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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333174/a-quantitative-framework-for-assessing-ecological-resilience
#1
Didier L Baho, Craig R Allen, Ahjond S Garmestani, Hannah B Fried-Petersen, Sophia E Renes, Lance H Gunderson, David G Angeler
Quantitative approaches to measure and assess resilience are needed to bridge gaps between science, policy and management. In this paper, we revisit definitions of resilience and suggest a quantitative framework for assessing ecological resilience sensu Holling (1973). Ecological resilience as an emergent ecosystem phenomenon can be decomposed into complementary attributes (scales, adaptive capacity, thresholds and alternative regimes) that embrace the complexity inherent to ecosystems. Quantifying these attributes simultaneously provides opportunities to move from the assessment of specific resilience within an ecosystem towards a broader measurement of its general resilience...
September 1, 2017: Ecology and Society: a Journal of Integrative Science for Resilience and Sustainability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332786/recent-advances-and-developments-on-integrating-nanotechnology-with-chemiluminescence-assays
#2
REVIEW
Ashish Tiwari, S J Dhoble
Chemiluminescence (CL) techniques are extensively utilized for detection of analytes due to their high sensitivity, rapidity and selectivity. With the advent of nanotechnology and incorporation of the nanoparticles in the CL system has revolutionized the assays due to their unique optical and mechanical properties. Several CL-based reactions have been developed where these nanoparticle based CL sensors have evolved as excellent prospects for sensing in various analytical applications. This review article addresses the nanoparticles based CL detection system that are recently developed, the mechanisms has been summarized and the role of luminophors have been discussed...
April 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332417/-concise-history-of-toxicology-from-empiric-knowledge-to-science
#3
Anna Tompa, Péter Balázs
Toxicology is a science of poisonings by xenobiotics and endogenous physiological changes. Its empiric roots may be traced back to the emerging of the human race because the most important pledge of our predecessors' survival was the differentiation between eatable and poisonous plants and animals. In the course of social evolution, there were three main fields of using poisons: 1) hunting and warfare, 2) to settle social tensions by avoiding military conflicts through hiding strategy of eliminating enemies by toxic substances, 3) medicines applied first as anti-poisons and later by introducing strong substances to defeat diseases, but paradoxically active euthanasia is also a part of the whole story...
January 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329288/soil-transmitted-helminth-infection-loss-of-education-and-cognitive-impairment-in-school-aged-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Noel Pabalan, Eloisa Singian, Lani Tabangay, Hamdi Jarjanazi, Michael J Boivin, Amara E Ezeamama
BACKGROUND: Evidence of an adverse influence of soil transmitted helminth (STH) infections on cognitive function and educational loss is equivocal. Prior meta-analyses have focused on randomized controlled trials only and have not sufficiently explored the potential for disparate influence of STH infection by cognitive domain. We re-examine the hypothesis that STH infection is associated with cognitive deficit and educational loss using data from all primary epidemiologic studies published between 1992 and 2016...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328864/building-evidence-for-health-green-buildings-current-science-and-future-challenges
#5
J G Cedeño-Laurent, A Williams, P MacNaughton, X Cao, E Eitland, J Spengler, J Allen
Civilizational challenges have questioned the status quo of energy and material consumption by humans. From the built environment perspective, a response to these challenges was the creation of green buildings. Although the revolutionary capacity of the green building movement has elevated the expectations of new commercial construction, its rate of implementation has secluded the majority of the population from its benefits. Beyond reductions in energy usage and increases in market value, the main strength of green buildings may be the procurement of healthier building environments...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328810/shelf-life-of-food-products-from-open-labeling-to-real-time-measurements
#6
Maria G Corradini
The labels currently used on food and beverage products only provide consumers with a rough guide to their expected shelf lives because they assume that a product only experiences a limited range of predefined handling and storage conditions. These static labels do not take into consideration conditions that might shorten a product's shelf life (such as temperature abuse), which can lead to problems associated with food safety and waste. Advances in shelf-life estimation have the potential to improve the safety, reliability, and sustainability of the food supply...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322390/authentication-of-synthetic-environmental-contaminants-and-their-bio-transformation-products-in-toxicology-polychlorinated-biphenyls-as-an-example
#7
Xueshu Li, Erika B Holland, Wei Feng, Jing Zheng, Yao Dong, Isaac N Pessah, Michael W Duffel, Larry W Robertson, Hans-Joachim Lehmler
Toxicological studies use "specialty chemicals" and, thus, should assess and report both identity and degree of purity (homogeneity) of the chemicals (or toxicants) under investigation to ensure that other scientists can replicate experimental results. Although detailed reporting criteria for the synthesis and characterization of organic compounds have been established by organic chemistry journals, such criteria are inconsistently applied to the chemicals used in toxicological studies. Biologically active trace impurities may lead to incorrect conclusions about the chemical entity responsible for a biological response, which in turn may confound risk assessment...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322155/can-the-stockholm-convention-address-the-spectrum-of-chemicals-currently-under-regulatory-scrutiny-advocating-a-more-prominent-role-for-modeling-in-pop-screening-assessment
