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serial dilutions

Laura Kearney, Derek Whelan, Brian D O'Donnell, Anthony J P Clover
Context: Delivery of slow-release local anesthesia has considerable potential for postoperative analgesia. Fibrin gel has shown huge potential for drug delivery, but has not been fully investigated for the delivery of local anesthetics nor has whether incorporation of anesthetic drugs into fibrin alters its mechanical properties. Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of bupivacaine inclusion on the mechanical and kinetic properties of fibrin as measured by thromboelastography (TEG)...
January 2018: Journal of Natural Science, Biology, and Medicine
Jorge Espinoza Echeverria, Marinely B Bustamante Gomez, Grasielle Caldas D Ávila Pessoa, Mirko Rojas Cortez, Antonio Nogales Rodriguez, Liléia Gonçalves Diotaiuti
BACKGROUND: Chemical control with pyrethroid insecticides has been effective in reducing endemic areas of distribution of Triatoma infestans in the Southern Cone, as well as Bolivia; this had considerably reduced the infestation of households in a large part of the territory. Nowadays, areas such as the Chaco and the Inter-Andean Valleys are regions where the reach of vector control strategies is becoming limited, and infestations of insecticide-treated households are reported more often...
February 17, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Ningning Han, Zishu Chen, Hu Wan, Guohua Huang, Jianhong Li, Byung Rae Jin
Ascoviruses are a recently described family and the traditional plaque assay and end-point PCR assay have been used for their titration. However, these two methods are time-consuming and inaccurate to titrate ascoviruses. In the present study, a quick method for the determination of the titer of ascovirus stocks was developed based on ascovirus-induced apoptosis in infected insect cells. Briefly, cells infected with serial dilutions of virus (10 -2 to 10 -10 ) for 24 h were stained with trypan blue. The stained cells were counted, and the percentage of nonviable cells was calculated...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Thomas Saunders, Jian Wu, Robert C Williams, Haibo Huang, Monica A Ponder
Propylene oxide (PPO), a chemical fumigant, has been validated to reduce Salmonella on bulk almonds but has not been evaluated for other tree nuts. There is a need to identify nonpathogenic surrogate microorganisms whose inactivation is comparable to that of Salmonella to assure effective PPO processing parameters in different packaging configurations without introducing Salmonella into the pasteurization facility. The objective of this research was to compare the reduction of Salmonella and three potential surrogate bacterial strains, Enterococcus faecium ATCC 8459, Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 8042, or Staphylococcus carnosus ATCC 51365, on cashews and macadamia nuts processed by using PPO...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Hamideh Mahmoudinasab, Mostafa Saadat
Cisplatin [cis-dichlorodiammine platinum (II), CDDP], morphine (Mor), and electromagnetic field (EMF) induced oxidative stress. In this study, we tried to increase the cytotoxicity of CDDP in combination with Mor and/or EMF in MCF-7 and SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, we evaluate the expression levels of 11 antioxidant genes in both cell lines. We designed four treatments: CDDP alone, "CDDP+Mor," "CDDP+EMF," and "CDDP+Mor+EMF." Serial dilutions of CDDP, Mor (5.0 μM), and EMF (50 Hz, 0...
February 15, 2018: DNA and Cell Biology
Makay Zheney, Zhambul Kaziyev, Gulmira Kassenova, Lingna Zhao, Wei Liu, Lin Liang, Gang Li
BACKGROUND: Egg drop syndrome (EDS), caused by the adenovirus "egg drop syndrome virus" (EDSV) causes severe economic losses through reduced egg production in breeder and layer flocks. The diagnosis of EDSV has been done by molecular tools since its complete genome sequence was identified. In order to enhance the capabilities of the real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RealAmp) assay, we aimed to apply the method for direct detection of the EDSV without viral DNA extraction...
February 13, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Yuping Li, Sandeep Venkataram, Atish Agarwala, Barbara Dunn, Dmitri A Petrov, Gavin Sherlock, Daniel S Fisher
Few studies have "quantitatively" probed how adaptive mutations result in increased fitness. Even in simple microbial evolution experiments, with full knowledge of the underlying mutations and specific growth conditions, it is challenging to determine where within a growth-saturation cycle those fitness gains occur. A common implicit assumption is that most benefits derive from an increased exponential growth rate. Here, we instead show that, in batch serial transfer experiments, adaptive mutants' fitness gains can be dominated by benefits that are accrued in one growth cycle, but not realized until the next growth cycle...
