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Functional Movement Systems

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911250/evaluation-of-feature-extraction-techniques-and-classifiers-for-finger-movement-recognition-using-surface-electromyography-signal
#1
Pornchai Phukpattaranont, Sirinee Thongpanja, Khairul Anam, Adel Al-Jumaily, Chusak Limsakul
Electromyography (EMG) in a bio-driven system is used as a control signal, for driving a hand prosthesis or other wearable assistive devices. Processing to get informative drive signals involves three main modules: preprocessing, dimensionality reduction, and classification. This paper proposes a system for classifying a six-channel EMG signal from 14 finger movements. A feature vector of 66 elements was determined from the six-channel EMG signal for each finger movement. Subsequently, various feature extraction techniques and classifiers were tested and evaluated...
June 18, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909448/neural-functions-of-bisecting-glcnac
#2
REVIEW
Yasuhiko Kizuka, Naoyuki Taniguchi
Bisecting GlcNAc, a branch structure in N-glycan, has unique functions and is involved in several diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this review, we provide an overview of the biosynthesis of bisecting GlcNAc and its physiological and pathological functions, particularly in the nervous system where bisecting GlcNAc is most highly expressed. The biosynthetic enzyme of bisecting GlcNAc is N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-III (GnT-III). Overexpression, knockdown, and knockout of GnT-III have so far revealed various functions of bisecting GlcNAc, which are mediated by regulating the functions of key carrier proteins...
June 16, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908656/simulated-activities-of-daily-living-do-not-replicate-functional-upper-limb-movement-or-reduce-movement-variability
#3
Sarah A F Taylor, Angela E Kedgley, Alexander Humphries, Aliah F Shaheen
Kinematic assessments of the upper limb during activities of daily living (ADLs) are used as an objective measure of upper limb function. The implementation of ADLs varies between studies; whilst some make use of props and define a functional target, others use simplified tasks to simulate the movements in ADLs. Simulated tasks have been used as an attempt to reduce the large movement variability associated with the upper limb. However, it is not known whether simulated tasks replicate the movements required to complete ADLs or reduce movement variability...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907958/the-mechanosensory-motor-apparatus-of-antennae-in-the-oleander-hawk-moth-daphnis-nerii-lepidoptera
#4
Harshada H Sant, Sanjay P Sane
Insect antennae are sensory organs of great importance because they can sense diverse environmental stimuli. In addition to serving as primary olfactory organs of insects, antennae also sense a wide variety of mechanosensory stimuli, ranging from low-frequency airflow or gravity cues to high-frequency antennal vibrations due to sound, flight or touch. The basal segments of the antennae house multiple types of mechanosensory structures that prominently include the sensory hair plates, or Böhm's bristles, which measure the gross extent of antennal movement, and a ring of highly sensitive scolopidial neurons, collectively called the Johnston's organs, which record subtle flagellar vibrations...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905970/neurexin-superfamily-cell-membrane-receptor-contactin-associated-protein-like-4-cntnap4-is-involved-in-neural-egfl-like-1-nell-1-responsive-osteogenesis
#5
Chenshuang Li, Zhong Zheng, Pin Ha, Xiaoyan Chen, Wenlu Jiang, Shan Sun, Feng Chen, Greg Asatrian, Emily A Berthiaume, Jong Kil Kim, Eric C Chen, Shen Pang, Xinli Zhang, Kang Ting, Chia Soo
Contactin-associated protein-like 4 (Cntnap4) is a member of the neurexin superfamily of transmembrane molecules that have critical functions in neuronal cell communication. Cntnap4 knockout mice display decreased presynaptic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and increased dopamine release that is associated with severe, highly penetrant, repetitive, and perseverative movements commonly found in human autism spectrum disorder patients. However, no known function of Cntnap4 has been revealed besides the nervous system...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903649/cortical-activity-during-walking-and-balance-tasks-in-older-adults-and-in-people-with-parkinson-s-disease-a-structured-review
#6
REVIEW
Samuel Stuart, Rodrigo Vitorio, Rosie Morris, Douglas N Martini, Peter C Fino, Martina Mancini
An emerging body of literature has examined cortical activity during walking and balance tasks in older adults and in people with Parkinson's disease, specifically using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) or electroencephalography (EEG). This review provides an overview of this developing area, and examines the disease-specific mechanisms underlying walking or balance deficits. Medline, PubMed, PsychInfo and Scopus databases were searched. Articles that described cortical activity during walking and balance tasks in older adults and in those with PD were screened by the reviewers...
July 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903482/analysis-of-trunk-rolling-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-using-a-mattress-mobility-detection-system
#7
Shang-Lin Chiang, Chueh-Ho Lin, Yaw-Don Hsu, Shun-Hwa Wei, Wen-Hsu Sung, Liang-Hsuan Lu, Shin-Tsu Chang, Tsung-Yen Ho, Yu-Ping Shen, Liang-Cheng Chen, Chia-Huei Lin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by motor dysfunction and various types of non-motor impairments. The reaction time and movement time are reported to become more severe delayed in worse PD patients. Most tools for evaluating motor impairment are limited by relying on subjective observations and being qualitative in design. The aim of this study was to investigate trunk rolling performance in PD patients by using a recently developed system to detect turning in bed...
