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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935999/integrating-a-biorepository-into-the-national-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-registry
#1
D Kevin Horton, Wendy Kaye, Laurie Wagner
As part of our continuing effort to highlight innovative approaches to improving the health and environment of communities, the Journal is pleased to publish a bimonthly column from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). ATSDR is a federal public health agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and shares a common office of the Director with the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). ATSDR serves the public by using the best science, taking responsive public health actions, and providing trusted health information to prevent harmful exposures and diseases related to toxic substances...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934127/removal-of-phenolic-compounds-from-water-using-sewage-sludge-based-activated-carbon-adsorption-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Nuhu Dalhat Mu'azu, Nabeel Jarrah, Mukarram Zubair, Omar Alagha
Due to their industrial relevance, phenolic compounds (PC) are amongst the most common organic pollutants found in many industrial wastewater effluents. The potential detrimental health and environmental impacts of PC necessitate their removal from wastewater to meet regulatory discharge standards to ensure meeting sustainable development goals. In recent decades, one of the promising, cost-effective and environmentally benign techniques for removal of PC from water streams has been adsorption onto sewage sludge (SS)-based activated carbon (SBAC)...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933191/dementia-friendly-initiatives-a-state-of-the-science-review
#3
Catherine A Hebert, Kezia Scales
Background Dementia friendly initiatives share similarities with the age-friendly movement in a focus on active engagement and creating a good quality of life for older adults. Dementia friendly initiatives offer a welcoming optimistic narrative in dementia studies by embracing dignity, empowerment, and autonomy to enable well-being throughout the dementia trajectory. Purpose The purpose of this review is to explore the current science of dementia friendly initiatives, identify gaps, and inform future research...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930298/comparison-of-questionnaire-based-estimation-of-pesticide-residue-intake-from-fruits-and-vegetables-with-urinary-concentrations-of-pesticide-biomarkers
#4
Yu-Han Chiu, Paige L Williams, Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón, Matthew Gillman, Qi Sun, Maria Ospina, Antonia M Calafat, Russ Hauser, Jorge E Chavarro
We developed a pesticide residue burden score (PRBS) based on a food frequency questionnaire and surveillance data on food pesticide residues to characterize dietary exposure over the past year. In the present study, we evaluated the association of the PRBS with urinary concentrations of pesticide biomarkers. Fruit and vegetable (FV) intake was classified as having high (PRBS≥4) or low (PRBS<4) pesticide residues for 90 men from the EARTH study. Two urine samples per man were analyzed for seven biomarkers of organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides, and the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930297/estimated-radiation-exposure-of-german-commercial-airline-cabin-crew-in-the-years-1960-2003-modeled-using-dose-registry-data-for-2004-2015
#5
Daniel Wollschläger, Gaël Paul Hammer, Thomas Schafft, Steffen Dreger, Maria Blettner, Hajo Zeeb
Exposure to ionizing radiation of cosmic origin is an occupational risk factor in commercial aircrew. In a historic cohort of 26,774 German aircrew, radiation exposure was previously estimated only for cockpit crew using a job-exposure matrix (JEM). Here, a new method for retrospectively estimating cabin crew dose is developed. The German Federal Radiation Registry (SSR) documents individual monthly effective doses for all aircrew. SSR-provided doses on 12,941 aircrew from 2004 to 2015 were used to model cabin crew dose as a function of age, sex, job category, solar activity, and male pilots' dose; the mean annual effective dose was 2...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930296/the-verified-neighbor-approach-to-geoprivacy-an-improved-method-for-geographic-masking
#6
Wayne Richter
Geographic information adds a powerful component to environmental epidemiology studies but can compromise subject confidentiality. Although locations are often masked by perturbing spatial coordinates, existing masks do not ensure that the perturbation area contains a sufficient number of valid surrogates to prevent disclosure, nor are they designed to minimize perturbation while maintaining a specified level of privacy. I introduce a new approach to geoprivacy in which real property parcel data with information about land use are used to develop a pool of verified neighbors...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927536/reflections-on-a-career-and-on-the-history-of-genetic-toxicity-testing-in-the-national-toxicology-program
#7
Errol Zeiger
One of the highly visible aspects of the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) has been its genetic toxicity testing program, which has been responsible for testing, and making publicly available, in vitro and in vivo test data on thousands of chemicals since 1979. What is less well known, however, is that this NTP program had its origin in two separate testing programs that were initiated independently at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) before the NTP was established...
July 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925170/-analysis-of-projects-funded-by-nsfc-in-field-of-chinese-material-medica-resource-in-recent-three-years
#8
Wei Gao, Shu-Zhen Guo, Li-Wei Han, Feng-Zhu Zhang
The paper reviewed the sponsorship and final reports of projects focus on Science of Chinese materia medica resource in Medical Science Department, National Natural Science Foundation of China. The applicant and supportive organizations were analyzed. The progress and results of some projects were summarized by research fields including formation mechanism of Dao-di herbs, research of plant taxonomy, breeding and cultivation of medical plants, ecological and environmental adaptability of Chinese materia medica resource, quality assessment of Chinese materia medica resource, and biosynthesis and regulation of active compounds...
