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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331042/the-effects-of-social-context-and-food-abundance-on-chimpanzee-feeding-competition
#1
Rebecca Koomen, Esther Herrmann
Feeding competition is thought to play a role in primate social organization as well as cognitive evolution. For chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), social and ecological factors can affect competition, yet how these factors interact to affect feeding behavior is not fully understood; they can be difficult to disentangle in wild settings. This experiment investigated the differential effects of food quantity, the presence of a co-feeding partner, and the contestability of a food patch on feeding rate. We presented tolerant pairs of chimpanzees from a semi-captive social group with an apparatus comprising a matrix of transparent tubes between two adjacent rooms, of which, either all (abundant condition) or only a small proportion (scarce condition) were baited with peanuts...
January 13, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326482/compounded-apixaban-suspensions-for-enteral-feeding-tubes
#2
Maria L Caraballo, Seda Donmez, Kobi Nathan, Fang Zhao
Objective: There is limited information on compounded apixaban formulations for administration via enteral feeding tubes. This study was designed to identify a suitable apixaban suspension formulation that is easy to prepare in a pharmacy setting, is compatible with commonly used feeding tubes, and has a beyond-use date of 7 days. Methods: Apixaban suspensions were prepared from commercially available 5-mg Eliquis tablets. Several vehicles and compounding methods were screened for ease of preparation, dosage accuracy, and tube compatibility...
July 2017: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323423/enteral-feeding-tube-clogging-what-are-the-causes-and-what-are-the-answers-a-bench-top-analysis
#3
Christopher M Garrison
BACKGROUND: Clogged enteral feeding tubes remain a significant barrier to the delivery of nutrition, hydration, and medications to patients who cannot tolerate oral intake. There is limited research that compares the relative efficacy of different methods used to clear a clogged feeding tube. The objectives of this study were to better understand the factors that contribute to enteral feeding tube clogging and to test the efficacy of 3 methods for clearing clogged feeding tubes. METHODS: Three formulations of clogs were artificially created and tested in vitro and composed of various quantities of crushed medication (ie, aspirin) and 0...
January 11, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323421/head-and-neck-cancer-tumor-seeding-at-the-percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy-site
#4
REVIEW
June R Greaves
The National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute estimates that over 13,000 new cases of head and neck cancer (HNC) will be diagnosed in 2017. Patients with HNC often require enteral nutrition (EN) via gastrostomy tube to provide nutrition support and hydration because of tumor obstruction of the oropharynx and/or cumulative effects of chemoradiation therapy. The percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube has become the preferred technique for EN access because placement is considered a minimally invasive procedure...
January 11, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321899/silicon-amendment-to-rice-plants-contributes-to-reduced-feeding-in-a-phloem-sucking-insect-through-modulation-of-callose-deposition
#5
Lang Yang, Pei Li, Fei Li, Shahbaz Ali, Xiaoqin Sun, Maolin Hou
Silicon (Si) uptake by Poaceae plants has beneficial effects on herbivore defense. Increased plant physical barrier and altered herbivorous feeding behaviors are documented to reduce herbivorous arthropod feeding and contribute to enhanced plant defense. Here, we show that Si amendment to rice (Oryza sativa) plants contributes to reduced feeding in a phloem feeder, the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH), through modulation of callose deposition. We associated the temporal dynamics of BPH feeding with callose deposition on sieve plates and further with callose synthase and hydrolase gene expression in plants amended with Si...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310894/risk-factors-for-malnutrition-in-stroke-patients-a-meta-analysis
#6
Ning Chen, Yanbo Li, Jinghuan Fang, Qian Lu, Li He
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Stroke is a common cause of death and disability worldwide. Among stroke patients, malnutrition is a significant problem that contributes to poor outcome. Clinical evidence is required to identify risk factors for malnutrition and to adopt appropriate management strategies during early stroke intervention. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis of potential risk factors related to malnutrition in stroke patients. METHODS: We systemically searched relevant observational studies in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBLD), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and VIP Database of Chinese periodicals from January 1990 to September 2017 in any language...
December 28, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310429/infant-percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy-risks-or-benefits
#7
Francesco Macchini, Andrea Zanini, Giorgio Farris, Anna Morandi, Giulia Brisighelli, Valerio Gentilino, Giorgio Fava, Ernesto Leva
Background/Aims: To present a single center's experience with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube placement in infants. Methods: Clinical records of infants who underwent PEG tube placement between January 2010 and December 2015 were reviewed. All patients underwent an upper gastrointestinal contrast study and an abdominal ultrasonography before the procedure. PEGs were performed with a 6-mm endoscope using the standard pull-through technique. Data regarding gestational age, birth weight, age and weight, days to feeding start, days to full diet, and complications were reviewed...