#8
Michael S McLachlan
Frameworks for chemical regulation are based on the science at the time they were written. Today some regulations are being applied to a much broader spectrum of chemicals than we had knowledge of when the regulations were written. This entails a risk that the regulations are being used outside of their chemical application domain. This question is explored using the POP screening assessment in the Stockholm convention, which was developed 20 years ago. Using perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) as an example, it is shown that the assessment can lead to false negative conclusions...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316318/a-perspective-review-on-the-materials-and-mechanisms-of-photo-assisted-chemical-reactions-under-light-and-dark-can-it-be-called-as-day-night-photocatalysis
#9
Sakar Mohan, Nguyen Chinh-Chien, Vu Manh-Hiep, Trong-On Do
The photo-assisted catalytic reaction, conventionally known as photocatalysis, is blooming into the field of energy and environmental applications. It is widely known that the discovery of TiO2-assited photochemical reactions has led to achieve several unique applications such as degradation of pollutants in water and air, hydrogen production through water splitting, fuel conversion, cancer treatment, anti-bacterial activity, self-cleaning glasses and concrete, etc. These multifaceted applications of this phenomenon can be enriched and expanded further if this process is equipped with more tools and functions...
January 8, 2018: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314832/oligonucleotide-peptide-complexes-phase-control-by-hybridization
#10
Jeffrey R Vieregg, Michael Lueckheide, Amanda Brittany Marciel, Lorraine Leon, Alex J Bologna, Josean Reyes Rivera, Matthew V Tirrell
When oppositely-charged polymers are mixed, counterion release drives phase separation; understanding this process is a key unsolved problem in polymer science and biophysical chemistry, particularly for nucleic acids, polyanions whose biological functions are intimately related to their high charge density. In the cell, complexation by basic proteins condenses DNA into chromatin, and membraneless organelles formed by liquid-liquid phase separation of RNA and proteins perform vital functions and have been linked to disease...
January 9, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314746/integrative-review-of-the-intersection-of-green-space-and-neighborhood-violence
#11
Gibran C Mancus, Jacquelyn Campbell
PURPOSE: To systematically analyze evidence about the impact of green space on the perception and actual safety of residents of urban neighborhoods. DESIGN AND ORGANIZING CONSTRUCT: Systematic review of green space and violence based on Broome review criteria. METHODS: One landmark study prompted the initial hand search and identification of search terms. Twenty-three quantitative, five qualitative, and two mixed-methods studies were found in the urban planning, public health, medical, and psychological literature that met the following criteria: analyzed green space and violence as factors in the perception of safety as an outcome measure, including action taken by being outside for recreation, exercise, or self-report in the survey...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314556/barriers-and-reinforcing-factors-to-self-management-behaviour-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-a-qualitative-study
#12
M Chaleshgar-Kordasiabi, B Enjezab, M Akhlaghi, I Sabzmakan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to explore the view of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients about the barriers and reinforcing factors in practising self-management behaviour (SMB). METHODS: This was a qualitative study based on directed content analysis of in-depth semi-structured interviews with 30 patients. The participants were selected using a purposeful sampling approach. The interviews continued until data saturation was reached. The study was conducted over 6 months in 2014-2015 at the Rheumatology Clinic of Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran...
January 5, 2018: Musculoskeletal Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302268/time-capsules-in-natural-sediment-archives-tracking-phytoplankton-population-genetic-diversity-and-adaptation-over-multidecadal-timescales-in-the-face-of-environmental-change
#13
REVIEW
Marianne Ellegaard, Anna Godhe, Sofia Ribeiro
Undisturbed records of resting stages produced in the past and stored in coastal sediments are very valuable to science, because they may provide unique insights into past evolutionary and ecological trajectories. Within marine phytoplankton, multidecadal time series of monoclonal strains germinated from resting stages have been established for diatoms (Skeletonema marinoi) and dinoflagellates (Pentapharsodinium dalei), spanning ca. a century. Phenotypic and genotypic analyses of these time series have revealed effects of past environmental changes on population genetic structure...
January 2018: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299878/talent-identification-and-development-in-male-football-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Hugo Sarmento, M Teresa Anguera, Antonino Pereira, Duarte Araújo
BACKGROUND: Expertise has been extensively studied in several sports over recent years. The specificities of how excellence is achieved in Association Football, a sport practiced worldwide, are being repeatedly investigated by many researchers through a variety of approaches and scientific disciplines. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to identify and synthesise the most significant literature addressing talent identification and development in football. We identified the most frequently researched topics and characterised their methodologies...
