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Jeppe H Ekberg, Maria Hauge, Line V Kristensen, Andreas N Madsen, Maja S Engelstoft, Anna-Sofie Husted, Rasmus Sichlau, Kristoffer L Egerod, Pascal Timshel, Timothy J Kowalski, Fiona M Gribble, Frank Reiman, Harald S Hansen, Andrew D Howard, Birgitte Holst, Thue W Schwartz
Triglycerides are among the most efficacious stimulators of incretin secretion; however the relative importance of FFA1 (GPR40), FFA4 (GPR120) and GPR119 which all recognize triglyceride metabolites, i.e. LCFA and 2-MAG respectively, is still unclear. Here, we find all three receptors to be highly expressed and highly enriched in FACS-purified GLP-1 and GIP cells isolated from transgenic reporter mice. In vivo, the triglyceride-induced increase in plasma GIP was significantly reduced in FFA1 deficient mice (to 34% - mean of four experiments each with 8-10 animals), in GPR119 deficient mice (to 24 %) and in FFA1/FFA4 double deficient mice (to 15%) but not in FFA4 deficient mice...
October 25, 2016: Endocrinology
Alice C Chang, Armen H Mekhdjian, Masatoshi Morimatsu, Aleksandra Kirillovna Denisin, Beth L Pruitt, Alexander R Dunn
Integrins mediate cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix and enable the construction of complex, multicellular organisms, yet fundamental aspects of integrin-based adhesion remain poorly understood. Notably, the magnitude of the mechanical load experienced by individual integrins within living cells is unclear, due principally to limitations inherent to existing techniques. Here we use FRET-based molecular tension sensors (MTSs) to directly measure the distribution of loads experienced by individual integrins in living cells...
October 25, 2016: ACS Nano
Behnoosh Parsa, Vladimir M Zatsiorsky, Mark L Latash
We address the nature of unintentional changes in performance in two papers. This second paper tested hypotheses related to stability of task-specific performance variables estimated using the framework of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis. Our first hypothesis was that selective stability of performance variables would be observed even when the magnitudes of those variables drifted unintentionally because of the lack of visual feedback. Our second hypothesis was that stability of a variable would depend on the number of explicit task constraints...
October 24, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Yan Chen, Kuiren Liu
Eliminating antibiotic remnants in aquatic environment has become one of the hottest topics among current research works. Thus, we prepared Ce, N co-doped TiO2/diatomite granule (CNTD-G) catalyst to provide a new method. As one typical antibiotics, oxytetracycline (OTC) was selected as the target pollutant to be degradated under visible light irradiation. The carrier diatomite helped the spread of TiO2 nanoparticles onto its surface, and inhibited their agglomeration. The synergy of Ce and N dopants highly improved the visible-light-driven photoactivity of TiO2...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Dahao Jiang, Xianyuan Wu, Jun Mao, Jun Ni, Xiaonian Li
Cu-CeO2/AC catalysts exhibited extraordinary catalytic performance in the upgradation of ethanol to n-butanol. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that the highest n-butanol yields of 21.6% and nearly 20% could be achieved over heterogeneous catalysts under mild reaction conditions in batch and fixed-bed reactors, respectively. The high catalytic activity, selectivity and stability of these catalysts could be ascribed to the synergy of Cu, CeO2 and the activated carbon support.
October 24, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Gulseren Aktas
In this study, in vitro synergism in combinations of agents as ceftriaxone/dalbavancin, ceftriaxone/linezolid and ceftriaxone/daptomycin against MRSA strains were investigated. Thirty clinical MRSA strains were tested. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of all antibiotics were determined using reference broth microdilution method. In-vitro activities of antibiotics combined against the strains were tested using two-dimensional checkerboard microdilution method. Results were interpreted as follows: synergy = FICI ≤0...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
Nam Tran, Patrick Drogui, Satinder K Brar, Arnaud De Coninck
The synergistic effects were evaluated during the oxidation of carbamazepine using a sono-electrochemical process. The sono-electrochemical oxidation was performed using two types of experimental units (having 1L and 100L of working volume, respectively) and containing one anode (Ti/PbO2) and one cathode (Ti). Different operating parameters, including power of ultrasounds, current intensity and reaction time were investigated. The degree of synergy increased when the current intensity decreased, whereas it increased with the power of ultrasounds imposed...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Chao Ding, Shaopeng Chen, Cunlong Zhang, Guangnan Hu, Wei Zhang, Lulu Li, Yu Zong Chen, Chunyan Tan, Yuyang Jiang
By merging the critical pharmacophore of EGFR/HER2 and HDAC inhibitors into one compound, a novel series of EGFR, HER-2, and HDAC multitarget inhibitors were synthesized. Compounds 9a-l contained 4-anilinoquinazolines with C-6 triazole-linked long alkyl chains of hydroxamic acid and displayed excellent inhibition against these enzymes (compound 9d exhibited the best inhibitory potency on wild-type EGFR, HDAC1, and HDAC6 with IC50 values 0.12nM, 0.72nM and 3.2nM individually). Furthermore, compounds 9b and 9d potently inhibited proliferation of five human cancer cell lines (with IC50 values between 0...
