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Ruchi Mishra, Saurabh Sharma, Radhey Shyam Sharma, Savita Singh, Milind Madhav Sardesai, Sadhna Sharma, Vandana Mishra
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Viscum articulatum Burm. f. (leafless mistletoe) has been used in traditional system of medicines in India, China, Taiwan, Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam, to treat blood-related diseases and various inflammatory and degenerative diseases including cancer. Anticancer activities of some phytomolecules purified from Viscum articulatum Burm. f. have been tested. However scientific evidence for the anticancerous potential of aqueous extract of V. articularum (VAQE) used in traditional medicine is lacking...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Schmidt Annette, Wolf Markus, Rothmiller Simone, Worek Franz, Steinritz Dirk, Thiermann Horst
BACKGROUND: The cell line HaCaT/SM was developed as a sulfur mustard (SM) resistant cell line from the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. This cell line was established to learn more about the effect of SM and possible therapeutic approaches to counteract the cytotoxic effects of SM. The aim of this study was to clarify whether the SM-resistant cell line HaCaT/SM exhibit also resistance to other alkylating agents or cytotoxic drugs with different mechanism of action. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The chemosensitivity of SM-resistant human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT/SM and the original cell line HaCaT were tested using the XTT assay...
March 15, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Komathy Munusamy, Jamuna Vadivelu, Sun Tee Tay
BACKGROUND: Biofilm is known to contribute to the antifungal resistance of Candida yeasts. Aureobasidin A (AbA), a cyclic depsipeptide targeting fungal sphingolipid biosynthesis, has been shown to be effective against several Candida species. AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate Candida biofilm growth morphology, its biomass, metabolic activity, and to determine the effects of AbA on the biofilm growth. METHODS: The biofilm forming ability of several clinical isolates of different Candida species from our culture collection was determined using established methods (crystal violet and XTT assays)...
March 12, 2018: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
Kon-Ichi Arai, Tsutomu Yasukawa, Aki Kato, Ayae Kubota, Hideaki Usui, Noriaki Takase, Soichiro Kuwayama, Yuichiro Ogura
AIMS: Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents effectively treat age-related macular degeneration and myopic choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a fibrinolytic compound, is used as an adjuvant to displace submacular hemorrhage and to treat type 2 CNV. The purpose of this study was to investigate in in vitro and in vivo experiments the antiangiogenic impact of tPA itself. METHODS: The impact of tPA on the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was assessed by an XTT assay [2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide]...
March 13, 2018: Ophthalmic Research
Lei Shi, Tanja Stachon, Berthold Seitz, Stefan Wagenpfeil, Achim Langenbucher, Nóra Szentmáry
PURPOSE: To analyze the effect of diamidines (hexamidine-diisethionat (HD), propamidin-isethionate (PD), dibromopropamidine-diisethionat (DD)), and biguanides (polyhexamethylen biguanid (PHMB), chlorhexidine (CH)) on human corneal epithelial cell, keratocyte and endothelial cell viability, proliferation, and migration, in vitro. METHODS: For epithelial and endothelial cells a human cell line and for keratocytes primary cultures were used (n = 6 each). We used 3...
March 12, 2018: Current Eye Research
Mariano S Pedano, Xin Li, Shuchen Li, Zeyi Sun, Stevan M Cokic, Eveline Putzeys, Kumiko Yoshihara, Yashuhiro Yoshida, Zhi Chen, Kirsten Van Landuyt, Bart Van Meerbeek
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of the eluates from 3 freshly-mixed and setting hydraulic calcium-silicate cements (hCSCs) on human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) and to examine the effect of a newly developed hCSC containing phosphopullulan (PPL) on HDPCs. METHODS: Human dental pulp cells, previously characterized as mesenchymal stem cells, were used. To collect the eluates, disks occupying the whole surface of a 12-well plate were prepared using an experimental hCSC containing phosphopullulan (GC), Nex-Cem MTA (GC), Biodentine (Septodont) or a zinc-oxide (ZnO) eugenol cement (material-related negative control)...
