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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790946/a-microbial-endocrinology-based-simulated-small-intestinal-medium-for-the-evaluation-of-neurochemical-production-by-gut-microbiota
#1
Daniel N Villageliú, Sharon Rasmussen, Mark Lyte
Microbial endocrinology represents the union of microbiology and neurobiology and is concerned with the ability of neurochemicals to serve as an evolutionary-based language between host and microbiota in health and disease. The recognition that microorganisms produce, modify and respond to the same neurochemicals utilized in the various signaling pathways of their mammalian hosts is increasingly being recognized as a mechanism by which the host and microbiota may interact to influence the progression of infectious disease as well as influence behavior through the microbiota-gut-brain axis...
May 21, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790554/construction-of-dual-functional-polymer-nanomaterials-with-near-infrared-fluorescence-imaging-and-polymer-prodrug-by-raft-mediated-aqueous-dispersion-polymerization
#2
Chun Tian, Jinyun Niu, Xuerui Wei, Yujie Xu, Lifen Zhang, Zhenping Cheng, Xiulin Zhu
The performance of functional polymer nanomaterials is a vigorously discussed topic in polymer science. We devoted ourselves to investigating polymer nanomaterials based on near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging and polymer prodrug in this study. Aza-boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) is an important organic dye, having characteristics such as environmental resistance, light resistance, high molar extinction coefficient, and fluorescence quantum yield. We incorporated it into our target monomer, which can be polymerized without changing its parent structure in a polar solvent and copolymerized with water-soluble monomer to improve the solubility of the dye in an aqueous solution...
May 23, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787707/pulmonary-neuroendocrine-cells-sensors-and-sentinels-of-the-lung
#3
Yoshihiko Kobayashi, Purushothama Rao Tata
Organisms have developed cellular "antennas" to sense, interpret, and integrate environmental stimuli. In a recent issue of Science, Sui et al. (2018) demonstrate that discrete clusters of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells in the lung can sense airborne allergens and relay signals to stimulate immune cells and induce tissue/organ-wide responses.
May 21, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782994/structural-covariance-of-brain-region-volumes-is-associated-with-both-structural-connectivity-and-transcriptomic-similarity
#4
Yohan Yee, Darren J Fernandes, Leon French, Jacob Ellegood, Lindsay S Cahill, Dulcie A Vousden, Leigh Spencer Noakes, Jan Scholz, Matthijs C van Eede, Brian J Nieman, John G Sled, Jason P Lerch
An organizational pattern seen in the brain, termed structural covariance, is the statistical association of pairs of brain regions in their anatomical properties. These associations, measured across a population as covariances or correlations usually in cortical thickness or volume, are thought to reflect genetic and environmental underpinnings. Here, we examine the biological basis of structural volume covariance in the mouse brain. We first examined large scale associations between brain region volumes using an atlas-based approach that parcellated the entire mouse brain into 318 regions over which correlations in volume were assessed, for volumes obtained from 153 mouse brain images via high-resolution MRI...
May 18, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780469/tailored-metastable-ce-zr-oxides-with-highly-distorted-lattice-oxygen-for-accelerating-redox-cycles
#5
Zhe Zhang, Jiafeng Yu, Jixin Zhang, Qingjie Ge, Hengyong Xu, Felix Dallmann, Roland Dittmeyer, Jian Sun
Ceria-based catalysts are widely used in oxidation or oxidation-reduction reactions in the field of environmental science. Their catalytic functions are determined by their ability to exchange oxygen species with oxidants. The enhancement of oxygen release is desired since it is often the rate-determining step in redox cycles. Herein, we developed a lattice oxygen distortion method to enhance oxygen activation by quenching the Ce-Zr oxide nanoparticles formed from an extremely high temperature. This process can ensure the formation of solid solutions as well as avoiding atomic rearrangement during calcination, retaining the lattice oxygen at a metastable and disordered state without vacancies...
April 7, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777041/evolving-role-of-diet-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Arie Levine, Rotem Sigall Boneh, Eytan Wine
Recent advances in basic and clinical science over the last 3 years have dramatically altered our appreciation of the role of diet in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The marked increase in incidence of these diseases along with the important role of non-genetic susceptibility among patients with IBD has highlighted that these diseases have a strong environmental component. Progress in the field of microbiome and IBD has demonstrated that microbiome appears to play an important role in pathogenesis, and that diet may in turn impact the composition and functionality of the microbiome...