January 3, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299754/survey-on-using-ethical-principles-in-environmental-field-research-with-place-based-communities
#15
Dianne Quigley, Alana Levine, David A Sonnenfeld, Phil Brown, Qing Tian, Xiaofan Wei
Researchers of the Northeast Ethics Education Partnership (NEEP) at Brown University sought to improve an understanding of the ethical challenges of field researchers with place-based communities in environmental studies/sciences and environmental health by disseminating a questionnaire which requested information about their ethical approaches to these researched communities. NEEP faculty sought to gain actual field guidance to improve research ethics and cultural competence training for graduate students and faculty in environmental sciences/studies...
January 3, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298581/plurality-in-understandings-of-innovation-sociotechnical-progress-and-sustainable-development-an-analysis-of-oecd-expert-narratives
#16
Paulo Savaget, Liliana Acero
Deterministic theory and discourse on sociotechnical progress ignore the existence of multiple and equally viable pathways towards progress, obscure socioeconomic and environmental conflicting interests and values, and overshadow socially inclusive deliberative choices about policy strategies. Demystifying techno-determinism, by incorporating a plurality of understandings to policy appraisal, becomes a matter of not only democratic accountability but also of analytical rigour. This article analyses the normative and ontological understandings on scientific and technological pathways among a group of experts interviewed at one key Directorate of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, using Q-methodology...
March 1, 2017: Public Understanding of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298093/the-search-for-hesperian-organic-matter-on-mars-pyrolysis-studies-of-sediments-rich-in-sulfur-and-iron
#17
James M T Lewis, Jens Najorka, Jonathan S Watson, Mark A Sephton
Jarosite on Mars is of significant geological and astrobiological interest, as it forms in acidic aqueous conditions that are potentially habitable for acidophilic organisms. Jarosite can provide environmental context and may host organic matter. The most common extraction technique used to search for organic compounds on the surface of Mars is pyrolysis. However, thermal decomposition of jarosite releases oxygen into pyrolysis ovens, which degrades organic signals. Jarosite has a close association with the iron oxyhydroxide goethite in many depositional/diagenetic environments...
January 3, 2018: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297669/in-situ-real-time-mechanical-and-morphological-characterization-of-electrodes-for-electrochemical-energy-storage-and-conversion-by-electrochemical-quartz-crystal-microbalance-with-dissipation-monitoring
#18
Netanel Shpigel, Mikhael D Levi, Sergey Sigalov, Leonid Daikhin, Doron Aurbach
Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) generates surface-acoustic waves in quartz crystal plates that can effectively probe the structure of films, particulate composite electrodes of complex geometry rigidly attached to quartz crystal surface on one side and contacting a gas or liquid phase on the other side. The output QCM-D characteristics consist of the resonance frequency (MHz frequency range) and resonance bandwidth measured with extra-ordinary precision of a few tenths of Hz...
January 3, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295718/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-on-schistosoma-mansoni-infection-prevalence-and-associated-risk-factors-in-brazil
#19
Maria Teresinha Gomes Casavechia, Gessilda de Alcântara Nogueira de Melo, Andrea Claudia Bekner Da Silva Fernandes, Karin Reinhold De Castro, Raissa Bocchi Pedroso, Thaís Da Silva Santos, Jorge Juarez Vieira Teixeira
We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on the prevalence and factors associated with Schistosoma mansoni infection in Brazil. We searched the PubMed, Web of Science and Latin-American and Caribbean System on Health Sciences Information (LILACS) databases, scientific publications articles, according to The PRISMA Statement, from 2000 to 2016. A total of 27 studies were included according to the established criteria. The prevalence of S. mansoni infection varied widely, from 0·1 to 73·1%, based on Kato-Katz technique...
January 3, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289816/electrochemical-sensor-and-biosensor-platforms-based-on-advanced-nanomaterials-for-biological-and-biomedical-applications
#20
REVIEW
Govindhan Maduraiveeran, Manickam Sasidharan, Vellaichamy Ganesan
Introduction of novel functional nanomaterials and analytical technologies signify a foremost possibility for the advance of electrochemical sensor and biosensor platforms/devices for a broad series of applications including biological, biomedical, biotechnological, clinical and medical diagnostics, environmental and health monitoring, and food industries. The design of sensitive and selective electrochemical biological sensor platforms are accomplished conceivably by offering new surface modifications, microfabrication techniques, and diverse nanomaterials with unique properties for in vivo and in vitro medical analysis via relating a sensibly planned electrode/solution interface...
December 22, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
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