isolates presents a seriousthreat to public health and hospitalized patients. A microbial pathogen may elicit several host responses and use a variety of mechanisms to evade host defenses. These methods and mechanisms include capsule, LPS or cell wall components, adhesions and toxins. Toxins inhibit phagocytosis, cause septic shock and host cell damages by binding to host surface receptors and invasion...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170163/micrornas-tiny-molecules-with-significant-role-in-mammalian-follicular-and-oocyte-development
#5
Dawit Tesfaye, Samuel Gebremedhn, Dessie Salilew-Wondim, Tsige Hailay, Michael Hoelker, Christine Grosse-Brinkhaus, Karl Schellander
The genetic regulation of female fertility (follicular development, oocyte maturation, and early preimplantation embryo development) involves the spatio-temporal regulation of those genes that play key roles in various stages of the female reproductive axis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNA, are known to regulate the expression of a large proportion of such genes. In recent decades, multiple studies have aimed to determine the roles of these non-coding RNAs in mammalian follicular development, oocyte growth, and embryo development...
November 23, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143053/recent-advances-in-microfluidic-technologies-for-cell-to-cell-interaction-studies
#6
REVIEW
Mario Rothbauer, Helene Zirath, Peter Ertl
Microfluidic cell cultures are ideally positioned to become the next generation of in vitro diagnostic tools for biomedical research, where key biological processes such as cell signalling and dynamic cell-to-cell interactions can be reliably analysed under reproducible physiological cell culture conditions. In the last decade, a large number of microfluidic cell analysis systems have been developed for a variety of applications including drug target optimization, drug screening and toxicological testing. More recently, advanced in vitro microfluidic cell culture systems have emerged that are capable of replicating the complex three-dimensional architectures of tissues and organs and thus represent valid biological models for investigating the mechanism and function of human tissue structures, as well as studying the onset and progression of diseases such as cancer...
November 16, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141509/relative-morphokinetics-assessed-by-time-lapse-imaging-are-altered-in-embryos-from-patients-with-endometriosis
#7
Alexander Freis, Jens Erik Dietrich, Moritz Binder, Verena Holschbach, Thomas Strowitzki, Ariane Germeyer
INTRODUCTION: Time-lapse technology allows almost continuous noninvasive assessment of embryonic development. It was shown previously that relative kinetics defining cleavage synchronicity are better predictors of blastocyst quality than absolute time points. This study aims to compare relative kinetics in embryos from patients with and without endometriosis. METHODS: Time-lapse data were collected retrospectively from 596 patients undergoing infertility treatment for in vitro fertilization from January 2011 to July 2016...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134742/innovative-technologies-for-point-of-care-testing-of-viral-hepatitis%C3%A2-in-low-resource-and-decentralized-settings
#8
Léa Duchesne, Karine Lacombe
According to the Global Burden of Diseases, chronic viral hepatitis B and C are one of the most challenging global health conditions that rank among the first causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Low and middle income countries are particularly affected by the health burden associated with HBV or HCV infection. One major gap in efficiently addressing the issue of viral hepatitis is universal screening. However, the costs and chronic lack of human resources for using traditional screening strategies based on serology and molecular biology preclude any scaling-up...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116510/parallelized-antibody-selection-in-microtiter-plates
#9
Giulio Russo, Doris Meier, Saskia Helmsing, Esther Wenzel, Fabian Oberle, André Frenzel, Michael Hust
The most common in vitro technology to generate human antibodies is phage display. This technology is a key technology to select recombinant antibodies for the use as research tools, in diagnostic tests, and for the development of therapeutics.In this review, the high-throughput compatible selection of antibodies (scFv) in microtiter plates is described. The given detailed protocols allow the antibody selection ("panning"), screening and identification of monoclonal antibodies in less than 1 week.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116497/construction-of-human-immune-and-naive-scfv-libraries
#10
Jonas Kügler, Florian Tomszak, André Frenzel, Michael Hust
Antibody phage display is the most commonly used in vitro selection technology for the generation of human recombinant antibodies and has yielded thousands of useful antibodies for research, diagnostics, and therapy. The prerequisite for successful generation of antibodies using phage display is the construction of high-quality antibody gene libraries. Here, we give the detailed methods for the construction of human immune and naive scFv gene libraries.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099693/comparative-analysis-of-sperm-selection-methods-before-the-intra-cytoplasmic-sperm-injection-procedure
#11
O Lohinova, V Pitko, N Sinilo, Ya Cherkashyna, N Hanzha
In recent years, one of the methods of assisted reproductive technologies has become increasingly widespread, namely the ICSI procedure (ICSI - Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection). This method is based on artificial introduction of the spermatozoon into the cytoplasm of the oocyte. However, the complexity of this method is that the choice of a morphologically and biochemically mature spermatozoon becomes subjective. However, not so long ago, an innovative method for selecting mature, ready-to-fertilize spermatozoa was proposed...