August 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903448/historic-notes-on-anatomic-physiologic-and-clinical-research-on-the-cerebellum
#8
Jan Voogd, Peter J Koehler
This chapter is concerned with ideas on the function, structure, and pathology that shaped our present knowledge of the cerebellum. One of the main themes in its early history is its localization subtentorially, leading to misattributions due to clinical observations in trauma and lesion experiments that caused collateral damage to the brainstem. Improvement of techniques led to the insight that it plays a role in movement control (Rolando) or coordination (Flourens). Purkinje initiated the histology of the cerebellar cortex in 1837...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903014/lrrk-2-gene-mutations-in-the-pathophysiology-of-the-roco-domain-and-therapeutic-targets-for-parkinson-s-disease-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Meng-Ling Chen, Ruey-Meei Wu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common movement disorder and manifests as resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability. Pathologically, PD is characterized by selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the formation of intracellular inclusions containing α-synuclein and ubiquitin called Lewy bodies. Consequently, a remarkable deficiency of dopamine in the striatum causes progressive disability of motor function. The etiology of PD remains uncertain. Genetic variability in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is the most common genetic cause of sporadic and familial PD...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902256/effects-of-the-unity-vacuum-suspension-system-on-transtibial-gait-for-simulated-non-level-surfaces
#10
Gabrielle Thibault, Hossein Gholizadeh, Emily Sinitski, Natalie Baddour, Edward D Lemaire
Walking on various surfaces encountered in everyday life requires lower limb prosthesis users to continually adapt their movement patterns. Elevated vacuum suspension systems could improve transtibial amputee gait on non-level surfaces; however, research is lacking to guide clinical practice. Twelve transtibial amputees were fitted with the Össur sleeveless vacuum suspension system (Unity). After a one month accommodation period, the CAREN-Extended system was used to evaluate gait on a self-paced treadmill when walking with continuous perturbations (medial-lateral translations, rolling hills, simulated uneven ground) with an active or inactive vacuum suspension system...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901805/quantifying-contracture-severity-at-hospital-discharge-in-adults-a-burn-model-system-national-database-study
#11
Matthew Godleski, Austin F Lee, Jeremy Goverman, David N Herndon, Oscar E Suman, Karen J Kowalske, Radha K Holavanahalli, Nicole S Gibran, Peter C Esselman, Laura C Simko, Colleen M Ryan, Jeffrey C Schneider
Contracture is a common complication of burn injury and can cause significant barriers to functional recovery and rehabilitation. There are limited studies of quantitative range of motion after burn injury. The purpose of this study is to examine quantitative contracture outcomes by anatomical location, burn size, and length of stay in adults. Data were obtained from the Burn Model System National Database from 1994 to 2003. All adult patients with a joint contracture at acute discharge were included and 16 joint motions were examined...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898977/a-tonoplast-associated-calcium-signaling-module-dampens-aba-signaling-during-stomatal-movement
#12
Shi-Jian Song, Qiang-Nan Feng, Chunlong Li, En Li, Qi Liu, Hui Kang, Wei Zhang, Yan Zhang, Sha Li
Stomatal movement, critical for photobiosynthesis, respiration, and stress responses, is regulated by many factors, among which abscisic acid (ABA) is critical. Early events of ABA signaling involve Ca2+ influx and an increase of cytoplasmic calcium ([Ca2+]cyt). Positive regulators of this process have been extensively studied, whereas negative regulators are obscure. ABA-induced stomatal closure involves K+ flux and vacuolar convolution. How these processes are connected with Ca2+ is not fully understood. We report that pat10-1, a null mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) PROTEIN S-ACYL TRANSFERASE10 (PAT10), is hypersensitive to ABA-induced stomatal closure and vacuolar convolution...
June 13, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897910/the-virtual-spine-platform-acquiring-visualizing-and-analyzing-individual-sitting-behavior
#13
Stephen Jia Wang, Björn Sommer, Wenlong Cheng, Falk Schreiber
Back pain is a serious medical problem especially for those people sitting over long periods during their daily work. Here we present a system to help users monitoring and examining their sitting behavior. The Virtual-Spine Platform (VSP) is an integrated system consisting of a real-time body position monitoring module and a data visualization module to provide individualized, immediate, and accurate sitting behavior support. It provides a comprehensive spine movement analysis as well as accumulated data visualization to demonstrate behavior patterns within a certain period...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896116/plyometrics-can-preserve-peak-power-during-2-months-of-physical-inactivity-an-rct-including-a-one-year-follow-up
#14
Andreas Kramer, Jakob Kümmel, Albert Gollhofer, Gabriele Armbrecht, Ramona Ritzmann, Daniel Belavy, Dieter Felsenberg, Markus Gruber
Objective: Inactivity results in a marked loss of muscle function, especially in movements requiring high power, force, and rate of force development. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if jump training can prevent these deteriorating effects of physical inactivity. Methods: Performance and muscle activity during several types of jumps was assessed directly before and after 60 days of bed rest as well as during follow-up visits in 23 male participants. Participants in the jump training group (JUMP, 12 participants) trained 5-6x per week during the bed rest period in a sledge jump system that allows jumps in a horizontal position, whereas the control group (CTRL, 11 participants) did not train...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893773/to-move-or-not-to-move-functional-role-of-ventral-premotor-cortex-in-motor-monitoring-during-limb-immobilization
#15
Francesca Garbarini, Luca Cecchetti, Valentina Bruno, Angela Mastropasqua, Carlotta Fossataro, Giuseppe Massazza, Katiuscia Sacco, Maria Consuelo Valentini, Emiliano Ricciardi, Anna Berti
Anatomo-clinical evidence from motor-awareness disorders after brain-damages suggests that the premotor cortex (PMC) is involved in motor-monitoring of voluntary actions. Indeed, PMC lesions prevent patients from detecting the mismatch between intended, but not executed, movements with the paralyzed limb. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared, in healthy subjects, free movements against blocked movements, precluded by a cast. Cast-related corticospinal excitability changes were investigated by using transcranial magnetic stimulation...
