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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156627/multichannel-discriminative-detection-of-explosive-vapors-with-an-array-of-nanofibrous-membranes-loaded-with-quantum-dots
#1
Zhaofeng Wu, Haiming Duan, Zhijun Li, Jixi Guo, Furu Zhong, Yali Cao, Dianzeng Jia
The multichannel fluorescent sensor array based on nanofibrous membranes loaded with ZnS quantum dots (QDs) was created and demonstrated for the discriminative detection of explosives. The synergistic effect of the high surface-to-volume ratio of QDs, the good permeability of nanofibrous membranes and the differential response introduced by surface ligands was played by constructing the sensing array using nanofibrous membranes loaded with ZnS QDs featuring several surface ligands. Interestingly, although the fluorescence quenching of the nanofibrous membranes is not linearly related to the exposure time, the fingerprint of each explosive at different times is very similar in shape, and the fingerprints of the three explosives show different shapes...
November 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155743/snap-chip-for-cross-reactivity-free-and-spotter-free-multiplexed-sandwich-immunoassays
#2
Huiyan Li, Sebastien Bergeron, Heidi Larkin, David Juncker
Multiplexed protein analysis has shown superior diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy compared to single proteins. Antibody microarrays allow for thousands of micro-scale immunoassays performed simultaneously on a single chip. Sandwich assay format improves assay specificity by detecting each target with two antibodies, but suffers from cross-reactivity between reagents thus limiting their multiplexing capabilities. Antibody colocalization microarray (ACM) has been developed for cross-reactivity-free multiplexed protein detection, but requires an expensive spotter on-site for microarray fabrication during assays...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155677/expanding-pertussis-epidemiology-in-6-latin-america-countries-through-the-latin-american-pertussis-project
#3
Veronica A Pinell-McNamara, Anna M Acosta, Maria Cristina Pedreira, Ana F Carvalho, Lucia Pawloski, Maria Lucia Tondella, Elizabeth Briere
The Latin American Pertussis Project (LAPP), established in 2009, is a collaboration between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Pan American Health Organization, Sabin Vaccine Institute, and the ministries of health of 6 countries in Latin America. The project goal is to expand understanding of pertussis epidemiology in Latin America to inform strategies for control and prevention. Here we describe LAPP structure and activities. After an initial surveillance evaluation, LAPP activities are tailored to individual country needs...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155047/novel-mosaic-variants-in-two-patients-with-cornelia-de-lange-syndrome
#4
Jelena Pozojevic, Ilaria Parenti, Luitgard Graul-Neumann, Sara Ruiz Gil, Erwan Watrin, Kerstin S Wendt, Ralf Werner, Tim M Strom, Gabriele Gillessen-Kaesbach, Frank J Kaiser
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a dominantly inherited developmental disorder caused by mutations in genes that encode for either structural (SMC1A, SMC3, RAD21) or regulatory (NIPBL, HDAC8) subunits of the cohesin complex. NIPBL represents the major gene of the syndrome and heterozygous mutations can be identified in more than 65% of patients. Interestingly, large portions of these variants were described as somatic mosaicism and often escape standard molecular diagnostics using lymphocyte DNA. Here we discuss the role of somatic mosaicism in CdLS and describe two additional patients with NIPBL mosaicism detected by targeted gene panel or exome sequencing...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154141/novel-genes-associated-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-diagnostic-and-clinical-implications
#5
REVIEW
Ruth Chia, Adriano Chiò, Bryan J Traynor
BACKGROUND: The disease course of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is rapid and, because its pathophysiology is unclear, few effective treatments are available. Genetic research aims to understand the underlying mechanisms of ALS and identify potential therapeutic targets. The first gene associated with ALS was SOD1, identified in 1993 and, by early 2014, more than 20 genes had been identified as causative of, or highly associated with, ALS. These genetic discoveries have identified key disease pathways that are therapeutically testable and could potentially lead to the development of better treatments for people with ALS...