October 10, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Massimo Nabissi, Maria Beatrice Morelli, Massimo Offidani, Consuelo Amantini, Silvia Gentili, Alessandra Soriani, Claudio Cardinali, Pietro Leoni, Giorgio Santoni
Several studies showed a potential anti-tumor role for cannabinoids, by modulating cell signaling pathways involved in cancer cell proliferation, chemo-resistance and migration. Cannabidiol (CBD) was previously noted in multiple myeloma (MM), both alone and in synergy with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, to induce cell death. In other type of human cancers, the combination of CBD with Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) was found to act synergistically with other chemotherapeutic drugs suggesting their use in combination therapy...
October 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Susan Heavey, Sinead Cuffe, Stephen Finn, Vincent Young, Ronan Ryan, Siobhan Nicholson, Niamh Leonard, Niall McVeigh, Martin Barr, Kenneth O'Byrne, Kathy Gately
Clinical PI3K inhibition has been somewhat disappointing, due to both inadequate patient stratification and compensatory cell signalling through bypass mechanisms. As such, investigation of PI3K-MEK co-targeted inhibition has been recommended. With high mortality rates and a clear need for new therapeutic intervention strategies, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is an important setting to investigate the effectiveness of this approach.Here, 174 NSCLC tumours were screened for 150 mutations by Fluidigm technology, with 15 patients being profiled for phosphoprotein expression...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Bo Xu, Björn Redfors, Yuejin Yang, Shubin Qiao, Yongjian Wu, Jilin Chen, Haibo Liu, Jue Chen, Liang Xu, Yanyan Zhao, Changdong Guan, Runlin Gao, Philippe Généreux
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of operator experience on prognosis after left main coronary artery (LM) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: LM PCI can be technically challenging and potentially risky considering the amount of supplied myocardium. METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent unprotected LM PCI at a single institution were included and compared according to whether the primary operator was an experienced, high-volume LM operator (defined as an operator who performed at least 15 LM PCIs per year for at least 3 consecutive years) or not...
October 24, 2016: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
Lobna A Hussein, Noha F El Azab, Maha F Abdel-Ghany
A sensitive, selective, and validated HPLC-diode-array detection method was developed for the simultaneous determination of five neonicotinoid insecticides-acetamiprid, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, flonicamid, and thiacloprid-and their primary metabolite, 6-chloronicotinic acid, in cucumbers and soil based on the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) technique as a pretreatment procedure. In the QuEChERS procedure, cucumber samples were extracted with acetonitrile and cleaned using C18, whereas soil samples were extracted with an acetonitrile-dichloromethane mixture (1 + 2)...
October 19, 2016: Journal of AOAC International
Juan Rosas-Guzmán, Juan Rosas-Saucedo, Alma R J Romero-García
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic illness with high prevalence in Mexico, Latin-America, and the world and is associated to high morbidity, disability, and mortality rate, especially in developing countries. T2DM physiopathology is very complex; insulin resistance in the muscle, liver, and adipose tissue, a reduction in the production of incretins (mainly GLP-1) in the intestine, increased glucagon synthesis, an insufficient response of insulin generation, and increased glucose reabsorption in the kidney lead all together to an hyperglycemic state, which has been closely associated with the development of micro and macrovascular complications...