June 11, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892466/how-do-microalgae-perceive-light-in-a-high-rate-pond-towards-more-realistic-lagrangian-experiments
#16
David Demory, Charlotte Combe, Philipp Hartmann, Amélie Talec, Eric Pruvost, Raouf Hamouda, Fabien Souillé, Pierre-Olivier Lamare, Marie-Odile Bristeau, Jacques Sainte-Marie, Sophie Rabouille, Francis Mairet, Antoine Sciandra, Olivier Bernard
Hydrodynamics in a high-rate production reactor for microalgae cultivation affects the light history perceived by cells. The interplay between cell movement and medium turbidity leads to a complex light pattern, whose forcing effects on photosynthesis and photoacclimation dynamics are non-trivial. Hydrodynamics of high density algal ponds mixed by a paddle wheel has been studied recently, although the focus has never been on describing its impact on photosynthetic growth efficiency. In this multidisciplinary downscaling study, we first reconstructed single cell trajectories in an open raceway using an original hydrodynamical model offering a powerful discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations tailored to systems with free surfaces...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891062/essential-tremor-and-the-cerebellum
#17
Elan D Louis
Essential tremor (ET) is a progressive and highly prevalent neurologic disease. Along with the tremors, mild to moderate gait ataxia and other signs of cerebellar dysfunction may occur (i.e., subtle saccadic eye movement abnormalities and abnormalities of motor timing) as well as cognitive features, some of which may be due to cerebellar dysfunction. Numerous neuroimaging studies indicate the presence of functional, metabolic, and structural abnormalities in the cerebellum of a patient with ET. In tandem with these clinical and imaging studies, which were gathering increasing support for the notion that the cerebellum and/or cerebellar systems seemed to be at the root of ET, a growing postmortem literature is for the first time beginning to identify microscopic abnormalities in the ET brain, most of which are centered on the Purkinje cells and connected neuronal populations, and are likely to be degenerative...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886807/model-and-analysis-for-the-onset-of-parkinsonian-firing-patterns-in-a-simplified-basal-ganglia
#18
Michael Caiola, Mark H Holmes
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative neurological disease that disrupts the movement cycle in the basal ganglia. As the disease progresses, dopamine depletion leads to changes to how the basal ganglia functions as well as the appearance of abnormal beta oscillations. There is much debate on just exactly how these connection strengths change and just how the oscillations emerge. One leading hypothesis claims that the oscillations develop in the globus pallidus external, subthalamic nucleus, and globus pallidus internal loop...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883447/diminished-neural-network-dynamics-after-moderate-and-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Nicholas Gilbert, Rachel A Bernier, Vincent D Calhoun, Einat Brenner, Emily Grossner, Sarah M Rajtmajer, Frank G Hillary
Over the past decade there has been increasing enthusiasm in the cognitive neurosciences around using network science to understand the system-level changes associated with brain disorders. A growing literature has used whole-brain fMRI analysis to examine changes in the brain's subnetworks following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Much of network modeling in this literature has focused on static network mapping, which provides a window into gross inter-nodal relationships, but is insensitive to more subtle fluctuations in network dynamics, which may be an important predictor of neural network plasticity...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883380/pharmacological-basis-for-the-use-of-evodiamine-in-alzheimer-s-disease-antioxidation-and-antiapoptosis
#20
Yongfeng Zhang, Jiaqi Wang, Chunyue Wang, Zhiping Li, Xin Liu, Jun Zhang, Jiahui Lu, Di Wang
Evodiamine (Evo), a major alkaloid compound isolated from the dry unripened fruit of Evodia fructus, has a wide range of pharmacological activities. The present study sought to explore the neuroprotective effects of Evo in l-glutamate (l-Glu)-induced apoptosis of HT22 cells, and in a d-galactose and aluminum trichloride-developed Alzheimer’s disease (AD) mouse model. Evo significantly enhanced cell viability, inhibited the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, ameliorated mitochondrial function, increased the B-cell lymphoma-2 protein content, and inhibited the high expression levels of Bax, Bad, and cleaved-caspase-3 and -8 in l-Glu-induced HT22 cells...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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