January 9, 2018: Clinical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305431/case-of-nasogastric-tube-dysfunction
#8
Florian Rainer, Guenther Prenner, Lukas Peter Binder, Peter Fickert, Johannes Plank
CLINICAL PRESENTATION: An elderly female patient was admitted to intensive care for prolonged vasopressor therapy and mechanical ventilation after cardiac arrest and acute percutaneous coronary intervention. Antiplatelet, thyroid hormone replacement and statin therapies were administered through a 14-French nasogastric tube (Nestlé Health Science) and enteral feeding was initiated. Correct position of the nasogastric tube was confirmed radiologically. On the seventh day in the intensive care, our patient was seen to regurgitate soft crumbs into her mouth...
January 5, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304445/detailed-modeling-and-simulation-of-an-out-in-configuration-vacuum-membrane-distillation-process
#9
Young-Deuk Kim, Yu-Bin Kim, Seong-Yong Woo
In this study, a detailed rigorous theoretical model was developed to predict the transmembrane flux of a shell-and-tube type vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) module for seawater desalination. Two modes of operation are used for performing the VMD, namely lumen-side feed (in-out) configuration and shell-side feed (out-in) configuration. In this study, detailed mathematical formulations are derived for an out-in configuration that is commonly used in seawater desalination applications. Experimental results and model predictions for mean permeate flux are compared and shown to be in good agreement...
December 27, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290278/validation-of-the-decisional-conflict-scale-for-evaluating-advance-care-decision-conflict-in-community-dwelling-older-adults
#10
JinShil Kim, Shinmi Kim, Sun Woo Hong, Se-Won Kang, Minjeong An
PURPOSE: Decisional conflict is a significant and important barrier in end-of-life care planning, and it is often encountered in health professionals' discussions with patients and their families. Little is known about the measurement of decisional conflict, and existing measures are not suitable for all contexts. In this study, psychometric properties of the Decisional Conflict Scale, which was translated for the first time into Korean [Korean version of DCS (K-DCS)], were examined. METHODS: A sample of 273 community-dwelling elders was surveyed (mean age: 77...
December 2017: Asian Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288127/structural-characterization-of-spoiiiab-sporulation-essential-protein-in-bacillus-subtilis
#11
N Zeytuni, K A Flanagan, L J Worrall, S C Massoni, A H Camp, N C J Strynadka
Endospore formation in the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis initiates in response to nutrient depletion and involves a series of morphological changes that result in the creation of a dormant spore. Early in this developmental process, the cell undergoes an asymmetric cell division that produces the larger mother cell and smaller forespore, the latter destined to become the mature spore. The mother cell septal membrane then engulfs the forespore, at which time an essential channel, the so-called feeding-tube apparatus, is thought to cross both membranes to create a direct conduit between the cells...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284881/postoperative-chylothorax-of-unclear-etiology-in-a-patient-with-right-sided-subclavian-central-venous-catheter-placement
#12
Samie Asghar, Faisal Shamim
A young male underwent decompressive craniotomy for an intracerebral bleed. A right-sided subclavian central venous catheter was placed in the operating room after induction of anesthesia. Postoperatively, he was shifted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) for mechanical ventilation due to low Glasgow coma scale. He had an episode of severe agitation and straining on the tracheal tube in the evening same day. On the 2nd postoperative day in ICU, his airway pressures were high, and chest X-ray revealed massive pleural effusion on right side...
October 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282130/what-does-not-kill-it-makes-it-weaker-effects-of-sub-lethal-concentrations-of-ivermectin-on-the-locomotor-activity-of-anopheles-aquasalis
#13
Vanderson de Souza Sampaio, Gustavo Bueno da Silva Rivas, Kevin Kobylinski, Yudi Tatiana Pinilla, Paulo Filemon Paolluci Pimenta, José Bento Pereira Lima, Rafaela Vieira Bruno, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães Lacerda, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a major public health concern. Vector control measures based solely on insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) have demonstrated not to be feasible for malaria elimination. It has been shown that ivermectin affects several aspects of Anopheles species biology. Along the Latin American seacoast, Anopheles aquasalis Curry plays an important role in malaria transmission. The observation of mosquitoes locomotor activity under laboratory conditions can reveal details of their daily activity rhythms, which is controlled by an endogenous circadian clock that seems to be influenced by external signals, such as light and temperature...
December 28, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280640/homemade-diet-versusdiet-industrialized-for-patients-using-alternative-feeding-tube-at-home-an-integrative-review
#14
Sarah Cândido Franca, Sérgio Alberto Rupp de Paiva, Maria Helena Borgato, Cassiana Mendes Bertoncello Fontes, Janete Pessuto Simonetti, Silvana Andrea Molina Lima, Sílvia Justina Papini
BACKGROUND: Enteral nutrition therapy can be provided using comercialized products (chemically defined formulas) or blenderized home-made preparations. OBJECTIVE: To perform an integrative review of the literature comparing the use of both type of formulation. METHODS: In this descriptive study papers published in English, Spanish or Portuguese Brazil, in journals indexed in the databases PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science and Bireme without the period 2010 to 2015 were reviewed The terms "enteral nutrition, foods, formulated, diet, homemade diet industrial and artisanal diet" according to the MeSH were used for the search...