August 29, 2016: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Jinshun Xu, Yang Cao, Chunyan Xu, Xueqing Cheng, Yufeng You, Yuanzhi Yao, Jianxin Liu, Zhigang Wang, Pan Li, Min Lu
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether combining microbubbles (MBs) with diagnostic ultrasound (US) at a high mechanical index (MI) could enhance the microwave (MW) ablation of tumours. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five therapeutic MW adjuvant protocols were studied: MW, MW + US, MW + US + MB, MW + US + NS (saline), and MW + MB. In 30 normal rabbit livers, the synergistic effects were evaluated via temperature, necrosis volume and histology. In 90 VX2 rabbit hepatic tumours, residual cells in the peripheral ablated tumours were examined via immunohistochemical assay and tumour growth...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Hyperthermia
Emmeline Chuang, Julian Brunner, Jamie Moody, Leticia Ibarra, Helina Hoyt, Thomas L McKenzie, Amy Binggeli-Vallarta, Griselda Cervantes, Tracy L Finlayson, Guadalupe X Ayala
INTRODUCTION: Ecological approaches to health behavior change require effective engagement from and coordination of activities among diverse community stakeholders. We identified facilitators of and barriers to implementation experienced by project leaders and key stakeholders involved in the Imperial County, California, Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration project, a multilevel, multisector intervention to prevent and control childhood obesity. METHODS: A total of 74 semistructured interviews were conducted with project leaders (n = 6) and key stakeholders (n = 68) representing multiple levels of influence in the health care, early care and education, and school sectors...
October 20, 2016: Preventing Chronic Disease
Grzegorz Fila, Anna Kawiak, Mariusz Grinholc
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is among the most common pathogens responsible for both acute and chronic infections of high incidence and severity. Additionally, P. aeruginosa resistance to conventional antimicrobials has increased rapidly over the past decade. Therefore, it is crucial to explore new therapeutic options, particularly options that specifically target the pathogenic mechanisms of this microbe. The ability of a pathogenic bacterium to cause disease is dependent upon the production of agents termed 'virulence factors', and approaches to mitigate these agents have gained increasing attention as new antibacterial strategies...
October 20, 2016: Virulence
Janice C Zgibor, Elizabeth A Schlenk, Laura Vater, Sushma Kola, Joni Vander Bilt, Sarah Woody, Mini E Jacob, Wei-Hsuan Lo-Ciganic, Allison Brenckle, Jane Brandenstein, C Kent Kwoh, Robert Boudreau, Steven Albert, Margaret Conroy, Elizabeth Rodgers, Anne B Newman
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based interventions exist for prevention of chronic disease in older adults. Partnering with community organizations may provide a mechanism for disseminating these interventions. OBJECTIVE: To describe the partnership and program implementation by the Arthritis Foundation (AF) and the University of Pittsburgh. METHODS: The AF Exercise Program (AFEP; an existing evidence-based program) was enhanced with the "10 Keys"™ to Healthy Aging (a prevention-focused program bundling the most common risk factors for chronic disease and disability in older adults and applies behavior change strategies to enhance prevention)...
2016: Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action
Vincent Ronfard, Alain Vertes, Michael May, Anne Dupraz, Mark van Dyke, Yves Bayon
"Evaluating the Past & Present of Regenerative Medicine (RM)" was the first part of an Industry Symposium dedicated to the subject during the 2015 World TERMIS Congress in Boston. This working session presented a critical review of the current RM landscape in Europe and North America with possible projections for the future. Interestingly, the RM development cycle seems to obey the Gartner hype cycle, now at the enlightenment phase, after past exaggerated expectations and discouragements, as suggested by increasing numbers of clinical trials and recent market approvals of RM solutions in both Europe (Glybera & Holoclar® from Chiesi Pharma and Strimvelis® from GSK) and Japan (Remestemcel-L from Mesoblast® )...
October 20, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
David P Seamans, Boshra F Louka, F David Fortuin, Bhavesh M Patel, John P Sweeney, Louis A Lanza, Patrick A DeValeria, Kim M Ezrre, Harish Ramakrishna
BACKGROUND: The surgical and procedural specialties are continually evolving their methods to include more complex and technically difficult cases. These cases can be longer and incorporate multiple teams in a different model of operating room synergy. Patients are frequently older, with comorbidities adding to the complexity of these cases. Recording of this environment has become more feasible recently with advancement in video and audio capture systems often used in the simulation realm...
October 2016: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
Gemma L Buckland Merrett, Gerald Bloom, Annie Wilkinson, Hayley MacGregor
The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistant pathogens poses a big challenge to policy-makers, who need to oversee the transformation of health systems that evolved to provide easy access to these drugs into ones that encourage appropriate use of antimicrobials, whilst reducing the risk of resistance. This is a particular challenge for low and middle-income countries with pluralistic health systems where antibiotics are available in a number of different markets. This review paper considers access and use of antibiotics in these countries from a complex adaptive system perspective...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
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