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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211475/biofilm-formation-of-the-black-yeast-like-fungus-exophiala-dermatitidis-and-its-susceptibility-to-antiinfective-agents
#1
Lisa Kirchhoff, Maike Olsowski, Katrin Zilmans, Silke Dittmer, Gerhard Haase, Ludwig Sedlacek, Eike Steinmann, Jan Buer, Peter-Michael Rath, Joerg Steinmann
Various fungi have the ability to colonize surfaces and to form biofilms. Fungal biofilm-associated infections are frequently refractory to targeted treatment because of resistance to antifungal drugs. One fungus that frequently colonises the respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is the opportunistic black yeast-like fungus Exophiala dermatitidis. We investigated the biofilm-forming ability of E. dermatitidis and its susceptibility to various antiinfective agents and natural compounds. We tested 58 E...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185677/effects-of-antioxidants-on-dna-double-strand-breaks-in-human-gingival-fibroblasts-exposed-to-dental-resin-co-monomer-epoxy-metabolites
#2
Yang Yang, Xiuli He, Jianwei Shi, Reinhard Hickel, Franz-Xaver Reichl, Christof Högg
OBJECTIVE: Eluted dental resin co-monomers can be metabolized to intermediate methacrylic acid (MA) and, further, to epoxy metabolites. Antioxidants have been studied previously, with the intention of decreasing the DNA double-strand breaks (DNA-DSBs) in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). In this study, the effects of the antioxidants, ascorbic acid (Asc) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), were investigated on co-monomer metabolite-induced DNA-DSBs. METHODS: HGFs were incubated with MA, 2,3-epoxy-2-methyl-propionicacid-methylester (EMPME) and 2,3-epoxy-2-methylpropionic acid (EMPA), respectively, in the presence or absence of antioxidants (Asc or NAC)...
February 6, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171812/immiscible-poly-lactic-acid-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-for-temporary-implants-compatibility-and-cytotoxicity
#3
Pablo F M Finotti, Lidiane C Costa, Ticiana S O Capote, Raquel M Scarel-Caminaga, Marcelo A Chinelatto
This manuscript focuses on the effect of the addition of a low molecular weight triblock copolymer derived from ε-caprolactone and tetrahydrofuran (CT) on the compatibility and cytotoxicity of immiscible poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) blends. Binary and tertiary PLA/PCL blends were prepared by melt mixing in a twin-screw extruder and their morphological, mechanical and thermal behaviors were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), tensile and Izod impact test, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)...
January 31, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166240/involvement-of-multiple-stressors-induced-by-non-thermal-plasma-charged-aerosols-during-inactivation-of-airborne-bacteria
#4
Nachiket D Vaze, Sin Park, Ari D Brooks, Alexander Fridman, Suresh G Joshi
A lab-scale, tunable, single-filament, point-to-point nonthermal dieletric-barrier discharge (DBD) plasma device was built to study the mechanisms of inactivation of aerosolized bacterial pathogens. The system inactivates airborne antibiotic-resistant pathogens efficiently. Nebulization mediated pre-optimized (4 log and 7 log) bacterial loads were challenged to plasma-charged aerosols, and lethal and sublethal doses determined using colony assay, and cell viability assay; and the loss of membrane potential and cellular respiration were determined using cell membrane potential assay and XTT assay...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155807/cisplatin-impaired-adipogenic-differentiation-of-adipose-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#5
Yu-Hsun Chang, Hwan-Wun Liu, Tang-Yuan Chu, Yao-Tseng Wen, Dah-Ching Ding
Adipose mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) were isolated from the adipose tissue and can be induced in vitro to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondroblasts, myocytes, neurons and other cell types. Cisplatin is a commonly used chemotherapy drug for cancer patients. However, the effects of cisplatin on ASC remain elusive. This study found that high-concentration cisplatin affects the viability of ASCs. First, IC50 concentration of cisplatin was evaluated. Proliferation of ASCs assessed by XTT method decreased immediately after cisplatin treatment with various concentrations...