May 18, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776743/tracing-environmental-exposure-from-neurodevelopment-to-neurodegeneration
#7
Amy L Heffernan, Dominic J Hare
Interplay between genetic and environmental factors during critical time windows can have effects that span from neurodevelopment to neurodegeneration. We present the concept of the 'neuroexposome', emphasizing the brain's distinctive response to environmental exposure, and how current 'omics' sciences can inform on both disease pathogenesis and future public health policies.
May 7, 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774547/petunia-as-model-for-elucidating-adventitious-root-formation-and-mycorrhizal-symbiosis-at-the-nexus-of-physiology-genetics-microbiology-and-horticulture
#8
Uwe Druege, Philipp Franken
Adventitious root formation in cuttings and establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis reflect the enormous plasticity of plants and are key factors in the efficient and sustainable clonal propagation and production of ornamental crops. Based on the high importance of Petunia hybrida for the European and US annual bedding plant markets and its suitability as a model for basic plant sciences, petunia has been established as an experimental system for elucidating the molecular and physiological processes underlying adventitious root formation and mycorrhizal symbiosis...
May 17, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770962/factors-influencing-arab-nursing-students-attitudes-toward-climate-change-and-environmental-sustainability-and-their-inclusion-in-nursing-curricula
#9
Jonas Preposi Cruz, Rhea Faye D Felicilda-Reynaldo, Farhan Alshammari, Nahed Alquwez, Jerico G Alicante, Khamees B Obaid, Hanan Ebrahim Abd El Aziz Rady, Mohammad Qtait, John Paul Ben T Silang
OBJECTIVE: To assess the factors influencing the attitudes of Bachelor of Science in Nursing students toward climate change and environmental sustainability and the inclusion of these concepts in the nursing curricula of four Arab countries. METHOD: A convenience sample of 1,059 students from four Arab countries was surveyed using the Environmental Sustainability Attitudes in Nursing Survey-2 (SANS-2) questionnaire in this descriptive-comparative study. RESULTS: The majority of the respondents exhibited positive attitudes toward the five items of SANS-2, with "Environmental sustainability is an important issue for nursing" receiving the lowest mean score and "Issues about climate change should be included in the nursing curriculum" receiving the highest mean score...
May 17, 2018: Public Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770324/one-health-integration-a-proposed-framework-for-a-study-on-veterinarians-and-zoonotic-disease-management-in-ghana
#10
Sophie Françoise Valeix
In parallel with the recent world-wide promotion of One Health (OH) as a policy concept, a growing body of social science studies has raised questions about how successful OH policies and programs have been in managing some global health issues, such as zoonotic diseases. This paper briefly reviews this literature to clarify its critical perspective. Much of the literature on OH also is focused on health management at an international level and has paid less attention to implementation programs and policies for OH at the national and local levels, especially in low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs)...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765565/the-rediscovery-of-the-social-side-of-medicine-philosophy-and-value-of-the-international-classification-of-functioning-disability-and-health-icf
#11
EDITORIAL
Wolfgang Seger
Medicine is at risk of sliding into a sole repair service for the malfunction of organs. But the patients' hope and confidence towards doctors practicing this repair work go far beyond that: after acute medical treatment many patients suffer from chronic impairments due to the natural course of the disease or as a result of medical interventions. Despite resulting handicaps, patients aim at participating in family and social life, retaining a workplace and receiving support to remain a valued member of the family and the community...
March 2018: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758084/outstanding-reviewers-for-environmental-science-processes-impacts-in-2017
#12
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 14, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755975/policy-led-comparative-environmental-risk-assessment-of-genetically-modified-crops-testing-for-increased-risk-rather-than-profiling-phenotypes-leads-to-predictable-and-transparent-decision-making
#13
Alan Raybould, Phil Macdonald
We describe two contrasting methods of comparative environmental risk assessment for genetically modified (GM) crops. Both are science-based, in the sense that they use science to help make decisions, but they differ in the relationship between science and policy. Policy-led comparative risk assessment begins by defining what would be regarded as unacceptable changes when the use a particular GM crop replaces an accepted use of another crop. Hypotheses that these changes will not occur are tested using existing or new data, and corroboration or falsification of the hypotheses is used to inform decision-making...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755928/the-effects-of-social-support-on-strenuous-physical-exercise
#14
Arran Davis, Emma Cohen
In humans, socio-environmental cues play an important role in determining adaptive psychophysiological states and behaviours. In sport and exercise, cues to cohesive groups and close, supportive relationships are ubiquitous, possibly because of their effects on neurobiological mechanisms underlying physical performance. Clinical research has shown that the presence of supportive others can lead to reductions in perceptions of pain, while research from sport and exercise science has shown that pain and physical fatigue occupy ranges on a single spectrum of physical discomfort, which works to regulate outputs during strenuous physical exertion...
