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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224359/a-reduced-transcriptome-approach-to-assess-environmental-toxicants-using-zebrafish-embryo-test
#1
Pingping Wang, Pu Xia, Jianghua Yang, Zhihao Wang, Ying Peng, Wei Shi, Daniel L Villeneuve, Hongxia Yu, Xiaowei Zhang
Omics approaches can monitor responses and alterations of biological pathways at genome-scale, which are useful to predict potential adverse effects by environmental toxicants. However, high throughput application of transcriptomics in chemical assessment is limited due to the high cost and lack of "standardized" toxicogenomic methods. Here, a reduced zebrafish transcriptome (RZT) approach was developed to represent the whole transcriptome and to profile bioactivity of chemical and environmental mixtures in zebrafish embryo...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216725/decreased-circulatory-microrna-4478-as-a-specific-biomarker-for-diagnosing-non-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-nstemi-and-its-association-with-soluble-leptin-receptor
#2
R Gholikhani-Darbroud, F Khaki-Khatibi, F Mansouri, M Hajahmadipoorrafsanjani, M Ghojazadeh
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the usefulness of circulatory microRNA-4478 (miR-4478) and soluble leptin receptor (sLEPR) in prognosis and diagnosis of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and to introduce miR-4478 as a new biomarker for NSTEMI disease. This study aimed also to examine correlation between miR-4478 and soluble leptin receptor and effects of miR-4478 on leptin receptor concentration. BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs could be used as predictive biomarkers for diseases...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212028/non-canonical-hedgehog-signaling-is-a-positive-regulator-of-the-wnt-pathway-and-is-required-for-the-survival-of-colon-cancer-stem-cells
#3
Joseph L Regan, Dirk Schumacher, Stephanie Staudte, Andreas Steffen, Johannes Haybaeck, Ulrich Keilholz, Caroline Schweiger, Nicole Golob-Schwarzl, Dominik Mumberg, David Henderson, Hans Lehrach, Christian R A Regenbrecht, Reinhold Schäfer, Martin Lange
Colon cancer is a heterogeneous tumor driven by a subpopulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs). To study CSCs in colon cancer, we used limiting dilution spheroid and serial xenotransplantation assays to functionally define the frequency of CSCs in a panel of patient-derived cancer organoids. These studies demonstrated cancer organoids to be enriched for CSCs, which varied in frequency between tumors. Whole-transcriptome analysis identified WNT and Hedgehog signaling components to be enhanced in CSC-enriched tumors and in aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-positive CSCs...
December 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207004/phenotypic-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-isolates-from-patients-with-persistent-or-successfully-treated-infections
#4
Rachel Pitt, Sarah Alexander, Catherine Ison, Patrick Horner, Emma Hathorn, Penny Goold, Neil Woodford, Michelle J Cole
Objectives: Antimicrobial susceptibility data for Chlamydia trachomatis are lacking. Methodologies for susceptibility testing in C. trachomatis are not well-defined, standardized or performed routinely owing to its intracellular growth requirements. We sought to develop an assay for the in vitro susceptibility testing of C. trachomatis isolates from two patient cohorts with different clinical outcomes. Methods: Twenty-four clinical isolates (11 from persistently infected and 13 from successfully treated patients) were overlaid with media containing two-fold serial dilutions of azithromycin or doxycycline...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202825/antibacterial-activity-and-effects-of-colla-corii-asini-on-salmonella-typhimurium-invasion-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#5
Kwang-Il Park, Mi-Ra Lee, Tae-Woo Oh, Kwang-Youn Kim, Jin-Yeul Ma
BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a foodborne pathogen that triggers inflammatory responses in the intestines of humans and livestock. Colla corii asini is a traditional medicine used to treat gynecologic and chronic diseases in Korea and China. However, the antibacterial activity of Colla corii asini has been unknown. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial activity and effects of Colla corii asini extract on Salmonella typhimurium invasion. METHODS: To tested for antibacterial effects of Colla corii asini extracts, we confirmed the agar diffusion using Luria solid broth medium...
