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"Evolutionary ideas"

Chris Manias
This paper examines the tension between Darwinian evolution and palaeontological research in Britain in the 1860-1914 period, looking at how three key promoters of Darwinian thinking - Thomas Henry Huxley, Edwin Ray Lankester and Alfred Russell Wallace - integrated palaeontological ideas and narratives of life's history into their public presentations of evolutionary theory. It shows how engagement with palaeontological science was an important part of the promotion of evolutionary ideas in Britain, which often bolstered notions that evolution depended upon progress and development along a wider plan...
December 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
Bruno A Buzatto, Mathieu Buoro, Wade N Hazel, Joseph L Tomkins
The threshold expression of dichotomous phenotypes that are environmentally cued or induced comprise the vast majority of phenotypic dimorphisms in colour, morphology, behaviour and life history. Modelled as conditional strategies under the framework of evolutionary game theory, the quantitative genetic basis of these traits is a challenge to estimate. The challenge exists firstly because the phenotypic expression of the trait is dichotomous and secondly because the apparent environmental cue is separate from the biological signal pathway that induces the switch between phenotypes...
December 22, 2015: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Bill Jenkins
This paper sheds new light on the prevalence of evolutionary ideas in Scotland in the early nineteenth century and establish what connections existed between the espousal of evolutionary theories and adherence to the directional history of the earth proposed by Abraham Gottlob Werner and his Scottish disciples. A possible connection between Wernerian geology and theories of the transmutation of species in Edinburgh in the period when Charles Darwin was a medical student in the city was suggested in an important 1991 paper by James Secord...
August 2016: Journal of the History of Biology
Martin Stevens
Animal egg coloration has long provided a valuable testing ground for evolutionary ideas. A new study shows that female stink bugs can flexibly control the colour of their eggs depending on the prevailing conditions, including for protection from ultraviolet light.
August 31, 2015: Current Biology: CB
E V Savvateeva-Popova, E A Nikitina, A V Medvedeva
"Genetics of behavior," or "Neurogenetics," is based on the evolutionary ideas of T. Dobzhansky on brain development and behavior. It continues with the "experimental genetics of higher nervous activity" of I. Pavlov and uses a comparative approach in the study of heredity and variation in behavioral manifestations, from Protozoa to humans. The study of the classical Pavlovian conditioned reflex in mutant Drosophila helped to identify the main types of memory and their evolutionary conservatism. Long-term memory defects are caused by mutations of the same genes as in mental, retardation in humans, when signaling cascades intersecting with the cAMP-dependent pathway are damaged...
May 2015: Genetika
Sandra Murriello
Understanding the dialogue between museums and their visitors enables museums to subsist, undergo transformations and become consolidated as socially valued cultural venues. The Museo de La Plata (Argentina) was created in the late nineteenth century as a natural history museum, and this study shows that currently the museum is valued socially as a venue for family leisure and education, at which people make sense to the objects exhibited through characteristics conferred upon them by both the institution and the visitor...
January 2015: Public Understanding of Science
Louise Barrett, Thomas V Pollet, Gert Stulp
Does evolutionary theorizing have a role in psychology? This is a more contentious issue than one might imagine, given that, as evolved creatures, the answer must surely be yes. The contested nature of evolutionary psychology lies not in our status as evolved beings, but in the extent to which evolutionary ideas add value to studies of human behavior, and the rigor with which these ideas are tested. This, in turn, is linked to the framework in which particular evolutionary ideas are situated. While the framing of the current research topic places the brain-as-computer metaphor in opposition to evolutionary psychology, the most prominent school of thought in this field (born out of cognitive psychology, and often known as the Santa Barbara school) is entirely wedded to the computational theory of mind as an explanatory framework...
2014: Frontiers in Psychology
Antti Lepistö
This article revisits the left-wing response to sociobiology in the 1970s and 1980s by examining the sociobiology debate in Finland in a larger European context. It argues that the Finnish academic left's response to sociobiology represents a "third way" alongside the purely negative, often Marxist denial of biology's relevance, which characterized the left's response to sociobiology in many European countries such as Hungary and Sweden, and alongside the disregard that sociobiology confronted in most parts of Eastern Europe, as well as in Germany...
2015: Journal of the History of Biology
Jinming Hu, Shiyong Liu
CONSPECTUS: All living organisms and soft matter are intrinsically responsive and adaptive to external stimuli. Inspired by this fact, tremendous effort aiming to emulate subtle responsive features exhibited by nature has spurred the invention of a diverse range of responsive polymeric materials. Conventional stimuli-responsive polymers are constructed via covalent bonds and can undergo reversible or irreversible changes in chemical structures, physicochemical properties, or both in response to a variety of external stimuli...
July 15, 2014: Accounts of Chemical Research
Dave van Ditmarsch, Joao B Xavier
Darwin's theory of natural selection is among the most powerful ideas in science, yet evolutionary ideas remain challenged to this day. This is in part because evolution often cannot be directly observed. Simple experiments with microbes can change that by enabling direct observation of evolutionary processes.