November 14, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280638/the-effects-of-a-high-protein-high-calorie-fiber-and-fructo-oligosaccharide-enriched-enteral-formula-on-nutritional-status-bowel-habits-and-tolerance-safety-and-effectiveness-of-enteral-nutrition-in-elderly-spanish-patients-sens-study
#15
Federico Miguel Cuesta Triana, Francisco Villazón González, Alejandro Sanz Paris, Juan Ignacio Ramos-Clemente Romero, José Enrique Palacio Abizanda, Rebeca Sanz Barriuso
BACKGROUND: Enteral nutrition (EN) is an effective nutritional intervention for patients at risk of malnutrition or malnourished. However, complications such as gastrointestinal intolerance, hyperglycemia or refeeding syndrome can be triggered by EN. AIM: To investigate the effects of a tube feeding formula (TFF) on patients' nutritional status, biochemical status, bowel habits and safety. METHODOLOGY: Observational, prospective and multicenter study...
October 27, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278447/early-initiated-feeding-versus-early-reached-target-enteral-nutrition-in-critically-ill-children-an-observational-study-in-paediatric-intensive-care-units-in-turkey
#16
Soyhan Baǧci, Elif Keleş, Feyza Girgin, Dinçer R Yıldızdaş, Özden Ö Horoz, Nilüfer Yalındağ, Murat Tanyıldız, Benan Bayrakçi, Gökhan Kalkan, Başak N Akyıldız, Alper Köker, Tolga Köroğlu, Ayşe B Anıl, Neslihan Zengin, Ener Ç Dinleyici, Eylem Kıral, Oğuz Dursun, Süleyman Tolga Yavuz, Peter Bartmann, Andreas Müller
AIM: Although early enteral nutrition (EN) is strongly associated with lower mortality in critically ill children, there is no consensus on the definition of early EN. The aim of this study was to evaluate our current practice supplying EN and to identify factors that affect both the initiation of feeding within 24 h after paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission and the adequate supply of EN in the first 48 h after PICU admission in critically ill children. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, multicentre, observational study in nine PICUs in Turkey...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276255/in-vitro-evaluation-of-eslicarbazepine-delivery-via-enteral-feeding-tubes
#17
Kristin Reindel, Fang Zhao, Susan Hughes, Vivek S Dave
Purpose: The feasibility of preparing an eslicarbazepine acetate suspension using Aptiom tablets for administration via enteral feeding tubes was evaluated. Methods: Eslicarbazepine acetate suspension (40 mg/mL) was prepared using Aptiom tablets after optimizing the tablet crushing methods and the vehicle composition. A stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to monitor the eslicarbazepine stability in the prepared suspension. Three enteric feeding tubes of various composition and dimensions were evaluated for the delivery of the suspensions...
December 2017: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275095/benefit-of-feeding-tube-placement-for-refractory-malnutrition-after-bariatric-surgery
#18
EDITORIAL
Hazem Elariny, J R Salameh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261527/preoperative-evaluation-is-not-predictive-of-transpyloric-feeding-conversion-in-gastrostomy-dependent-pediatric-patients
#19
Maireade McSweeney, Jessica Kerr, Janine Amirault, Eliza Fishman, Margot Lurie, Maria I Peinado-Fabregat, Paul D Mitchell, Rachel Rosen
OBJECTIVES: Limited literature exists as to whether preoperative gastrostomy (GT)evaluation may predict which patients will go onto require gastrojejunostomy tube (GJ) feeding. The goal of this study was to compare the preoperative evaluations between patients maintained on GT feeds versus patients who required conversion to GJ feeds. METHODS: We identified patients at Boston Children's Hospital who underwent GT placement and required GJ feeding between 2006-2012...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248673/drinking-with-a-very-long-proboscis-functional-morphology-of-orchid-bee-mouthparts-euglossini-apidae-hymenoptera
#20
Jellena V Düster, Maria H Gruber, Florian Karolyi, John D Plant, Harald W Krenn
Neotropical orchid bees (Euglossini) possess the longest proboscis among bees. In this study, we compared the feeding behavior and functional morphology of mouthparts in two similarly large-sized species of Euglossa that differ greatly in proboscis length. Feeding observations and experiments conducted under semi-natural conditions were combined with micro-morphological examination using LM, SEM and micro CT techniques. The morphometric comparison showed that only the components of the mouthparts that form the food tube differ in length, while the proximal components, which are responsible for proboscis movements, are similar in size...
December 14, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
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