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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149746/habitat-mosaics-and-path-analysis-can-improve-biological-conservation-of-aquatic-biodiversity-in-ecosystems-with-low-head-dams
#1
Sean M Hitchman, Martha E Mather, Joseph M Smith, Jane S Fencl
Conserving native biodiversity depends on restoring functional habitats in the face of human-induced disturbances. Low-head dams are a ubiquitous human impact that degrades aquatic ecosystems worldwide. To improve our understanding of how low-head dams impact habitat and associated biodiversity, our research examined complex interactions among three spheres of the total environment. i.e., how low-head dams (anthroposphere) affect aquatic habitat (hydrosphere), and native biodiversity (biosphere) in streams and rivers...
November 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146250/revitalization-of-plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria-for-sustainable-development-in-agriculture
#2
REVIEW
Sushanto Gouda, Rout George Kerry, Gitishree Das, Spiros Paramithiotis, Han-Seung Shin, Jayanta Kumar Patra
The progression of life in all forms is not only dependent on agricultural and food security but also on the soil characteristics. The dynamic nature of soil is a direct manifestation of soil microbes, bio-mineralization, and synergistic co-evolution with plants. With the increase in world's population the demand for agriculture yield has increased tremendously and thereby leading to large scale production of chemical fertilizers. Since the use of fertilizers and pesticides in the agricultural fields have caused degradation of soil quality and fertility, thus the expansion of agricultural land with fertile soil is near impossible, hence researchers and scientists have sifted their attention for a safer and productive means of agricultural practices...
January 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145783/ntp-niehs-global-contributions-to-toxicologic-pathology
#3
Robert Sills, Amy Brix, Mark Cesta, Sheba R Churchill, Michelle C Cora, Darlene Dixon, Michael Dykstra, Gordon Flake, Ron Herbert, Ramesh Kovi, Kyathanahalli Janardhan, Angela King-Herbert, David Malarkey, Arun Pandiri, Greg Travlos, Cynthia Willson, Susan A Elmore
National Toxicology Program (NTP) pathologists are engaged in important initiatives that have significant global impact. These initiatives build on its leadership in pathology peer review and publications in the areas of toxicologic pathology, clinical pathology, and laboratory animal medicine. Over the past decade, NTP/National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences research initiatives have focused on cancer and noncancer hazard identification, with the goal of understanding cellular and molecular mechanisms of disease...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145486/geography-of-current-and-future-global-mammal-extinction-risk
#4
Ana D Davidson, Kevin T Shoemaker, Ben Weinstein, Gabriel C Costa, Thomas M Brooks, Gerardo Ceballos, Volker C Radeloff, Carlo Rondinini, Catherine H Graham
Identifying which species are at greatest risk, what makes them vulnerable, and where they are distributed are central goals for conservation science. While knowledge of which factors influence extinction risk is increasingly available for some taxonomic groups, a deeper understanding of extinction correlates and the geography of risk remains lacking. Here, we develop a predictive random forest model using both geospatial and mammalian species' trait data to uncover the statistical and geographic distributions of extinction correlates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143991/genetic-and-non-genetic-risk-factors-for-pre-eclampsia-an-umbrella-review-of-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses-of-observational-studies
#5
REVIEW
Konstantinos Giannakou, Evangelos Evangelou, Stefania I Papatheodorou
OBJECTIVE: To summarize evidence from the literature on the risk factors associated with preeclampsia, assess the presence of statistical biases and identify associations with robust evidence. METHODS: We searched PubMed and ISI Web of Science from inception to October, 2016, to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies examining associations between genetic and non-genetic risk factors for preeclampsia. For each meta-analysis we estimated the summary effect size by random-effects and fixed-effects models, the 95% confidence interval and the 95% prediction interval...