November 16, 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153365/comparison-of-screening-cedm-and-mri-for-women-at-increased-risk-for-breast-cancer-a-pilot-study
#6
Maxine S Jochelson, Katja Pinker, D David Dershaw, Mary Hughes, Girard F Gibbons, Kareem Rahbar, Mark E Robson, Debra A Mangino, Debra Goldman, Chaya S Moskowitz, Elizabeth A Morris, Janice S Sung
OBJECTIVES: Contrast enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) is a new breast imaging technology increasingly used in the diagnostic setting but its utility in the pure screening setting has not been reported. The goal of this pilot study is to prospectively compare screening CEDM to breast MRI in women with an increased risk for breast cancer. METHODS: In this IRB-approved HIPAA-compliant study, 318 women at increased breast cancer risk were consented (December 2012-May 2015) to undergo CEDM in addition to their scheduled MRI...
December 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153075/is-whole-colon-investigation-by-colonoscopy-computerised-tomography-colonography-or-barium-enema-necessary-for-all-patients-with-colorectal-cancer-symptoms-and-for-which-patients-would-flexible-sigmoidoscopy-suffice-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#7
Wendy Atkin, Kate Wooldrage, Urvi Shah, Kate Skinner, Jeremy P Brown, Willie Hamilton, Ines Kralj-Hans, Michael R Thompson, Karen G Flashman, Steve Halligan, Siwan Thomas-Gibson, Margaret Vance, Amanda J Cross
BACKGROUND: For patients referred to hospital with suspected colorectal cancer (CRC), it is current standard clinical practice to conduct an examination of the whole colon and rectum. However, studies have shown that an examination of the distal colorectum using flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) can be a safe and clinically effective investigation for some patients. These findings require validation in a multicentre study. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the links between patient symptoms at presentation and CRC risk by subsite, and to provide evidence of whether or not FS is an effective alternative to whole-colon investigation (WCI) in patients whose symptoms do not suggest proximal or obstructive disease...
November 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152710/the-black-box-revelation-monitoring-gastrointestinal-function
#8
Pieter-Jan Moonen, Annika Reintam Blaser, Joel Starkopf, Heleen M Oudemans-van Straaten, Jan Van der Mullen, Griet Vermeulen, Manu L N G Malbrain
The gastrointestinal tract comprises diverse functions. Despite recent developments in technology and science, there is no single and universal tool to monitor GI function in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Clinical evaluation is complex and has a low sensitivity to diagnose pathological processes in the abdomen. We performed a MEDLINE and Pubmed search connecting abdominal assessment and critical care. Based on these findings we defined the following major categories of monitoring and diagnostic measures: clinical investigation; assessment of motility and digestive function; microbiome monitoring; perfusion monitoring; laboratory biomarkers and hormonal function; intra-abdominal pressure measurement; and imaging techniques...
November 20, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152331/cost-effectiveness-of-massively-parallel-sequencing-for-diagnosis-of-paediatric-muscle-diseases
#9
Deborah Schofield, Khurshid Alam, Lyndal Douglas, Rupendra Shrestha, Daniel G MacArthur, Mark Davis, Nigel G Laing, Nigel F Clarke, Joshua Burns, Sandra T Cooper, Kathryn N North, Sarah A Sandaradura, Gina L O'Grady
Childhood-onset muscle disorders are genetically heterogeneous. Diagnostic workup has traditionally included muscle biopsy, protein-based studies of muscle specimens, and candidate gene sequencing. High throughput or massively parallel sequencing is transforming the approach to diagnosis of rare diseases; however, evidence for cost-effectiveness is lacking. Patients presenting with suspected congenital muscular dystrophy or nemaline myopathy were ascertained over a 15-year period. Patients were investigated using traditional diagnostic approaches...