December 4, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198426/luliconazole-a-new-antifungal-against-candida-species-isolated-from-different-sources
#6
S Taghipour, N Kiasat, S Shafiei, M Halvaeezadeh, A Rezaei-Matehkolaei, A Zarei Mahmoudabadi
OBJECTIVE: Luliconazole is an inhibitor for sterol 14-α-demethylase in fungal cells with a broad-spectrum antifungal activity against dermatophytes, Candida albicans, Malassezia species, dematiaceous and hyaline hyphomycetes. Furthermore, luliconazole has been clinically used for the treatment of pityriasis versicolor, dermatophytosis, onychomycosis, cutaneous and mucocutaneous candidiasis. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate in vitro antifungal activity of luliconazole against several strains of Candida species recovered from different clinical materials...
November 29, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197187/development-of-a-microfluidic-platform-for-high-throughput-screening-of-non-viral-gene-delivery-vectors
#7
Elisa Giupponi, Roberta Visone, Paola Occhetta, Federica Colombo, Marco Rasponi, Gabriele Candiani
The grail of gene delivery is the development of delivery vectors as effective and non-cytotoxic as possible. In this regard, there is an urgent need of new tools for the straightforward and quantitative assessment of transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity simultaneously. We herein reported the development and validation of an easy-to-use lab-on-chip platform to perform cell transfection assays for unbiased, high-throughput selection of more and more effective gene delivery vectors by using 2 commercially sourced lipids, Lipofectamine 2000® and FuGene® 6...
December 2, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173762/quantification-of-plasma-egfr-mutations-in-patients-with-lung-cancers-comparison-of-the-performance-of-arms-plus-and-droplet-digital-pcr
#8
Lin Wang, Qiaomei Guo, Wenjun Yu, Lihua Qiao, Mingna Zhao, Chenzi Zhang, Xiaomeng Hu, Guohua Yang, Liwen Xiong, Jiatao Lou
OBJECTIVES: EGFR mutation is a key factor to predict EGFR-TKI efficacy. However, a significant number of advanced patients do not have sufficient tumor specimens for molecular testing. Also, there is a lack of quantitative assay to analyze the mutant abundance. This study aims to evaluate the detection efficiency and clinical feasibility of a new platform, namely ARMS-Plus, for the detection and quantification of EGFR mutations in plasma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The detection limit of ARMS-Plus was assessed by detecting spiked mutant plasmids which were serially diluted with normal human genomic DNA...
December 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166173/cold-plasma-inactivation-of-salmonella-in-prepackaged-mixed-salads-is-influenced-by-cross-contamination-sequence
#9
Sarah M Hertrich, Glenn Boyd, Joseph Sites, Brendan A Niemira
Customer demand for convenient food products has led to an increased production of prepackaged and ready-to-eat food products. Most of these products rely mainly on surface disinfection and other traditional approaches to ensure shelf life and safety. Novel processing techniques, such as cold plasma, are currently being investigated to enhance the safety and shelf life of prepacked foods. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of cold plasma corona discharge on the inactivation of Salmonella on prepackaged, tomato-and-lettuce mixed salads...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164853/microfluidic-free-flow-electrophoresis-based-solvent-exchanger-for-continuously-operating-lab-on-chip-applications
#10
Franziska D Zitzmann, Heinz-Georg Jahnke, Simon Pfeiffer, Ronny Frank, Felix Nitschke, Laura Mauritz, Bernd Abel, Detlev Belder, Andrea A Robitzki
For miniaturization and integration of chemical synthesis and analytics on small length scales, the development of complex lab on chip (LOC) systems is in the focus of many current research projects. While application specific synthesis and analytic modules and LOC devices are widely described, the combination and integration of different modules is intensively investigated. Problems for in-line processes such as solvent incompatibilities, e.g., for a multistep synthesis or the combination of an organic drug synthesis with a cell-based biological activity testing system, require a solvent exchange between serialized modules...