2018: Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753929/best-practices-for-developmental-toxicity-assessment-for-classification-and-labeling
#15
George Daston, Aldert Piersma, Leonello Attias, Manon Beekhuijzen, Connie Chen, Jennifer Foreman, Nina Hallmark, Isabelle Leconte
Many chemicals are going through a hazard-based classification and labeling process in Europe. Because of the significant public health implications, the best science must be applied in assessing developmental toxicity data. The European Teratology Society and Health and Environmental Sciences Institute co-organized a workshop to consider best practices, including data quality and consistency, interpretation of developmental effects in the presence of maternal toxicity, human relevance of animal data, and limits of chemical classes...
May 10, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752734/partition-coefficients-of-methylated-dna-bases-obtained-from-free-energy-calculations-with-molecular-electron-density-derived-atomic-charges
#16
A Lara, M Riquelme, E Vöhringer-Martinez
Partition coefficients serve in various areas as pharmacology and environmental sciences to predict the hydrophobicity of different substances. Recently, they have also been used to address the accuracy of force fields for various organic compounds and specifically the methylated DNA bases. In this study, atomic charges were derived by different partitioning methods (Hirshfeld and Minimal Basis Iterative Stockholder) directly from the electron density obtained by electronic structure calculations in a vacuum, with an implicit solvation model or with explicit solvation taking the dynamics of the solute and the solvent into account...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751612/advice-and-frequently-asked-questions-faqs-for-citizen-science-environmental-health-assessments
#17
Timothy M Barzyk, Hongtai Huang, Ronald Williams, Amanda Kaufman, Jonathan Essoka
Citizen science provides quantitative results to support environmental health assessments (EHAs), but standardized approaches do not currently exist to translate findings into actionable solutions. The emergence of low-cost portable sensor technologies and proliferation of publicly available datasets provides unparalleled access to supporting evidence; yet data collection, analysis, interpretation, visualization, and communication are subjective approaches that must be tailored to a decision-making audience capable of improving environmental health...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751304/heavy-metal-loss-from-agricultural-watershed-to-aquatic-system-a-scientometrics-review
#18
REVIEW
Wei Ouyang, Yidi Wang, Chunye Lin, Mengchang He, Fanghua Hao, Hongbin Liu, Weihong Zhu
Heavy metal pollution in soil and aquatic environments has attracted widespread attention due to its persistence, accumulation in the food chain and negative effects on ecological and human health. However, analyses of the watershed-scale migration mechanisms of heavy metal loss from agricultural systems to aquatic systems have seldom been studied systematically. Therefore, this review summarizes the available data in the literature (2003-2017) using CiteSpace software to provide insights into the specific characteristics of heavy metal loss from agricultural watersheds to aquatic systems and consequently shows global development trends that scientists can use for establishing future research directions...
May 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748684/recent-advances-in-merging-photonic-crystals-and-plasmonics-for-bioanalytical-applications
#19
Bing Liu, Hosein Monshat, Zhongze Gu, Meng Lu, Xiangwei Zhao
Photonic crystals (PhCs) and plasmonic nanostructures offer the unprecedented capability to control the interaction of light and biomolecules at the nanoscale. Based on PhC and plasmonic phenomena, a variety of analytical techniques have been demonstrated and successfully implemented in many fields, such as biological sciences, clinical diagnosis, drug discovery, and environmental monitoring. During the past decades, PhC and plasmonic technologies have progressed in parallel with their pros and cons. The merging of photonic crystals with plasmonics will significantly improve biosensor performances and enlarge the linear detection range of analytical targets...
May 11, 2018: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746592/observing-vegetation-phenology-through-social-media
#20
Sam J Silva, Lindsay K Barbieri, Andrea K Thomer
The widespread use of social media has created a valuable but underused source of data for the environmental sciences. We demonstrate the potential for images posted to the website Twitter to capture variability in vegetation phenology across United States National Parks. We process a subset of images posted to Twitter within eight U.S. National Parks, with the aim of understanding the amount of green vegetation in each image. Analysis of the relative greenness of the images show statistically significant seasonal cycles across most National Parks at the 95% confidence level, consistent with springtime green-up and fall senescence...
2018: PloS One
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