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Diagnostic technology

Andrew McDowell, Neeraj Raizada, Sunil D Khaparde, Raghuram Rao, Sanjay Sarin, Aakshi Kalra, Virender Singh Salhotra, Sreenivas Achuthan Nair, Catharina Boehme, Claudia M Denkinger
BACKGROUND: Diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) in children presents considerable challenges. Upfront testing on Xpert® MTB/RIF ('Xpert')-a rapid molecular assay with high sensitivity and specificity-for pediatric presumptive TB patients, as recommended by India's Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP), can pave the way for early TB diagnosis. As part of an ongoing project implemented by Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics (FIND) dedicated to providing upfront free-of-cost (FOC) Xpert testing to children seeking care in the public and private sectors, a qualitative assessment was designed to understand how national guidelines on TB diagnosis and Xpert technology have been integrated into the pediatric TB care practices of different health providers...
2018: PloS One
Davina Gale, Andrew R J Lawson, Karen Howarth, Mikidache Madi, Bradley Durham, Sarah Smalley, John Calaway, Shannon Blais, Greg Jones, James Clark, Peter Dimitrov, Michelle Pugh, Samuel Woodhouse, Michael Epstein, Ana Fernandez-Gonzalez, Alexandra S Whale, Jim F Huggett, Carole A Foy, Gerwyn M Jones, Hadas Raveh-Amit, Karin Schmitt, Alison Devonshire, Emma Green, Tim Forshew, Vincent Plagnol, Nitzan Rosenfeld
INTRODUCTION: Detection and monitoring of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is rapidly becoming a diagnostic, prognostic and predictive tool in cancer patient care. A growing number of gene targets have been identified as diagnostic or actionable, requiring the development of reliable technology that provides analysis of multiple genes in parallel. We have developed the InVision™ liquid biopsy platform which utilizes enhanced TAm-Seq™ (eTAm-Seq™) technology, an amplicon-based next generation sequencing method for the identification of clinically-relevant somatic alterations at low frequency in ctDNA across a panel of 35 cancer-related genes...
2018: PloS One
Mattia Bonzi, Giulia Cernuschi, Monica Solbiati, Giuliano Giusti, Nicola Montano, Elisa Ceriani
Infective endocarditis (IE) is a serious and potentially life-threatening disease, and accurate diagnosis is essential. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the diagnostic accuracy of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) as the reference standard, in patients with suspected IE of the native valves. We performed a systematic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library searching for studies that enrolled adult patients with suspected native valves IE where data about both TTE and TEE could be extracted...
March 15, 2018: Internal and Emergency Medicine
Yan Yang, Zhongyin Zhou, Rong Liu, Lu Chen, Hongyu Xiang, Na Chen
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is an important treatment for inoperable hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCC). The aim of the present study as to evaluate the clinical value of three-dimensional visualization (3DV) and 3D printing (3DP) technologies for ERCP in patients with HCC. The clinical data of 15 patients with HCC admitted for ERCP were analyzed retrospectively, including 9 males and 6 females. Thin-sliced data of computed tomography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) were acquired and imported into Mimics Innovation Suite v17...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Kenneth A Miles, Stefan A Voo, Ashley M Groves
Initial clinical research comparing the diagnostic performance of Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/ Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and PET/ Computed Tomography (PET/CT) has largely shown equivalent diagnostic capabilities for these modalities in oncology. These uncertainties about the magnitude of diagnostic benefit are compounded by the considerable health economic challenges associated with clinical implementation. Therefore, there is a need to identify ways to extend the use of this technology beyond simple diagnosis so that PET/MRI can add sufficient clinical value beyond PET/CT or MRI alone, and become a cost-effective imaging modality in clinical practice...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Patrizia Limonta, Marina Montagnani Marelli, Roberta Moretti, Monica Marzagalli, Fabrizio Fontana, Roberto Maggi
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is recognized as the central regulator of the functions of the pituitary-gonadal axis. The increasing knowledge on the mechanisms controlling the development and the function of GnRH-producing neurons is leading to a better diagnostic and therapeutic approach for hypogonadotropic hypogonadisms and for alterations of the puberty onset. During female life span, the function of the GnRH pulse generator may be affected by a number of inputs from other neuronal systems, offering alternative strategies for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Lisa Blom, Lucie Laflamme, Helle Mölsted Alvesson
BACKGROUND: Image-based teleconsultation between medical experts and healthcare staff at remote emergency centres can improve the diagnosis of conditions which are challenging to assess. One such condition is burns. Knowledge is scarce regarding how medical experts perceive the influence of such teleconsultation on their roles and relations to colleagues at point of care. METHODS: In this qualitative study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 medical experts to explore their expectations of a newly developed App for burns diagnostics and care prior to its implementation...