February 3, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152096/inhibitory-activity-of-hinokitiol-against-biofilm-formation-in-fluconazole-resistant-candida-species
#6
Dae Jin Kim, Min Woo Lee, Jeong Su Choi, Seung Gwan Lee, Jee Yoon Park, Suhng Wook Kim
The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of hinokitiol to inhibit the formation of Candida biofilms. Biofilm inhibition was evaluated by quantification of the biofilm metabolic activity with XTT assay. Hinokitiol efficiently prevented biofilm formation in both fluconazole-susceptible and fluconazole-resistant strains of Candida species. We determined the expression levels of specific genes previously implicated in biofilm development of C. albicans cells by real-time RT-PCR. The expression levels of genes associated with adhesion process, HWP1 and ALS3, were downregulated by hinokitiol...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144822/in-vitro-activity-of-berberine-alone-and-in-combination-with-antifungal-drugs-against-planktonic-forms-and-biofilms-of-trichosporon-asahii
#7
Lin Cong, Yong Liao, Suteng Yang, Rongya Yang
Trichosporon asahii (T. asahii) is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients, with high mortality rates up to 80% despite treated with antifungal drugs. The biofilms-forming ability of T. asahii on indwelling medical devices may account for the resistance to antifungal drugs. Berberine (BBR) has been demonstrated to have antifungal activity and synergistic effects in combination with antifungal drugs against pathogenic fungi. In the present study, the in vitro activities of BBR alone or combined with fluconazole (FLC), itraconazole (ITC), voriconazole (VRC), caspofungin (CAS) and amphotericin B (AMB) against planktonic forms and biofilms of 21 clinical T...
January 31, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127878/melanin-is-effective-in-protecting-fast-and-slow-growing-fungi-from-various-types-of-ionizing-radiation
#8
Claudia Pacelli, Ruth A Bryan, Silvano Onofri, Laura Selbmann, Igor Shuryak, Ekaterina Dadachova
Melanin is a ubiquitous pigment with unique physicochemical properties. The resistance of melanized fungi to cosmic and terrestrial ionizing radiation suggests that melanin also plays a pivotal role in radioprotection. In this study, we compared the effects of densely-ionizing deuterons and sparsely-ionizing X-rays on two microscopic fungi capable of melanogenesis. We utilized the fast-growing pathogenic basiodiomycete forming an induced DOPA-melanin, Cryptococcus neoformans (CN); and the slow-growing environmental rock-inhabiting ascomycete synthesizing a constitutive DHN-melanin, Cryomyces antarcticus (CA); melanized and non-melanized counterparts were compared...
January 27, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072890/candida-albicans-survival-growth-and-biofilm-formation-are-differently-affected-by-mouthwashes-an-in-vitro-study
#9
Simona Paulone, Giulia Malavasi, Andrea Ardizzoni, Carlotta Francesca Orsi, Samuele Peppoloni, Rachele Giovanna Neglia, Elisabetta Blasi
Candida albicans is the most common cause of oral mycoses. The aim of the present study was to investigate in vitro the susceptibility of C. albicans to mouthwashes, in terms of growth, survival and biofilm formation. Candida albicans, laboratory strain SC5314, and 7 commercial mouthwashes were employed: 3 with 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate; 1 with 0.06% chlorhexidine digluconate and 250 ppm F- sodium fluoride; 3 with fluorine-containing molecules. None of the mouthwashes contained ethanol in their formulations...
January 9, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067105/antimicrobial-effects-of-mastic-extract-against-oral-and-periodontal-pathogens
#10
Stefka Koychev, Henrik Dommisch, Hong Chen, Nicole Pischon
BACKGROUND: Various antimicrobial agents are widely used in the therapy of oral inflammatory diseases. However, their side effects and the appearance of drug resistance justify research on natural antimicrobial agents to target oral pathogens that are safe for the host. In the present study, antimicrobial properties of mastic extract on commensal and pathogenic oral bacteria, as well as its possible cytotoxic effect toward cells of epithelial and mesenchymal origin, were evaluated in comparison to the common antimicrobial agents hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX)...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038737/biocompatible-electrospinning-chitosan-nanofibers-a-novel-delivery-system-with-superior-local-cancer-therapy
#11
Roya Sedghi, Alireza Shaabani, Zohreh Mohammadi, Fatemeh Yazdi Samadi, Elham Isaei
In this study, an electrospinning technique was used for the fabrication of novel biomedicated nanofibers which are applied for preventing wound infections and local chemotherapy. CURs containing nanofibers with a crosslinking agent (Si-O-Si network) have been produced through functionalization of graphene oxide with APTES. In vitro drug release profile results showed the novel nanofibers could limit the drug's initial burst release and provide better sustainability in comparison with the blend nanofibers without modified GO...