February 5, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Antonia Mallardi, Nicoletta Nuzziello, Maria Liguori, Carlo Avolio, Gerardo Palazzo
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are vesicles naturally secreted by the majority of human cells. Being composed by a closed phospholipid bilayer secluding proteins and RNAs they are used to transfer molecular information to other cells, thereby influencing the recipient cell functions. Despite the increasingly recognized relevance of EVs, the clarification of their physiological role is hampered by the lack of suitable analytical tools for their quantification and characterization. In this study, we have implemented a nanoplasmonic assay, previously proposed for the purity of the EV fractions, to achieve a robust analytical protocol in order to quantify the total phospholipid concentration (CPL) and the EVs number...
February 5, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Alexander Terry Stavroullakis, Marcela Rocha Carrilho, Celine Marie Levesque, Anuradha Prakki
OBJECTIVE: To screen the effect of two compounds, chlorhexidine diacetate (CHX) and epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG), on the levels of cytokines produced by odontoblast-like cells (MDPC-23). METHODS: Cells were seeded at 24h and 48h with serial dilution of the compounds to determine cell metabolic activity by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay (n=3). Cells with no compound treatment were used as control (Ctr). For the highest equal non-cytotoxic compound dilution tested at 48h cell treatment, total protein concentration was measured using a Pierce bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay (n=3), and expression of 23 cytokines was analyzed using the Bio-Plex cytokine assay (n=2)...
February 7, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Mitchell G Rohatensky, Devon M Livingstone, Paul Mintchev, Heather K Barnes, Steven C Nakoneshny, Douglas J Demetrick, Joseph C Dort, Guido van Marle
BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OPSCC) is increasing in incidence despite a decline in traditional risk factors. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), specifically subtypes 16, 18, 31 and 35, has been implicated as the high-risk etiologic agent. HPV positive cancers have a significantly better prognosis than HPV negative cancers of comparable stage, and may benefit from different treatment regimens. Currently, HPV related carcinogenesis is established indirectly through Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining for p16, a tumour suppressor gene, or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that directly tests for HPV DNA in biopsied tissue...
February 8, 2018: BMC Cancer
Keith Poole, Christie Gilmour, Maya A Farha, Michael D Parkins, Rachael Klinoski, Eric D Brown
Objectives: To assess the ability of meropenem to potentiate aminoglycoside (AG) activity against laboratory and AG-resistant cystic fibrosis (CF) isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and to elucidate its mechanism of action. Methods: AG resistance gene deletions were engineered into P. aeruginosa laboratory and CF isolates using standard gene replacement technology. Susceptibility to AGs ± meropenem (at ½ MIC) was assessed using a serial 2-fold dilution assay...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Nam Seok Lee, Han Soo Kim, Se Eun Park, Matthias Blüher, Cheol-Young Park, Byung-Soo Youn
Elevated circulating Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) has been associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. However, many commonly used RBP4 ELISAs have limited dynamic range. We therefore developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent sandwich assay (ELISA) employing a novel immunoglobulin A (IgA)-type capture mAb called AG102 instead of IgG subtypes, which was selected for its stability, capture efficiency, and specificity for human RBP 4. These features of RBP4 have hampered the development of quantitative immunological assays...
February 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
G L S Ferreira, L M D Bezerra, I L A Ribeiro, R C D Morais Júnior, R D Castro
This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the phytochemicals thymol, linalool, and citronellol against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus oralis. Disk diffusion screening on solid medium and measurement of the diameter of the bacterial growth inhibition halos was the technique utilized. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the substances was determined using serial substance dilutions and microdilution technique in Brain Heart Infusion culture medium...