November 16, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141975/dietary-strategies-to-reduce-environmental-impact-a-critical-review-of-the-evidence-base
#6
REVIEW
Bradley G Ridoutt, Gilly A Hendrie, Manny Noakes
The food system is a major source of environmental impact, and dietary change has been recommended as an important and necessary strategy to reduce this impact. However, assessing the environmental performance of diets is complex due to the many types of foods eaten and the diversity of agricultural production systems and local environmental settings. To assess the state of science and identify knowledge gaps, an integrative review of the broad topic of environment and diet was undertaken, with particular focus on the completeness of coverage of environmental concerns and the metrics used...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141646/physical-activity-and-the-environment-conceptual-review-and-framework-for-intervention-research
#7
REVIEW
Jenna Panter, Cornelia Guell, Rick Prins, David Ogilvie
BACKGROUND: Changing the physical environment is one way to promote physical activity and improve health, but evidence on intervention effectiveness is mixed. The theoretical perspectives and conceptual issues discussed or used in evaluative studies and related literature may contribute to these inconsistencies. We aimed to advance the intervention research agenda by systematically searching for and synthesising the literature pertaining to these wider conceptual issues. METHODS: We searched for editorials, commentaries, reviews, or primary qualitative or quantitative studies in multiple disciplines by electronic searches of key databases (MEDLINE and MEDLINE In-Process, Web of Science, Cochrane Reviews, ProQuest for dissertations, Health Evidence, EPPI-Centre, TRID and NICE) and snowballing...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139483/surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy-bottlenecks-and-future-directions
#8
Rajapandiyan Panneerselvam, Guo-Kun Liu, Yao-Hui Wang, Jun-Yang Liu, Song-Yuan Ding, Jian-Feng Li, De-Yin Wu, Zhong-Qun Tian
In this feature article, we discuss in detail developmental bottleneck issues in Raman spectroscopy in its early stages and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in the past four decades. We divide SERS research into two different directions with different targets. Fundamental research is extending the limits of SERS to single-molecule, sub-nanometer resolution and femtosecond processes. In contrast, practical research is expanding the range of applications with the aim of providing versatile analytical tools for surface, materials, life, environmental, forensic and food sciences and also commercial instruments for use in daily life...
November 15, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138993/adverse-drug-events-and-medication-errors-in-african-hospitals-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Alemayehu B Mekonnen, Tariq M Alhawassi, Andrew J McLachlan, Jo-Anne E Brien
BACKGROUND: Medication errors and adverse drug events are universal problems contributing to patient harm but the magnitude of these problems in Africa remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to systematically investigate the literature on the extent of medication errors and adverse drug events, and the factors contributing to medication errors in African hospitals. METHODS: We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and Global Health databases from inception to 31 August, 2017 and hand searched the reference lists of included studies...
November 14, 2017: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138215/physiology-undergraduate-degree-requirements-in-the-u-s
#10
Valerie S VanRyn, James M Poteracki, Erica A Wehrwein
Course-level learning objectives and core concepts for undergraduate physiology teaching exist. The next step is to consider how these resources fit into generalizable program-level guidelines for Bachelor of Science (BS) degrees in Physiology. In the absence of program-level guidelines for Physiology degree programs, we compiled a selective internal report to review degree requirements from 18 peer BS programs entitled "Physiology" in the United States (U.S.). There was a range of zero to three required semesters of math, physics, physics laboratory, general biology, biology laboratory, general chemistry, chemistry laboratory, organic chemistry, organic chemistry laboratory, biochemistry, biochemistry laboratory, anatomy, anatomy laboratory, core systems physiology, and physiology laboratory...
December 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137670/modelling-and-mapping-tick-dynamics-using-volunteered-observations
#11
Irene Garcia-Martí, Raúl Zurita-Milla, Arnold J H van Vliet, Willem Takken
BACKGROUND: Tick populations and tick-borne infections have steadily increased since the mid-1990s posing an ever-increasing risk to public health. Yet, modelling tick dynamics remains challenging because of the lack of data and knowledge on this complex phenomenon. Here we present an approach to model and map tick dynamics using volunteered data. This approach is illustrated with 9 years of data collected by a group of trained volunteers who sampled active questing ticks (AQT) on a monthly basis and for 15 locations in the Netherlands...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137045/the-significance-of-uric-acid-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-parkinson-disease-an-updated-systemic-review
#12
Zhange Yu, Shuai Zhang, Dongdong Wang, Meng Fan, Fuqiang Gao, Wei Sun, Zirong Li, Shiliang Li
BACKGROUND: Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by chronic and progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in substansia nigra pars compacta. Oxidative stress is proposed to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of PD. Uric acid (UA), as an important physiological antioxidant, is identified a molecular predictor associated with a decreased risk and a slower disease progression for PD and potential neuroprotectant of PD by increasing epidemiological and clinical evidences...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136189/serum-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-treatment-outcomes-among-women-undergoing-assisted-reproduction
#13
Y-H Chiu, A E Karmon, A J Gaskins, M Arvizu, P L Williams, I Souter, B R Rueda, R Hause, J E Chavarro
STUDY QUESTION: Are serum polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) concentrations, including omega-3 (ω3-PUFA) and omega-6 (ω6-PUFA), related to ART outcomes? SUMMARY ANSWER: Serum levels of long-chain ω3-PUFA were positively associated with probability of live birth among women undergoing ART. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Intake of ω3-PUFA improves oocyte and embryo quality in animal and human studies. However, a recent cohort study found no relation between circulating ω3-PUFA levels and pregnancy rates after ART...