January 2014: Trends in Microbiology
Kenneth Blum, Marlene Oscar-Berman, Abdalla Bowirrat, John Giordano, Margaret Madigan, Eric R Braverman, Debmayla Barh, Mary Hauser, Joan Borsten, Thomas Simpatico
Mindful of the new evolutionary ideas related to an emerging scientific focus known as omics, we propose that spiritual, social, and political behaviors may be tied in part to inheritable reward gene polymorphisms, as has been demonstrated for the addictions. If so, analyses of gene polymorphisms may assist in predicting liberalism or conservatism in partisan attachments. For example, both drinking (alcohol) and obesity seem to cluster in large social networks and are influenced by friends having the same genotype, in particular the DRD2 A1 allele...
April 13, 2012: Journal of Genetic Syndrome & Gene Therapy
Lei Yin, James Scott-Browne, John W Kappler, Laurent Gapin, Philippa Marrack
T cells bearing receptors made up of α and β chains (TCRs) usually react with peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex proteins (MHC). This bias could be imposed by positive selection, the phenomenon that selects thymocytes to mature into T cells only if the TCRs they bear react with low but appreciable affinity with MHC + peptide combinations in the thymus cortex. However, it is also possible that the polypeptides of TCRs themselves do not have random specificities but rather are biased toward reaction with MHC...
November 2012: Immunological Reviews
Daniel Nettle
The theory of evolution is poorly understood in the population at large, even by those with some science education. The recurrent misunderstandings can be partly attributed to failure to distinguish between processes which individual organisms undergo and those which populations undergo. They may be so pervasive because we usually explain evolutionary ideas with examples from non-human animals, and our everyday cognition about animals does not track individuals as distinct from the species to which they belong...
2010: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
Richard Bellon
Charles Darwin hoped that a large body of working naturalists would embrace evolution after the Origin of Species appeared in late 1859. He was disappointed. His evolutionary ideas at first made painfully little progress in the scientific community. But by 1863 the tide had turned dramatically, and within five years evolution became scientific orthodoxy in Britain. The Origin's reception followed this peculiar trajectory because Darwin had not initially tied its theory to productive original scientific investigation, which left him vulnerable to charges of reckless speculation...
September 2011: Isis; An International Review Devoted to the History of Science and its Cultural Influences
V Bernal, L H Luna
The aim of this paper is to conduct a historical analysis of the research-oriented studies related to dental anthropology in Argentina, evaluate its current state and discuss future expectations and perspectives. In this country, anthropological studies based on analysis of dentition have been scarce and even temporarily discontinued, since they began in the late nineteenth century, simply following the course of the predominant theoretical and methodological approaches over time. Early papers, guided mainly by evolutionary ideas, were oriented towards establishing the taxonomic position of humans through the description and comparison of morphological and morphometric aspects of the dental crown and root...
October 2011: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
Chris Renwick
Ever since they began to be widely discussed during the early nineteenth century, evolutionary ideas have played a controversial role in debates about politics and social reform. Understanding the political commitments of those who have sought to integrate politics and evolution is a complex challenge, though; not least because memories of mid-twentieth-century eugenic policies have frequently shaped how we talk about biosocial science. However, as the case of the Scottish biologist-turned-town-planner Patrick Geddes highlights, while we need to be aware of the broad appeal that biosocial science has historically held, we also need to recognise that current political categories can be misleading when thinking about those of who have put evolution and politics together...
December 2010: Endeavour
Francisco Carrapiço
When new entities are formed by the integration of individual organisms, these new entities possess characteristics which go beyond the sum of the individual properties of each element of the association, resulting in the development of new attributes and capacities as an integrated whole. In this process, these new entities also agglutinate and dynamize synergies not present in the individual organisms. In this sense, evolution is a dynamic process that evolves not in the way of perfection or progress, but in the way of adaptation to new conditions...
September 2010: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
Michael M Sokal
In 1877, only about three Americans knew anything of the new psychology then emerging in central Europe. But only 40 years later, this new psychology and its practitioners played a major role in the U.S. effort during the Great War. This article traces the origins and early evolution of this new science in the United States. It opens with a review of the American social, cultural and intellectual setting ca. 1880. It thus addresses such forces: as demographic, industrial, and religious change; the declining status of the long-influential Scottish Common-Sense Realist philosophy; the continuing impact of Baconian thought, of phrenology, and of spiritualism; the growing influence of Comtean and evolutionary ideas; and the rise of American universities...
2006: Physis; Rivista Internazionale di Storia Della Scienza
Margaret H Peaslee, Vitezslav Orel
Abstract: A philosopher and teacher, F. M. (Ladimir) Klacel (1808-1882), educated in what is now the Czech Republic, developed his own explanation for the origin and interaction of living organisms. Klácel, a member of the Augustinian Monastery in Brno, influenced his younger colleague, Friar Gregor Mendel, who went on to formulate concepts in heredity that are still recognized for their profound insight. A mutual interest in the natural sciences of these two friends provided a basis for their discussions of the relationship between religion, evolution, and society...
June 2007: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
Nicholas Gatward
Anorexia nervosa (AN) has proven difficult to explain and is especially so from an evolutionary perspective. It is widespread, has probably existed for centuries and includes a genetic component but leads to starvation, infertility and sometimes death. An attempt to explain AN will be made using a synthesis of evolutionary ideas about responses to threat. Dietary restriction is described as a response to perceived threats of exclusion from the group, which would once have been dangerous. This can develop into AN only where the weight loss sets off an ancient adaptive response to the threat of famine...
January 2007: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
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