February 1, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Bleron Azizi, Ana Budimir, Ivona Bago, Blerim Mehmeti, Suzana Jakovljević, Jeta Kelmendi, Aleksandra Presecki Stanko, Dragana Gabrić
BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and light-activated disinfection (LAD) on zirconia dental implants contaminated with three bacterial species and investigate if the PDT and LAD cause implant surface alterations. METHODS: Seventy-two zirconia dental implants were contaminated with a bacterial suspension of Prevotella intermedia, Actinomyces actinomycetemcomitans, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The implants were subsequently randomly divided into four groups (n = 12 dental implants/each) according to the decontamination protocol: Group 1 (PDT1) - PDT (660 nm, 100 mW) with toluidine blue; Group 2 (PDT2) - PDT (660 nm, 100 mW) with phenothiazine chloride dye; Group 3 (LAD) - light emitting diode (LED) with toluidine blue; and Group 4 (TB) - toluidine blue without the application of light...
February 1, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Xianliang Yi, Changlin Li, Xi Zhong, Yufeng Gong
A lipovitellin (Lv) based sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to quantify vitellogenin (Vtg) in marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma). Lv and Vtg were purified from the unfertilized eggs and the whole body homogenates (WBH) of estradiol (E2)-exposed fish. The purified Lv sample appeared as three clear bands (118, 112 and 100 kDa) in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and was identified as an Lvs mixture from VtgAa and VtgAb by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis...
January 22, 2018: Chemosphere
Laurie A Graham, Prashant Agrawal, Richard D Oleschuk, Peter L Davies
We have developed an ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) assay system that allows the side-by-side comparison of up to a dozen samples treated in an identical manner. This system is ideal for determining, by serial dilution, the IRI 'endpoint' where the concentration of a sample is reached that can no longer inhibit recrystallization. Samples can be an order of magnitude smaller in volume (<1 μL) than those used for the conventional 'splat' assay. The samples are pipetted into wells cut out of a superhydrophobic coating on sapphire slides that are covered with a second slide and then snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen...
February 1, 2018: Cryobiology
Jared Paul Jensen, Augustine Q Beeman, Zach L Njus, Upender Kalwa, Santosh Pandey, Gregory L Tylka
Two new in vitro methods were developed to analyze plant-parasitic nematode behavior, at the population and the individual organism levels, through time-lapse image analysis. The first method employed a high-resolution flatbed scanner to monitor the movement of a population of nematodes over a 24-hour period at 25°C. The second method tracked multiple motion parameters of individual nematodes on a microscopic scale, using a high-speed camera. Changes in movement and motion of second-stage juveniles (J2s) of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, were measured after exposure to a serial dilution of abamectin (0...
February 2, 2018: Phytopathology
James Sikora, Jason Gregory, Alan George, Simon Clayton, Baiming Zou, Matthew Robinson, Faisal Mukhtar, Joseph P Pelletier
BACKGROUND: Universal plasma is a scarce resource when a massive transfusion protocol has been initiated. Previous studies have reported success using group A plasma in place of the universal plasma, group AB. It is unclear why there are not more reports of hemolytic reactions occurring from this practice. One possible explanation is the presence of water-soluble antigens in the patient plasma that bind to, and neutralize, the soluble antibodies present in the transfused plasma. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Expired units of plasma were used to make dilutions that consisted of mixtures of group A and B plasma and saline...
February 1, 2018: Transfusion
Yonathan Asikin, Saki Kawahira, Maeda Goki, Naoto Hirose, Shogo Kyoda, Koji Wada
Shiikuwasha pulp is an important raw material for producing citrus essential oils. The volatile aroma composition of pulp essential oil was evaluated using gas chromatography (GC) methods, and its aroma profile was assessed using GC-olfactometry with an extended aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) technique in regard to alterations of odor strength and sensorial perception throughout serial dilution steps. The essential oil comprised a mixture of 55 aroma compounds, including monoterpene hydrocarbon, sesquiterpene hydrocarbon, alcohol, aldehyde, ester, and oxide compounds...
January 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Ramiro Martins Quintana, Alexander Pompermayer Jardine, Francisco Montagner, Clarissa Cavalcanti Fatturi Parolo, Renata Dornelles Morgental, Patrícia Maria Poli Kopper
Context: Human dentin powder (HD), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and endotoxin (LPS) may affect the antimicrobial activity of irrigating solutions. Aim: To evaluate the inhibitory effect of HD powder, BSA, and LPS on the antibacterial activity of 0.5%, 1%, 2.5%, and 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) gel, BioPure mixture of tetracycline, citric acid, and detergent (MTAD), and QMix. Methods: The direct contact test against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) for 2-min, 30-min and 6-h was used...
September 2017: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
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