March 7, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Glen P Carter, Jitendra R Harjani, Lucy Li, Noel P Pitcher, Yi Nong, Thomas V Riley, Deborah A Williamson, Timothy P Stinear, Jonathan B Baell, Benjamin P Howden
Background: Enterococcus faecium is an important nosocomial pathogen. It has a high propensity for horizontal gene transfer, which has resulted in the emergence of MDR strains that are difficult to treat. The most notorious of these, vancomycin-resistant E. faecium, are usually treated with linezolid or daptomycin. Resistance has, however, been reported, meaning that new therapeutics are urgently needed. The 1,2,4-oxadiazoles are a recently discovered family of antimicrobials that are active against Gram-positive pathogens and therefore have therapeutic potential for treating E...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Enea Gino Di Domenico, Ilaria Cavallo, Maria Guembe, Grazia Prignano, Maria Teresa Gallo, Valentina Bordignon, Giovanna D'Agosto, Isabella Sperduti, Luigi Toma, Fabrizio Ensoli
Candida species are opportunistic pathogens responsible for a variety of diseases, ranging from skin and mucosal lesions to severe systemic, life-threatening infections. Candida albicans accounts for more than 70% of all Candida infections, however, the clinical relevance of other species such as Candida parapsilosis and Candida krusei are being increasingly recognized. Biofilm-producing yeasts cells acquire an increased resistance to antifungal agents, often leading to therapeutic failure and chronic infection...
March 6, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante, Edmilson Emanuel Monteiro Correia, Glaucia Morgana de Melo Guedes, Jonathas Sales de Oliveira, Débora de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco, Rossana de Aguiar Cordeiro, Adriana de Queiroz Pinheiro, Lúcio Jackson Queiroz Chaves, Waldemiro de Aquino Pereira Neto, José Júlio Costa Sidrim, Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha
BACKGROUND: As shown by recent researches, most of the clinically relevant fungi, including dermatophytes, form biofilms in vitro and in vivo, which may present antimicrobial tolerance favoring recurrent infections. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of itraconazole (ITC), voriconazole (VCZ) and griseofulvin (GRI) against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum, in planktonic and biofilm growth...
March 8, 2018: Mycoses
Ravikanth Velagapudi, Abdelmeneim El-Bakoush, Olumayokun A Olajide
Hyperactivated microglia plays a key role in regulating neuroinflammatory responses which cause damage to neurons. In recent years, substantial attention has been paid in identifying new strategies to abrogate neuroinflammation. Tiliroside, a natural dietary glycosidic flavonoid, is known to inhibit neuroinflammation. This study was aimed at investigating the molecular mechanisms involved in the inhibition of neuroinflammation and neurotoxicity by tiliroside. The effects of tiliroside on Nrf2 and SIRT1 activities in BV2 microglia and HT22 hippocampal neurons were investigated using immunoblotting and DNA binding assays...
March 5, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Maria Sol Brassesco, Julia Alejandra Pezuk, Karina Bezerra Salomao, Gabriela Molinari Roberto, Carlos Alberto Scrideli, Luiz Gonzaga Tone
Over the last decade, the inhibition of PLK1 has proven potent antiproliferative activity in vitro. However, the effectiveness of most synthetic targeted drugs has not translated into clinics. Herein, we investigated the in vitro effects of two second-generation PLK1 inhibitors BI 6727 and GSK461364 in breast cancer cell lines as monotherapy or in combination with other drugs or ionizing radiation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cell survival was analyzed through XTT®, clonogenicity and caspase-3 activation assays were also studied, and drug interactions analyzed through a nonlinear regression of a sigmoid dose response model...
February 28, 2018: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Aline S L Santoro Soares, Miriam Zaccaro Scelza, Janaína Spoladore, Marcos Antônio Gallito, Felipe Oliveira, Rita de Cássia Martins Moraes, Gutemberg Gomes Alves
Denture adhesives (DA) improve the retention and stability of ill-fitting dentures, especially for older adults. These materials should be biocompatible, i.e., they cannot cause undesired biological responses and be non-cytotoxic to oral tissues. However, in vitro testing of DA biocompatibility employing primary cell culture may possibly be affected by other factors, such as the donor age. OBJECTIVE: To compare the cytotoxicity of three different denture adhesives when assessed in primary gingival fibroblasts from a young donor or from an older donor, as well as the release of the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and the inflammatory response marker interleukin-6 (IL-6)...
2018: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
Abdullah Tahir Bayrac, Oya Ercan Akca, Fusun Inci Eyidogan, Huseyin Avni Oktem
Targeted drug delivery approaches have been implementing significant therapeutic gain for cancer treatment since last decades. Aptamers are one of the mostly used and highly selective targeting agents for cancer cells. Herein, we address a nano-sized targeted drug delivery approach adorned with A-172 glioblastoma cell-line-specific single stranded DNA (ssDNA) aptamer in which the chemotherapeutic agent Doxorubicin (DOX) had been conjugated. DNA aptamer, GMT-3, was previously selected for specific recognition of glioblastoma and represented many advantageous characteristics for drug targeting purposes...