2017: NPJ Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151936/multiple-guided-technologies-based-on-radial-probe-endobronchial-ultrasound-for-the-diagnosis-of-solitary-peripheral-pulmonary-lesions-a-single-center-study
#10
Huang Haidong, Ning Yunye, Zhang Wei, Paul Zarogoulidis, Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schmidt, Yan-Gao Man, Yang Yuguang, Dong Yuchao, Bai Chong
Objective To evaluate the value of multiple guided technologies based on radial probe endobronchial ultrasound (R-EBUS) in the application of the diagnosis of solitary pulmonary peripheral lesions (PPLs). Methods Analysis of diagnostic yield in 4 groups patients with different combined multiple guided technologies based on R-EBUS, 94 patients with 94 solitary PPLs from Mar, 2013 to Nov, 2014 in Changhai Hospital. Results The overall diagnostic yield was 75% (70/94), the diagnostic yield of Group A (R-EBUS) was 62%(16/26), Group B (R-EBUS with guided sheath, EBUS-GS) was 76% (34/45), Group C (EBUS-GS with fluoroscopy) was 82% (9/11), Group D (virtual bronchoscopic navigation guided EBUS-GS with fluoroscopy) was 92% (11/12)...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151929/identification-of-circular-rna-signature-in-bladder-cancer
#11
Xiao Yang, Wenbo Yuan, Jun Tao, Peng Li, Chengdi Yang, Xiaheng Deng, Xiaolei Zhang, Jingyuan Tang, Jie Han, Jingzi Wang, Pengchao Li, Qiang Lu, Min Gu
Circular RNA (circRNA) comprises a class of endogenous species of RNA consisting of a circular loop that is crucial for genetic and epigenetic regulation. The significance of circRNA in bladder cancer (BCa) remains to be investigated. Here we performed genome‑wide circRNA analysis of 5 paired tumour and adjacent normal tissue samples from BCa patients via next generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Next we confirmed NGS data in a separate set of 32 paired BCa samples using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150458/diagnostic-accuracy-of-neonatal-assessment-for-gestational-age-determination-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Anne Cc Lee, Pratik Panchal, Lian Folger, Hilary Whelan, Rachel Whelan, Bernard Rosner, Hannah Blencowe, Joy E Lawn
CONTEXT: An estimated 15 million neonates are born preterm annually. However, in low- and middle-income countries, the dating of pregnancy is frequently unreliable or unknown. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to determine the diagnostic accuracy of neonatal assessments to estimate gestational age (GA). DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science, POPLINE, and World Health Organization library databases...
November 17, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148115/the-actionability-of-exome-sequencing-testing-results
#13
Tanya Stivers, Stefan Timmermans
Genomic tests such as exome sequencing have recently become an option for diagnosing patients. The tests allow clinical geneticists to sequence the majority of patients' disease causing genetic variants. As a new technology, exome sequencing confronts the question of what the benefit is of this increased genetic information. Against a narrow perspective of clinical utility that emphasises tangible improvements in a patient's disease management, professional organisations have argued that genomic sequencing should be considered beneficial if it helps families and society...
November 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146935/quantitative-evaluation-of-nanosecond-pulsed-laser-induced-photomodification-of-plasmonic-gold-nanoparticles
#14
Andrew M Fales, William C Vogt, Joshua Pfefer, Ilko K Ilev
The rapid growth of gold nanoparticle applications in laser therapeutics and diagnostics has brought about the need for establishing innovative standardized test methods for evaluation of safety and performance of these technologies and related medical products. Furthermore, given the incomplete and inconsistent data on nanoparticle photomodification thresholds provided in the literature, further elucidation of processes that impact the safety and effectiveness of laser-nanoparticle combination products is warranted...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144388/hyperspectral-image-enhancement-and-mixture-deep-learning-classification-of-corneal-epithelium-injuries
#15
Siti Salwa Md Noor, Kaleena Michael, Stephen Marshall, Jinchang Ren
In our preliminary study, the reflectance signatures obtained from hyperspectral imaging (HSI) of normal and abnormal corneal epithelium tissues of porcine show similar morphology with subtle differences. Here we present image enhancement algorithms that can be used to improve the interpretability of data into clinically relevant information to facilitate diagnostics. A total of 25 corneal epithelium images without the application of eye staining were used. Three image feature extraction approaches were applied for image classification: (i) image feature classification from histogram using a support vector machine with a Gaussian radial basis function (SVM-GRBF); (ii) physical image feature classification using deep-learning Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) only; and (iii) the combined classification of CNNs and SVM-Linear...