March 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033682/the-effect-of-two-drug-delivery-systems-in-ropivacaine-cytotoxicity-and-cytokine-release-by-human-keratinocytes-and-fibroblasts
#12
Luiz Eduardo Nunes Ferreira, Bruno Vilela Muniz, Jonny Burga-Sánchez, Maria Cristina Volpato, Eneida de Paula, Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro Rosa, Francisco Carlos Groppo
OBJECTIVES: Modified drug delivery systems have been developed to improve pharmacological properties of local anaesthetics. However, the inflammatory potential of these formulations was not investigated. This study compared the in-vitro effects of ropivacaine (ropi) in plain, liposomal (MLV) or 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) formulations on cell viability, apoptosis and cytokine (IL-1α, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10) release. METHODS: Human immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT) and human immortalized gingival fibroblasts (HGF) were exposed to 1-100 μm ropi concentrations...
February 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012985/effect-of-polymyxin-resistance-pmr-on-biofilm-formation-of-cronobacter-sakazakii
#13
Xuerui Bao, Xiangyin Jia, Lequn Chen, Brian M Peters, Chii-Wann Lin, Dingqiang Chen, Lin Li, Bing Li, Yanyan Li, Zhenbo Xu, Mark E Shirtliff
Cronobacter sakazakii (C.sakazakii) has been identified as a wide-spread conditioned pathogen associated with series of serious illnesses, such as neonatal meningitis, enterocolitis, bacteremia or sepsis. As food safety is concerned, microbial biofilm has been considered to be a potential source of food contamination. The current study aims to investigate the ability of biofilm formation of two C. sakazakii strains (wild type BAA 894 and pmrA mutant). Crystal violet (CV), XTT (2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-5-[(phenylamino carbonyl)-2H-(tetrazolium hydroxide)] assays, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are performed on different time points during biofilm formation of C...
December 22, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011958/cationic-porphyrin-mediated-photodynamic-inactivation-of-candida-biofilms-and-the-effect-of-miconazole
#14
A Davies, S Gebremedhin, M Yee, R J Padilla, N Duzgunes, K Konopka, B Dorocka-Bobkowska
The formation of biofilms by Candida and the increasing resistance of Candida species to antifungals contribute to the high recurrence rates of denture stomatitis. This increase has stimulated an interest in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as an alternative treatment. We examined the photoactivity of the porphyrin-based photosensitizer, TMP-1363, against biofilms of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis, and the effect of the combined use of miconazole and aPDT. Biofilms of three American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strains and four clinical isolates developed on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) disks, were incubated with miconazole, followed by treatment with TMP-1363 for 30 min at 37°C...
October 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007499/3-hydroxy-4-methoxy-%C3%AE-methyl-%C3%AE-nitrostyrene-inhibits-tumor-growth-through-ros-generation-and-gsh-depletion-in-lung-cancer-cells
#15
Chun-Hao Tsai, Pei-Wen Hsieh, Yi-Chen Lee, Chie-Hong Wang, Wen-Chin Chiu, Chun-Wun Lu, Yen-Yun Wang, Stephen Chu-Sung Hu, Tain-Lu Cheng, Shyng-Shiou F Yuan
AIMS: Members of the β-nitrostyrene family are known to suppress tumor growth, with the underlying mechanisms of β-nitrostyrene remain mostly unclear. Herein, we synthesized a β-nitrostyrene derivative, 3'-hydroxy-4'-methoxy-β-methyl-β-nitrostyrene (CYT-Rx20), and explored its anticancer activities in human lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. MAIN METHODS: Cell viability was measured by XTT assay. Apoptosis was detected by Annexin V/PI staining. Caspase activation was determined by western blotting...