October 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923730/kinetics-analysis-of-interfacial-electron-transfer-processes-in-goethite-suspensions-systems
#9
Jianzhong Ma, Chengzhu Zhu, Jun Lu, Bin Ouyang, Qiaoqin Xie, Haibo Liu, Shuchuan Peng, Tianhu Chen
The photochemical behavior of goethite has been one of the most important topics in the field of environmental science due to it plays a significant role in the removal and transformation process of numerous pollutants. However, the interfacial electron transfer process of goethite is not clear. Using a nanosecond laser flash photolysis spectrometer, we report the transient spectroscopic observations of interfacial electron-transfer reactions in goethite dispersion under UV irradiation. Excitation of goethite generated conduction-band electron (ecb(-)) and hole (h(+))...
September 7, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923143/validation-of-the-cognition-test-battery-for-spaceflight-in-a-sample-of-highly-educated-adults
#10
Tyler M Moore, Mathias Basner, Jad Nasrini, Emanuel Hermosillo, Sushila Kabadi, David R Roalf, Sarah McGuire, Adrian J Ecker, Kosha Ruparel, Allison M Port, Chad T Jackson, David F Dinges, Ruben C Gur
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychological changes that may occur due to the environmental and psychological stressors of prolonged spaceflight motivated the development of the Cognition Test Battery. The battery was designed to assess multiple domains of neurocognitive functions linked to specific brain systems. Tests included in Cognition have been validated, but not in high-performing samples comparable to astronauts, which is an essential step toward ensuring their usefulness in long-duration space missions...
October 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921802/environmental-dna-metabarcoding-transforming-how-we-survey-animal-and-plant-communities
#11
Kristy Deiner, Holly M Bik, Elvira Mächler, Mathew Seymour, Anaïs Lacoursière-Roussel, Florian Altermatt, Simon Creer, Iliana Bista, David M Lodge, Natasha de Vere, Michael E Pfrender, Louis Bernatchez
The genomic revolution has fundamentally changed how we survey biodiversity on earth. High-throughput sequencing ('HTS') platforms now enable the rapid sequencing of DNA from diverse kinds of environmental samples (termed 'environmental DNA' or 'eDNA'). Coupling HTS with our ability to associate sequences from eDNA with a taxonomic name is called 'eDNA metabarcoding' and offers a powerful molecular tool capable of non-invasively surveying species richness from many ecosystems. Here, we review the use of eDNA metabarcoding for surveying animal and plant richness, and the challenges in using eDNA approaches to estimate relative abundance...
September 16, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921005/barriers-and-solutions-to-conducting-large-international-interdisciplinary-research-projects
#12
Erin C Pischke, Jessie L Knowlton, Colin C Phifer, Jose Gutierrez Lopez, Tamara S Propato, Amarella Eastmond, Tatiana Martins de Souza, Mark Kuhlberg, Valentin Picasso Risso, Santiago R Veron, Carlos Garcia, Marta Chiappe, Kathleen E Halvorsen
Global environmental problems such as climate change are not bounded by national borders or scientific disciplines, and therefore require international, interdisciplinary teamwork to develop understandings of their causes and solutions. Interdisciplinary scientific work is difficult enough, but these challenges are often magnified when teams also work across national boundaries. The literature on the challenges of interdisciplinary research is extensive. However, research on international, interdisciplinary teams is nearly non-existent...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918526/coupling-population-dynamics-with-earth-system-models-the-popem-model
#13
Andrés Navarro, Raúl Moreno, Alfonso Jiménez-Alcázar, Francisco J Tapiador
Precise modeling of CO2 emissions is important for environmental research. This paper presents a new model of human population dynamics that can be embedded into ESMs (Earth System Models) to improve climate modeling. Through a system dynamics approach, we develop a cohort-component model that successfully simulates historical population dynamics with fine spatial resolution (about 1°×1°). The population projections are used to improve the estimates of CO2 emissions, thus transcending the bulk approach of existing models and allowing more realistic non-linear effects to feature in the simulations...