November 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157473/a-review-of-machines-and-devices-to-potentize-homeopathic-medicines
#11
REVIEW
Abhirup Basu, Akkihebbal Krishnamurthy Suresh, Shantaram Govind Kane, Jayesh Ramesh Bellare
BACKGROUND: Potentization, consisting of serial dilution and succussion, is a key step in the manufacture of homeopathic medicines. Originally prescribed as a manual process, several attempts at mechanization have been published, patented and even commercialised in order to remove the human element and introduce reproducibility without drudgery. Various machines have been used over the years to prepare homeopathic medicines. Although these machines follow the same principles, i.e. energetically mixing the medicines and diluting them significantly, their mode of operation is different from each other...
November 2017: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145785/adenosine-deaminase-activity-in-pig-saliva-analytical-validation-of-two-spectrophotometric-assays
#12
Fernando Tecles, Camila P Rubio, María D Contreras-Aguilar, Marina López-Arjona, Silvia Martínez-Miró, Silvia Martínez-Subiela, José J Cerón
We validated 2 assays for the measurement of adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in the saliva of pigs: the Giusti-Galanti manual method (ADA-GG) and a commercial automated assay (Diazyme Laboratories; ADA-D). Intra-assay coefficients of variation (CVs) were <7 and 9%, and interassay CVs were <12 and 5%, for ADA-GG and ADA-D, respectively. Accuracy was measured by 2 methods: recovery and linearity-under-dilution. Recovery was 82.4-106.8% for ADA-GG, and 92.8-107.9% for ADA-D. Serial dilutions showed R(2) > 0...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141131/simultaneous-detection-of-four-foodborne-viruses-in-food-samples-using-a-one-step-multiplex-reverse-transcription-pcr
#13
Shin-Young Lee, Mi-Ju Kim, Hyun-Joong Kim, KwangCheol Casey Jeong, Hae-Yeong Kim
A one-step multiplex reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) method comprising six primer sets (for the detection of norovirus GI and GII, hepatitis A virus, rotavirus, and astrovirus) was developed to simultaneously detect four kinds of pathogenic viruses. The size of the PCR products for norovirus GI and GII, hepatitis A virus (VP3/VP1 and P2A regions), rotavirus, and astrovirus were 330, 164, 244, 198, 629, and 449 bp, respectively. The RT-PCR with the six primer sets showed specificity for the pathogenic viruses...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137388/rapid-and-accurate-detection-of-kras-mutations-in-colorectal-cancers-using-the-isothermal-based-optical-sensor-for-companion-diagnostics
#14
Choong Eun Jin, Seung-Seop Yeom, Bonhan Koo, Tae Yoon Lee, Jeong Hoon Lee, Yong Shin, Seok-Byung Lim
Although KRAS mutational status testing is becoming a companion diagnostic tool for managing patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), there are still several difficulties when analyzing KRAS mutations using the existing assays, particularly with regard to low sensitivity, its time-consuming, and the need for large instruments. We developed a rapid, sensitive, and specific mutation detection assay based on the bio-photonic sensor termed ISAD (isothermal solid-phase amplification/detection), and used it to analyze KRAS gene mutations in human clinical samples...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126954/quantitative-analysis-of-kynurenine-aminotransferase-ii-in-the-adult-rat-brain-reveals-high-expression-in-proliferative-zones-and-corpus-callosum
#15
Chang Song, Sarah M Clark, Chloe N Vaughn, James D Nicholson, Kelley J Murphy, Ta-Chung M Mou, Robert Schwarcz, Gloria E Hoffman, Leonardo H Tonelli
Kynurenic acid, a metabolite of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation, acts as an endogenous antagonist of alpha7 nicotinic and NMDA receptors and is implicated in a number of neurophysiological and neuropathological processes including cognition and neurodegenerative events. Therefore, kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II/AADAT), the enzyme responsible for the formation of the majority of neuroactive kynurenic acid in the brain, has prompted significant interest. Using immunohistochemistry, this enzyme was localized primarily in astrocytes throughout the adult rat brain, but detailed neuroanatomical studies are lacking...