2018: PloS One
Jennifer Karmouch, Alexandros Protonotarios, Petros Syrris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To date 16 genes have been associated with arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM). Mutations in these genes can lead to a broad spectrum of phenotypic expression ranging from disease affecting predominantly the right or left ventricle, to biventricular subtypes. Understanding the genetic causes of ACM is important in diagnosis and management of the disorder. This review summarizes recent advances in molecular genetics and discusses the application of next-generation sequencing technology in genetic testing in ACM...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Lawrence Mj Best, Yemisi Takwoingi, Sulman Siddique, Abiram Selladurai, Akash Gandhi, Benjamin Low, Mohammad Yaghoobi, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection has been implicated in a number of malignancies and non-malignant conditions including peptic ulcers, non-ulcer dyspepsia, recurrent peptic ulcer bleeding, unexplained iron deficiency anaemia, idiopathic thrombocytopaenia purpura, and colorectal adenomas. The confirmatory diagnosis of H pylori is by endoscopic biopsy, followed by histopathological examination using haemotoxylin and eosin (H & E) stain or special stains such as Giemsa stain and Warthin-Starry stain...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ran Kornowski, Hana Vaknin-Assa, Abid Assali, Gabriel Greenberg, Orna Valtzer, Ifat Lavi
OBJECTIVES: To assess the diagnostic performance of angiography-derived fractional flow reserve (FFRangio) measurements in patients with stable coronary artery disease when used online in the catheterization laboratory during routine coronary angiography. BACKGROUND: FFR, an index of the hemodynamic severity of coronary stenosis, is derived from invasive measurements using a pressure-monitoring guidewire and hyperemic stimulus. While FFR is the gold standard, it remains under-utilized...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Invasive Cardiology
Peng Chen, Xiaohu Liu, Garima Goyal, Nhung Thi Tran, James Chin Shing Ho, Yi Wang, Daniel Aili, Bo Liedberg
Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) constitutes a versatile technique for biodetection exploiting the sensitivity of plasmonic nanostructures to small changes in refractive index. The optical shift in the LSPR band caused by molecular in-teractions in the vicinity of the nanostructures are typically < 5 nm and can readily be detected using a spectrophotometer. Widespread use of LSPR based sensors require cost effective devices and would benefit from sensing schemes that enables use of very simple spectrophotometers or even naked eye detection...
March 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Jinzhao Song, Vikram Pandian, Michael G Mauk, Haim H Bau, Sara Cherry, Laurence C Tisi, Changchun Liu
Rapid and quantitative molecular diagnostics in the field, at home, and at remote clinics is essential for evidence-based disease management, control, and prevention. Conventional molecular diagnostics requires extensive sample preparation, complex instruments, and skilled personnel, restricting its use to centralized laboratories. To overcome these limitations, we designed a simple, inexpensive, hand-held, smartphone-based mobile detection platform, dubbed "smart-connected cup" (SCC), for rapid, connected and quantitative molecular diagnostics...
March 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Carmelo Messina, Gabriele Maffi, Jacopo Antonino Vitale, Fabio Massimo Ulivieri, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Luca Maria Sconfienza
Osteoporosis and sarcopenia represent two major health problems with an increasing prevalence in the elderly population. The correlation between these diseases has been widely reported, leading to the development of the term "osteosarcopenia" to diagnose those patients suffering from both diseases. Several imaging methods for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis exist, with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) being the most commonly used for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). Imaging technique other than DXA is represented by conventional radiography, computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US)...