March 2018: Journal of Biosciences
L F Yang, X Liu, L L Lv, Z M Ma, X C Feng, T H Ma
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity of dracorhodin perchlorate (DP) against planktonic growth and virulence factors of Candida albicans. METHODS: Microdilution method based on CLSI-M27-A3 was used to test the antifungal susceptibility of DP. The activity of DP against biofilm formation and development of C. albicans was quantified by XTT assay and visualized by confocal laser scanning microscope. The effect of DP on the morphological transition of C...
February 21, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Philip Hartjen, Alexia Hoffmann, Anders Henningsen, Mike Barbeck, Alexander Kopp, Lan Kluwe, Clarissa Precht, Olivia Quatela, Robert Gaudin, Max Heiland, Reinhard E Friedrich, Christian Knipfer, Daniel Grubeanu, Ralf Smeets, Ole Jung
BACKGROUND/AIM: Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is an established electrochemical treatment technique that can be used for surface modifications of metal implants. In this study we to treated titanium implants with PEO, to examine the resulting microstructure and to characterize adhesion and viability of cells on the treated surfaces. Our aim was to identify an optimal surface-modification for titanium implants in order to improve soft-tissue integration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three surface-variants were generated on titanium alloy Ti6Al4V by PEO-treatment...
March 2018: In Vivo
Claudia Pacelli, Ruth A Bryan, Silvano Onofri, Laura Selbmann, Laura Zucconi, Igor Shuryak, Ekaterina Dadachova
The aim of this study was to analyze how protracted exposure to X-rays delivered at low dose rates of 0.0032-0.052 kGy/h affects the survival and metabolic activity of two microfungi capable of melanogenesis: fast-growing Cryptococcus neoformans (CN) and slow-growing Cryomyces antarcticus (CA). Melanized CN and CA cells survived the protracted exposure better than non-melanized ones, which was consistent with previous reports on the radioprotective role of melanin in these fungi after high dose rate exposures...
February 23, 2018: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Benjamin Jacob, Timo Zippelius, Nadja Kloss, Kathrin Benad, Christiane Schwerdt, Paula Hoff, Georg Matziolis, Eric Röhner
Objective In orthopedic joint injection, the most frequently used local anesthetics are ropivacaine, bupivacaine, and 1% or 2% lidocaine. The aim of this study was to examine effects of these various anesthetics on the viability of human chondrocytes. Our hypothesis was that all local anesthetics tested damage human chondrocytes in vitro. Methods Primary human chondrocytes were isolated and cultured from 6 donated human knee joints (mean age of donors 61.2 years). Local anesthetics were added to these cultures...
February 1, 2018: Cartilage
Maria Diedrichs-Möhring, Sandy Niesik, Claudia S Priglinger, Stephan R Thurau, Franz Obermayr, Stefan Sperl, Gerhild Wildner
BACKGROUND: Uveitis is a potentially blinding inflammatory disease of the inner eye with a high unmet need for new therapeutic interventions. Here, we wanted to investigate the suppressive effect of the intraocular application of the small molecule dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH)-inhibitor PP-001 on experimental relapsing rat uveitis and furthermore determine its effect on proliferation and cytokine secretion of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in vitro...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Mehmet Emre Coskun, Kubra Acikalin Coskun, Yusuf Tutar
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the optimum operating parameters (pulse duration, energy levels, and application time) to promote induction of osteoblast and fibroblast cell proliferation and to maintain cell viability treated with low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and low-level laser therapy (LLLT). BACKGROUND DATA: The positive effects of LIPUS and LLLT on cellular activity have been reported in recent years. Comparisons between experimental parameters of previous studies are difficult because scientific studies reported frequencies and the duty cycles of LIPUS and wavelengths and doses of LLLT in a wide range of parameters...
February 21, 2018: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
Joseph Meletiadis, Maria Siopi, Athanassios Tsakris, Johan W Mouton, Spyros Pournaras
The lack of a quantifiable marker for echinocandins activity hinders in vitro PK/PD studies for Aspergillus spp. We developed an in vitro PK/PD model simulating anidulafungin pharmacokinetics and assessing its pharmacodynamics against A. fumigatus with a new easily quantifiable, sensitive and reproducible marker. Two clinical A. fumigatus isolates previously used in animals (AZN8196,V52-35) with identical anidulafungin EUCAST (0.03 μg/ml) and CLSI (0.015 μg/ml) MEC and one (AFU79728) with MEC>16 μg/ml were tested in a two-compartment PK/PD dialysis/diffusion closed model containing a dialysis membrane tube (DM) inoculated with 103 cfu/mL...
February 20, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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