December 19, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997919/viability-of-primary-human-pigment-epithelium-cells-and-muller-glia-cells-after-intravitreal-ziv-aflibercept-and-aflibercept
#16
Gabriel Costa de Andrade, Christian Wertheimer, Kirsten Eibl, Armin Wolf, Anselm Kampik, Eduardo Buchele Rodrigues, Michel Eid Farah, Christos Haritoglou
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to access the safety profiles of 2 fusion proteins with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor action (ziv-aflibercept and aflibercept) on retinal pigment epithelium cells and Muller-Glia cells in culture by assessing cell viability post drug exposure. METHODS: Primary human retinal pigment epithelium cells (pRPE) and Muller-Glia cells (Mio-M1) were exposed to the clinical standardized concentrations of ziv-aflibercept (25 mg/mL) and aflibercept (40 mg/mL)...
2016: Ophthalmologica. Journal International D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993121/trimethyl-chitosan-improves-anti-hiv-effects-of-atripla-as-a-new-nano-formulated-drug
#17
Sepideh Shohani, Asghar Abdoli, Behzad Khansarinejad, Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani, Mohammad Salimi-Asl, Maryam Ghanbari, Mehrdad Sadeghi Haj, Rezvan Zabihollahi, Mahdieh Mondanizadeh
Background; highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been commonly used for HIV treatment. Its main drawbacks like drug resistance and side effects raised researcher's interest to find new approaches for its treatment. Trimethyl chitosan is one of the drug carriers which was introduced recently. Materials and Methods; the conjugated atripla-trimethyl chitosan was designed and characterized by zetasizer, AFM and FTIR techniques. The drug conjugation with trimethyl chitosan and cellular uptake of nano-conjugate were determined by spectrophotometry...
December 16, 2016: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992693/scleroderma-peripheral-b-lymphocytes-secrete-interleukin-6-and-tgf-%C3%AE-and-activate-fibroblasts
#18
Nicolas Dumoitier, Benjamin Chaigne, Alexis Régent, Sébastien Lofek, Maïssa Mhibik, Peter Dorfmüller, Benjamin Terrier, Jonathan London, Alice Bérezné, Nicolas Tamas, Nadine Varin-Blank, Luc Mouthon
OBJECTIVE: To study the role of B lymphocytes in systemic sclerosis (SSc). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Peripheral B cell subpopulations, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) productions were analyzed using flow cytometry and multiplex assay. Fibroblasts proliferation rate upon incubation with supernatants of B cells isolated from SSc patients or healthy controls (HC) was assessed using XTT, BrdU and Ki67. Collagen production was assessed using a collagen assay...
December 19, 2016: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989600/novel-ferrocenyl-pyrazoles-inhibit-breast-cancer-cell-viability-via-induction-of-apoptosis-and-inhibition-of-pi3k-akt-and-erk1-2-signaling
#19
Harika Atmaca, Ayşe Nur Özkan, Metin Zora
Despite the advances in early detection and targeted therapies, chemotherapy is still of vital importance in breast cancer treatment. However, development of drug resistance and serious side effects limits their usage. Thus, there is an urgent need for safer and more effective agents against breast cancer. We have previously described the synthesis of a number of pyrazole derivatives, and in the current study, we have investigated the effects of two different ferrocenyl pyrazole (FP) derivates, 5-ferrocenyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole (FP-Ph) and 5-ferrocenyl-1H-pyrazole (FP-H), on breast cancer cells...
February 1, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982754/apium-graveolens-extract-inhibits-cell-proliferation-and-expression-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-and-induces-apoptosis-in-the-human-prostatic-carcinoma-cell-line-lncap
#20
Tülay Köken, Buğra Koca, Mete Özkurt, Nilüfer Erkasap, Gökhan Kuş, Mustafa Karalar
Apium graveolens has been shown to inhibit the growth of a variety of cancer tissues. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effect of A. graveolens on the human prostatic carcinoma cell line LNCaP. LNCaP cells were treated with increasing concentrations of an ethanolic extract of A. graveolens ranging from 1000 to 3000 μg/mL, and viability was determined after 24 and 48 h using the XTT cell proliferation assay. The levels of cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), one of the best biomarkers of apoptosis, were analyzed...
December 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
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