November 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143897/anaplastic-lymphoma-kinase-testing-ihc-vs-fish-vs-ngs
#16
REVIEW
Xiaomin Niu, Jody C Chuang, Gerald J Berry, Heather A Wakelee
Personalized targeted therapy has emerged as a promising strategy in lung cancer treatment, with current attention focused on elucidation and detection of oncogenic drivers responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance and development of drug resistance. In lung cancer, several oncogenic drivers have been reported, triggering the application of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) to target these dysfunctional genes. The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement is responsible for about 4-7% of all non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) and perhaps as high as a third in specific patient populations such as younger, male, non-smokers with advanced stage, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene (KRAS) wild type, and signet ring cell adenocarcinoma with abundant intracytoplasmic mucin...
November 16, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143676/the-future-of-viral-hepatitis-testing-innovations-in-testing-technologies-and-approaches
#17
REVIEW
Rosanna W Peeling, Debrah I Boeras, Francesco Marinucci, Philippa Easterbrook
A large burden of undiagnosed hepatitis virus cases remains globally. Despite the 257 million people living with chronic hepatitis B virus infection, and 71 million with chronic viraemic HCV infection, most people with hepatitis remain unaware of their infection. Advances in rapid detection technology have created new opportunities for enhancing access to testing and care, as well as monitoring of treatment. This article examines a range of other technological innovations that can be leveraged to provide more affordable and simplified approaches to testing for HBV and HCV infection and monitoring of treatment response...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143053/recent-advances-in-microfluidic-technologies-for-cell-to-cell-interaction-studies
#18
REVIEW
Mario Rothbauer, Helene Zirath, Peter Ertl
Microfluidic cell cultures are ideally positioned to become the next generation of in vitro diagnostic tools for biomedical research, where key biological processes such as cell signalling and dynamic cell-to-cell interactions can be reliably analysed under reproducible physiological cell culture conditions. In the last decade, a large number of microfluidic cell analysis systems have been developed for a variety of applications including drug target optimization, drug screening and toxicological testing. More recently, advanced in vitro microfluidic cell culture systems have emerged that are capable of replicating the complex three-dimensional architectures of tissues and organs and thus represent valid biological models for investigating the mechanism and function of human tissue structures, as well as studying the onset and progression of diseases such as cancer...
November 16, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141738/dynamic-clinical-algorithms-digital-technology-can-transform-health-care-decision-making
#19
David Bell, Noni Gachuhi, Nassim Assefi
Most health care in low-income countries is delivered at a primary care level by health workers who lack quality training and supervision, often distant from more experienced support. Lack of knowledge and poor communication result in a poor quality of care and inefficient delivery of health services. Although bringing great benefits in sectors such as finance and telecommunication in recent years, the Digital Revolution has lightly and inconsistently affected the health sector. These advances offer an opportunity to dramatically transform health care by increasing the availability and timeliness of information to augment clinical decision-making, based on improved access to patient histories, current information on disease epidemiology, and improved incorporation of data from point-of-care and centralized diagnostic testing...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141603/detect-i-detect-ii-a-study-protocol-for-a-prospective-multicentre-observational-study-to-validate-the-uromark-assay-for-the-detection-of-bladder-cancer-from-urinary-cells
#20
Wei Shen Tan, Andrew Feber, Liqin Dong, Rachael Sarpong, Sheida Rezaee, Simon Rodney, Pramit Khetrapal, Patricia de Winter, Frelyn Ocampo, Rumana Jalil, Norman R Williams, Chris Brew-Graves, John D Kelly
BACKGROUND: Haematuria is a common finding in general practice which requires visual inspection of the bladder by cystoscopy as well as upper tract imaging. In addition, patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) often require surveillance cystoscopy as often as three monthly depending on disease risk. However, cystoscopy is an invasive procedure which is uncomfortable, requires hospital attendance and is associated with a risk of urinary tract infection. We have developed the UroMark assay, which can detect 150 methylation specific alteration specific to bladder cancer using DNA from urinary sediment cells...
November 15, 2017: BMC Cancer
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