September 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917735/trace-analysis-of-nitrite-ions-in-environmental-samples-by-using-in-situ-synthesized-zein-biopolymeric-nanoparticles-as-the-novel-green-solid-phase-extractor
#14
Amir Hatamie, Mahmoud Nassiri, Meghdad Doust Alivand, Amit Bhatnagar
For the first time, a novel green method using Zein biopolymeric nanoparticles as a green dispersive solid-phase extractor is reported for the separation and preconcentration of trace amount of nitrite (NO2(-)) ions in ppb levels. The Zein protein is a biodegradable hydrophobic plant protein that is obtained from corn and is composed of a number of hydrophobic amino acids. Zein bionanoparticles were synthesized in an anti-solvent process and used as a new biosorbent in the extraction technique. In the proposed technique, by using a standard method at first, a mixture of 1-naphthylamine and sulphanilic acid as selective regents was added to the samples, and in the presence of the nitrite ion, a red azo product was formed...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915935/secondary-ion-mass-spectrometry-the-application-in-the-analysis-of-atmospheric-particulate-matter
#15
REVIEW
Di Huang, Xin Hua, Guang-Li Xiu, Yong-Jie Zheng, Xiao-Ying Yu, Yi-Tao Long
Currently, considerable attention has been paid to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) investigation due to its importance in human health and global climate change. Surface characterization, single particle analysis and depth profiling of PM is important for a better understanding of its formation processes and predicting its impact on the environment and human being. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is a surface technique with high surface sensitivity, high spatial resolution chemical imaging and unique depth profiling capabilities...
October 9, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915462/abundance-of-large-old-trees-in-wood-pastures-of-transylvania-romania
#16
Tibor Hartel, Jan Hanspach, Cosmin I Moga, Lucian Holban, Árpád Szapanyos, Réka Tamás, Csaba Hováth, Kinga-Olga Réti
Wood-pastures are special types of agroforestry systems that integrate trees with livestock grazing. Wood pastures can be hotspots for large old tree abundance and have exceptional natural values; but they are declining all over Europe. While presence of large old trees in wood-pastures can provide arguments for their maintenance, actual data on their distribution and abundance are sparse. Our study is the first to survey large old trees in Eastern Europe over such a large area. We surveyed 97 wood-pastures in Transylvania (Romania) in order to (i) provide a descriptive overview of the large old tree abundance; and (ii) to explore the environmental determinants of the abundance and persistence of large old trees in wood-pastures...
September 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912823/assessment-of-environmental-attitudes-and-risk-perceptions-among-university-students-in-mersin-turkey
#17
Gulcin Yapici, Oya Ögenler, Ahmet Öner Kurt, Fazıl Koçaş, Tayyar Şaşmaz
BACKGROUND: Environmental destruction is one of the most important problems in this century. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the environmental attitudes and perceived risks associated with environmental factors of the students. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 7 faculties of Mersin University. The research data were collected using a questionnaire. The questionnaire included sociodemographic characteristics, the "Environmental Attitudes Scale," and the "Environmental Risk Perception Scale...
2017: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910990/the-contribution-of-genetics-and-environment-to-obesity
#18
David Albuquerque, Clévio Nóbrega, Licínio Manco, Cristina Padez
Background: Obesity is a global health problem mainly attributed to lifestyle changes such as diet, low physical activity or socioeconomics factors. However, several evidences consistently showed that genetics contributes significantly to the weight-gain susceptibility. Sources of data: A systematic literature search of most relevant original, review and meta-analysis, restricted to English was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science and Google scholar up to May 2017 concerning the contribution of genetics and environmental factors to obesity...
September 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903553/monitoring-microbial-mineralization-using-reverse-stable-isotope-labelling-analysis-by-mid-infrared-laser-spectroscopy
#19
Xiyang Dong, Maik A Jochmann, Martin Elsner, Armin H Meyer, Leonard E Bäcker, Mona Rahmatullah, Daniel Schunk, Guido Lens, Rainer Udo Meckenstock
Assessing the biodegradation of organic compounds is a frequent question in environmental science. Here, we present a sensitive, inexpensive, and simple approach to monitor microbial mineralization using reverse stable isotope labelling analysis (RIL) of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The medium for the biodegradation assay contains regular organic compounds and (13)C-labelled DIC with (13)C atom fractions (x((13)C)DIC) higher than natural abundance (typically 2-50%). The produced CO2 (x((13)C) ≈ 1.11%) gradually dilutes the initial x((13)C)DIC allowing to quantify microbial mineralization using mass-balance calculations...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902513/co-existence-of-physisorbed-and-solvated-hcl-at-warm-ice-surfaces
#20
Xiangrui Kong, Astrid Waldner, Fabrizio Orlando, Luca Artiglia, Thomas Huthwelker, Markus Ammann, Thorsten Bartels-Rausch
The interfacial ionization of strong acids is an essential factor of multi-phase and heterogeneous chemistry in environmental science, crysophereic science, catalysis research and material science. We investigate the mechanism of HCl dissociation at the ice surface using surface-sensitive ambient-pressure core level X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. At 253 K and low surface coverage, adsorbed HCl is found in both states, molecular and dissociated. Depth profiles derived from XPS data clearly show that the dissociated acid is found deeper in the interfacial region compared to the molecular form...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
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