November 10, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135009/bacterial-species-identifiable-magnetic-nanosystems-for-early-sepsis-diagnosis-and-extracorporeal-photodynamic-blood-disinfection
#14
Jianhao Wang, Hao Wu, Yanmei Yang, Rong Yan, Yuan Zhao, Yanhao Wang, Aihong Chen, Shilong Shao, Pengju Jiang, Yong-Qiang Li
Despite the numerous bacteria detection and elimination techniques available nowadays, sensitive diagnosis and treatment of sepsis (caused by the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream), especially at the early stage, remain big challenges. Here we report a nanosystem for early sepsis diagnosis and complete extracorporeal blood disinfection, based on iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with chlorin e6 molecules and bacterial species-identifiable aptamers (Fe3O4-Ce6-Apt). We demonstrate that the Fe3O4-Ce6-Apt nanosystem can achieve simultaneous blood bacterial species identification and enrichment in a single step, and the enriched bacteria can be easily detected with the assistance of fluorescence microscopic determination...
November 14, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134520/benchmarking-the-scientific-research-on-wastewater-energy-nexus-by-using-bibliometric-analysis
#15
Tianlong Zheng, Pengyu Li, Zhining Shi, Jianguo Liu
With an exponential increase in urbanization and industrialization, water pollution is an inevitable consequence of relatively lagging wastewater treatment facilities. The conventional activated sludge process for wastewater treatment primarily emphasizes the removal of harmful substances to maintain increasingly stringent effluent discharged standards, which is considered an energy-intensive technique. Therefore, innovative and sustainable wastewater treatment should pay more attention to energy and resource recovery in dealing with fossil fuel depletion, global-scale energy security, and climate change...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133413/socioeconomic-status-and-genetic-influences-on-cognitive-development
#16
David N Figlio, Jeremy Freese, Krzysztof Karbownik, Jeffrey Roth
Accurate understanding of environmental moderation of genetic influences is vital to advancing the science of cognitive development as well as for designing interventions. One widely reported idea is increasing genetic influence on cognition for children raised in higher socioeconomic status (SES) families, including recent proposals that the pattern is a particularly US phenomenon. We used matched birth and school records from Florida siblings and twins born in 1994-2002 to provide the largest, most population-diverse consideration of this hypothesis to date...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128716/smartphone-based-bioanalytical-and-diagnosis-applications-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Suvardhan Kanchi, Myalowenkosi I Sabela, Phumlane Selby Mdluli, Inamuddin, Krishna Bisetty
A smartphone is a facile, handy-analytical device that makes our lives comfortable and stress-free in terms of health care diagnostic assessments. Due to recent advancements in the technology and the introduction of user friendly operating systems and applications, the smartphones have replaced laptops and desktop computers. Taking this fact into account, researchers have designed sensing systems which are more compatible with smartphones. Consequently, these devices are attracting the attention of researchers from fields such as telemedicine, biotechnology, chemical sciences and environmental sciences...
November 6, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127930/indoor-air-quality-of-environments-used-for-physical-exercise-and-sports-practice-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Alexandro Andrade, Fábio Hech Dominski
BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews have the potential to contribute substantially to environmental health and risk assessment. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate indoor air quality of environments used for physical exercise and sports practice through a systematic review. METHODS: The systematic review followed the PRISMA guidelines and was recorded in the PROSPERO registry (CRD42016036057). The search was performed using the SciELO, Science Direct, Scopus, LILACS, MEDLINE via PubMed, and SPORTDiscus databases, from their inception through April 2017...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127822/a-review-of-the-empirical-literature-on-the-use-of-limpets-patella-spp-mollusca-gastropoda-as-bioindicators-of-environmental-quality
#19
REVIEW
Pablo Reguera, Lucía Couceiro, Nuria Fernández
The need to carry out monitoring programs for environmental pollution of coastal ecosystems makes it necessary to increase the number of indicator species in order to have a wide range of suitable organisms for most of the possible toxic substances and ways of exposure. With the purpose of analyzing the suitability of limpets (Patella spp.) for their use in biomonitoring programs, a literature review was performed on 88 cases found in the Web of Science online platform. The capacity of limpets to accumulate metals and hydrocarbons has been examined in several field studies...
November 8, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124824/why-artificial-light-at-night-should-be-a-focus-for-global-change-research-in-the-21st-century
#20
Thomas W Davies, Tim Smyth
The environmental impacts of artificial light at night have been a rapidly growing field of global change science in recent years. Yet, light pollution has not achieved parity with other global change phenomena in the level of concern and interest it receives from the scientific community, government and nongovernmental organizations. This is despite the globally widespread, expanding and changing nature of night-time lighting and the immediacy, severity and phylogenetic breath of its impacts. In this opinion piece, we evidence 10 reasons why artificial light at night should be a focus for global change research in the 21st century...
November 10, 2017: Global Change Biology
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