February 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Maria Lucia Specchia, Giuseppe La Torre, Giovanna Elisa Calabrò, Paolo Villari, Roberto Grilli, Antonio Federici, Walter Ricciardi, Chiara de Waure
Background: The current economic context calls for rationalizing health resources that can be pursued through disinvestment from low value health technologies to invest in the best performing ones, ensuring high healthcare quality. Oncology is a field where, because of high costs of health technologies and rapid innovation, disinvestment is crucial. Methods: On this basis, the research team investigated through a survey, based on a questionnaire, opinions and views of representatives of European countries about disinvestment, in terms of fields of application, potential advocates and barriers, specifically focusing on cancer care...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
Sellappan Selvaraju, Sivashanmugam Parthipan, Lakshminarayana Somashekar, B Krishnan Binsila, Atul P Kolte, Arunachalam Arangasamy, Janivara Parameshwaraiah Ravindra, Stephen A Krawetz
With artificial insemination (AI) and other precision dependent assisted reproductive technologies (ART) being followed in large scale in human and animal reproduction, assessing semen quality and fertilizability is under continuous scrutiny. Various tests have been developed to predict semen quality, but so far no single, highly reliable test is available. In this regard, transcriptomic profiling of spermatozoa assumes significance as it carries the information about spermatogenesis, sperm function, and paternal roles in post-fertilization events...
March 14, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Joonchul Shin, Sudesna Chakravarty, Wooseok Choi, Kyungyeon Lee, Dongsik Han, Hyundoo Hwang, Jaekyu Choi, Hyo-Il Jung
The emergence of a wide range of applications of smartphones along with advances in 'liquid biopsy' has significantly propelled medical research particularly in the field of in vitro diagnostics (IVD). Herein, we have presented a detailed analysis of IVD, its associated critical concerns and probable solutions. It also demonstrates the transition in terms of analytes from minimally invasive (blood) to non-invasive (urine, saliva and sweat) and depicts how the different features of a smartphone can be integrated for specific diagnostic purposes...
March 14, 2018: Analyst
Mark L Graber, Colene Byrne, Doug Johnston
Diagnostic error may be the largest unaddressed patient safety concern in the United States, responsible for an estimated 40,000-80,000 deaths annually. With the electronic health record (EHR) now in near universal use, the goal of this narrative review is to synthesize evidence and opinion regarding the impact of the EHR and health care information technology (health IT) on the diagnostic process and its outcomes. We consider the many ways in which the EHR and health IT facilitate diagnosis and improve the diagnostic process, and conversely the major ways in which it is problematic, including the unintended consequences that contribute to diagnostic error and sometimes patient deaths...
November 27, 2017: Diagnosis
Kerm Henriksen, Chris Dymek, Michael I Harrison, P Jeffrey Brady, Sharon B Arnold
BACKGROUND: The Improving Diagnosis in Health Care report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine (NASEM) provided an opportunity for many groups to reflect on the role they could play in taking actions to improve diagnostic safety. As part of its own process, AHRQ held a research summit in the fall of 2016, inviting members from a diverse collection of organizations, both inside and outside of Government, to share their suggestions regarding what is known about diagnosis and the challenges that need to be addressed...
June 27, 2017: Diagnosis
Hu He-Hua, Zhang Xia, Zhang Chun-Bin, Yao Yi-Bin, Cui Cai-Xia, Li Xia, Wen Xiao-Hong, Liu Jun, Xiao Chuan-Yun, Liu Xiong, Cao Chun-Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes of serum anti-schistosome antibody titers in schistosomiasis japonica patients after treatment, in order to provide the evidence for formulating the schistosomiasis surveillance program in marshland and lake regions. METHODS: Upon prospective cohort study, the stool examination positive schistosomiasis patients and blood examination positive suspected patients (the titer was more than 1:80, including 1:80) were selected as the research objects in Jiangling County in 2014, and they received the 2-day praziquantel therapy...
January 15, 2018: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Cong Chen, Tao Yan, Liguo Liu, Jianmin Wang, Qi Jin
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major comorbidity in HIV patients as well as a serious co-epidemic. Traditional detection methods are not effective or sensitive for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis at the early stage. TB has become a major cause of lethal on HIV patients. We employed isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technology to identify the different host responses in HIV-noTB and HIV-TB patients' sera. Given the diversity of HIV subtypes, which results in a variety of host responses in different human populations, we focused on the Chinese patients...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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