October 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097309/emerging-tumor-spheroids-technologies-for-3d-in-vitro-cancer-modeling
#12
REVIEW
Tânia Rodrigues, Banani Kundu, Joana Silva-Correia, S C Kundu, Joaquim M Oliveira, Rui L Reis, Vitor M Correlo
Cancer is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Around 90% of deaths are caused by metastasis and just 10% by primary tumor. The advancement of treatment approaches is not at the same rhythm of the disease; making cancer a focal target of biomedical research. To enhance the understanding and promts the therapeutic delivery; concepts of tissue engineering are applied in the development of in vitro models that can bridge between 2D cell culture and animal models, mimicking tissue microenvironment...
October 30, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080882/-single-domain-adapted-antibodies-against-chlamydia-trachomatis-preserving-the-development-of-chlamidic-infection-in-vitro
#13
S V Tillib, E Y Morgunova, T I Ivanova, E A Koroleva, M V Rutovskaya, N A Zigangirova
The technology for the generating of single-domain recombinant monoclonal antibodies (nanoantibodies) based on the immunization of a camel, cloning of induced sequences encoding single-domain antigen-recognizing fragments of non-canonical camel antibodies, as well as functional selection of clones of nanoantibodies by the phage display method, was used to obtain new effective tools for more efficient diagnostics of Chlamydia infection and to develop new approaches for effective therapy. Two promising nanoantibodies were obtained...
October 2017: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063875/laboratory-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-advances-in-technology-and-drug-susceptibility-testing
#14
REVIEW
Seema Oommen, Nandita Banaji
There have been rapid technological advances in the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its drug susceptibility in clinical samples. These include advances in microscopic examination, in vitro culture and application of molecular techniques. The World Health Organization (WHO) has played a large role in evaluating these technologies for their efficacy and feasibility, especially in the developing countries. Amongst these, the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP), through its national network of designated microscopy centres and intermediate reference laboratories, has adopted certain technologies that are currently implemented in India...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043986/potential-of-big-data-analytics-in-the-french-in-vitro-diagnostics-market
#15
Nicolas Dubois, Nicolas Garnier, Christophe Meune
The new paradigm of the big data raises many expectations, particularly in the field of health. Curiously, even though medical biology laboratories generate a great amount of data, the opportunities offered by this new field are poorly documented. For better understanding the clinical context of chronical disease follow-up, for leveraging preventive and/or personalized medicine, the contribution of big data analytics seems very promising. It is within this framework that we have explored to use data of a Breton group of laboratories of medical biology to analyze the possible contributions of their exploitation in the improvement of the clinical practices and to anticipate the evolution of pathologies for the benefit of patients...
October 18, 2017: Annales de Biologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043011/debates-in-allergy-medicine-allergy-skin-testing-cannot-be-replaced-by-molecular-diagnosis-in-the-near-future
#16
Désirée Larenas-Linnemann, Jorge A Luna-Pech, Ralph Mösges
Percutaneous skin prick tests (SPT) have been considered the preferred method for confirming IgE-mediated sensitization. This reliable and minimally invasive technique correlates with in vivo challenges, has good reproducibility, is easily quantified, and allows analyzing multiple allergens simultaneously. Potent extracts and a proficient tester improve its accuracy. Molecular-based allergy diagnostics (MA-Dx) quantifies allergenic components obtained either from purification of natural sources or recombinant technology to identify the patient's reactivity to those specific allergenic protein components...