November 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124905/rapid-and-simple-detection-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-evaluation-of-a-cartridge-based-molecular-detection-system-for-use-in-basic-laboratories
#16
K V Goller, V Dill, M Madi, P Martin, Y Van der Stede, V Vandenberge, B Haas, S Van Borm, F Koenen, C J Kasanga, N Ndusilo, M Beer, L Liu, V Mioulet, B Armson, D P King, V L Fowler
Highly contagious transboundary animal diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) are major threats to the productivity of farm animals. To limit the impact of outbreaks and to take efficient steps towards a timely control and eradication of the disease, rapid and reliable diagnostic systems are of utmost importance. Confirmatory diagnostic assays are typically performed by experienced operators in specialized laboratories, and access to this capability is often limited in the developing countries with the highest disease burden...
November 9, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123398/triclosan-resistance-reversion-by-encapsulation-in-chitosan-coated-nanocapsule-containing-%C3%AE-bisabolol-as-core-development-of-wound-dressing
#17
João Guilherme B De Marchi, Denise S Jornada, Fernanda K Silva, Ana L Freitas, Alexandre M Fuentefria, Adriana R Pohlmann, Silvia S Guterres
The use of nanoparticles may be particularly advantageous in treating bacterial infections due to their multiple simultaneous mechanisms of action. Nanoencapsulation is particularly useful for lipophilic drugs. In this scenario, triclosan is considered a good candidate due to its lipophilicity, broad-spectrum activity, and safety. In the present study, we have developed and characterized an antimicrobial suspension of triclosan and α-bisabolol against pathogenic strains that are resistant (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and susceptible (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans) to triclosan...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117310/sequencing-and-phasing-cancer-mutations-in-lung-cancers-using-a-long-read-portable-sequencer
#18
Ayako Suzuki, Mizuto Suzuki, Junko Mizushima-Sugano, Martin C Frith, Wojciech Makalowski, Takashi Kohno, Sumio Sugano, Katsuya Tsuchihara, Yutaka Suzuki
Here, we employed cDNA amplicon sequencing using a long-read portable sequencer, MinION, to characterize various types of mutations in cancer-related genes, namely, EGFR, KRAS, NRAS and NF1. For homozygous SNVs, the precision and recall rates were 87.5% and 91.3%, respectively. For previously reported hotspot mutations, the precision and recall rates reached 100%. The precise junctions of EML4-ALK, CCDC6-RET and five other gene fusions were also detected. Taking advantages of long-read sequencing, we conducted phasing of EGFR mutations and elucidated the mutational allelic backgrounds of anti-tumor drug-sensitive and resistant mutations, which could provide useful information for selecting therapeutic approaches...
June 27, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079861/impact-of-dna-extraction-sample-dilution-and-reagent-contamination-on-16s-rrna-gene-sequencing-of-human-feces
#19
Eliana P Velásquez-Mejía, Jacobo de la Cuesta-Zuluaga, Juan S Escobar
Culture-independent methods have granted the possibility to study microbial diversity in great detail, but technical issues pose a threat to the accuracy of new findings. Biases introduced during DNA extraction can result in erroneous representations of the microbial community, particularly in samples with low microbial biomass. We evaluated the DNA extraction method, initial sample biomass, and reagent contamination on the assessment of the human gut microbiota. Fecal samples of 200 mg were subjected to 1:10 serial dilutions; total DNA was obtained using two commercial kits and the microbiota assessed by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing...
October 27, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079619/identification-of-heterotrophic-zinc-mobilization-processes-among-bacterial-strains-isolated-from-wheat-rhizosphere-triticum-aestivum-l
#20
Benjamin Costerousse, Laurie Schönholzer-Mauclaire, Emmanuel Frossard, Cécile Thonar
Soil and plant inoculation with heterotrophic Zinc Solubilizing Bacteria (ZSB) is considered as a promising approach for increasing zinc (Zn) phytoavailability and enhance crop growth and nutritional quality. It is nevertheless necessary to understand the underlying bacterial solubilization processes in order to predict their repeatability in inoculation strategies. Acidification via gluconic acid production remains the most reported process. In this study, wheat rhizosphere soil serial dilutions were plated onto several solid microbiological media supplemented with scarcely soluble Zn oxide (ZnO) and 115 putative Zn solubilizing isolates were directly detected based on the formation of solubilization halo around the colonies...
October 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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