2017: World Allergy Organization Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019482/novel-poly-vinyl-alcohol-based-amphiphilic-nanogels-by-non-covalent-boric-acid-crosslinking-of-polymeric-micelles
#17
Hen Moshe, Yuval Davizon, Maya Menaker Raskin, Alejandro Sosnik
In this work, we report a new type of poly(vinyl alcohol)-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PVA-g-PNiPAAm) amphiphilic nanogel produced by the non-covalent crosslinking of PVA polyol domains in preformed polymeric micelles with boric acid. The nanomaterials showed sizes in the 100-250 nm range (DLS) and a spherical morphology (HR-SEM). We demonstrated that the size of the polymeric micelles could be fine-tuned by changing the concentration (and the aggregation pattern) of the polymeric amphiphile in water. Upon crosslinking, the polymeric micelles turned into physically stable amphiphilic nanogels that displayed both size and size distribution similar to the micellar precursor for up to two weeks, even under disfavored conditions of concentration and temperature that, in the case of non-crosslinked counterparts, resulted in quick disassembly...
October 24, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992698/monitoring-of-heparin-activity-in-live-rats-using-metal-organic-framework-nanosheets-as-peroxidase-mimics
#18
Hanjun Cheng, Yufeng Liu, Yihui Hu, Yubin Ding, Shichao Lin, Wen Cao, Qian Wang, Jiangjiexing Wu, Faheem Muhammad, Xiaozhi Zhao, Dan Zhao, Zhe Li, Hang Xing, Hui Wei
Metal-organic framework (MOF) nanosheets are a class of two-dimensional (2D) porous and crystalline materials that hold promise for catalysis and biodetection. Although 2D MOF nanosheets have been utilized for in vitro assays, ways of engineering them into diagnostic tools for live animals are much less explored. In this work, a series of MOF nanosheets are successfully engineered into a highly sensitive and selective diagnostic platform for in vivo monitoring of heparin (Hep) activity. The iron-porphyrin derivative is selected as a ligand to synthesize a series of archetypical MOF nanosheets with intrinsic heme-like catalytic sites, mimicking peroxidase...
November 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931913/cell-free-synthesis-of-functional-antibodies-using-a-coupled-in-vitro-transcription-translation-system-based-on-cho-cell-lysates
#19
M Stech, O Nikolaeva, L Thoring, W F M Stöcklein, D A Wüstenhagen, M Hust, S Dübel, S Kubick
Antibodies are indispensable tools for basic research as well as diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Consequently, the development of alternative manufacturing strategies which circumvent the hurdles connected to conventional antibody production technologies is of enormous interest. To address this issue, we demonstrate the synthesis of complex antibody formats, in particular immunoglobulin G (IgG) and single-chain variable fragment Fc fusion (scFv-Fc), in a microsome-containing cell-free system based on translationally active chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lysates...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911652/microbiological-histological-and-biochemical-evidence-for-the-adverse-effects-of-food-azo-dyes-on-rats
#20
Khaled Elbanna, Osama Mohamed Sarhan, Manal Khider, Mohamed Elmogy, Hussein Hasan Abulreesh, Mohamed Rabie Shaaban
In this study, 120 lactic acid bacterial strains from different fermented dairy products as well as 10 bacterial intestinal isolates were evaluated for in vitro and in vivo degradation of various food azo dyes. Of these isolates, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains 13 and 100 and the intestinal isolates Ent2 and Eco5 exhibited 96-98% degradation of the tested food azo dyes within 5-6 hours. High performance liquid chromatography mass spectra of sunset yellow (E110) and carmoisine (E122) anaerobic degradation products by the intestinal isolates showed that they were structurally related to toxic aromatic amines...
July 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
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