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Environmental science

Lilian Cristina Pereira, Murilo Pazin, Mariana Furio Franco-Bernardes, Airton da Cunha Martins, Gustavo Rafael Mazzaron Barcelos, Márcio Cesar Pereira, João Paulo Mesquita, Jairo Lisboa Rodrigues, Fernando Barbosa, Daniel Junqueira Dorta
Nanotechnology is a growing branch of science that deals with the development of structural features bearing at least one dimension in the nano range. More specifically, nanomaterials are defined as objects with dimensions that range from 1 to 100 nm, which give rise to interesting properties. In particular, silver and titanium nanoparticles (AgNPs and TiNPs, respectively) are known for their biological and biomedical properties and are often used in consumer products such as cosmetics, food additives, kitchen utensils, and toys...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Peter Weißhuhn, Felix Müller, Hubert Wiggering
To safeguard the sustainable use of ecosystems and their services, early detection of potentially damaging changes in functional capabilities is needed. To support a proper ecosystem management, the analysis of an ecosystem's vulnerability provide information on its weaknesses as well as on its capacity to recover after suffering an impact. However, the application of the vulnerability concept to ecosystems is still an emerging topic. After providing background on the vulnerability concept, we summarize existing ecosystem vulnerability research on the basis of a systematic literature review with a special focus on ecosystem type, disciplinary background, and more detailed definition of the ecosystem vulnerability components...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Management
Mathias Basner, Sarah McGuire
To evaluate the quality of available evidence on the effects of environmental noise exposure on sleep a systematic review was conducted. The databases PSYCINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science and the TNO Repository were searched for non-laboratory studies on the effects of environmental noise on sleep with measured or predicted noise levels and published in or after the year 2000. The quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE criteria. Seventy four studies predominately conducted between 2000 and 2015 were included in the review...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Maria-Manuel Azevedo, Sofia Duarte
Introduction: Due to their importance in transmitting knowledge, teachers can play a crucial role in students' scientific literacy acquisition and motivation to respond to ongoing and future economic and societal challenges. However, to conduct this task effectively, teachers need to continuously improve their knowledge, and for that, a periodic update is mandatory for actualization of scientific knowledge and skills. This work is based on the outcomes of an educational study implemented with science teachers from Portuguese Basic and Secondary schools...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Takashi Kato, Junya Uchida, Takahiro Ichikawa, Takeshi Sakamoto
Since the discovery of the liquid-crystalline state in 1888, liquid crystal science has made great advances through fusion with various technologies and disciplines. Recently, new molecular design strategies and new self-assembled structures have been developed as a result of the progress made in synthetic procedures and characterization techniques. Since these liquid crystals exhibit new functions and properties derived from their nanostructures and alignment, a variety of new functions for liquid crystals, such as transport for energy applications, separation for environmental applications, chromism, sensing, electrooptical effects, actuation, and templating have been proposed...
March 13, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Ignacia Braga-Tanaka, Satoshi Tanaka, Atsushi Kohda, Daisaku Takai, Shingo Nakamura, Tetsuya Ono, Kimio Tanaka, Jun-Ichiro Komura
PURPOSE: This review summarizes the results of experiments conducted in the Institute for Environmental Sciences for the past 21 years, focusing on the biological effects of long-term low dose-rate radiation exposure on mice. Mice were chronically exposed to gamma rays at dose-rates of 0.05, 1 or 20 mGy/day for 400 days to total doses of 20, 400 or 8000 mGy, respectively. The dose rates 0.05 mGy/day is comparable to the dose limit for radiation workers. The parameters examined were lifespan, neoplasm incidence, anti-neoplasm immunity, body weight, chromosome aberration(s), gene mutation(s), alterations in mRNA and protein levels, and trans-generational effects...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
John Haldon, Lee Mordechai, Timothy P Newfield, Arlen F Chase, Adam Izdebski, Piotr Guzowski, Inga Labuhn, Neil Roberts
History and archaeology have a well-established engagement with issues of premodern societal development and the interaction between physical and cultural environments; together, they offer a holistic view that can generate insights into the nature of cultural resilience and adaptation, as well as responses to catastrophe. Grasping the challenges that climate change presents and evolving appropriate policies that promote and support mitigation and adaptation requires not only an understanding of the science and the contemporary politics, but also an understanding of the history of the societies affected and in particular of their cultural logic...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Russell S Thomas, Richard S Paules, Anton Simeonov, Suzanne C Fitzpatrick, Kevin M Crofton, Warren M Casey, Donna L Mendrick
The traditional approaches to toxicity testing have posed multiple challenges for evaluating the safety of commercial chemicals, pesticides, food additives/contaminants, and medical products.The challenges include number of chemicals that need to be tested, time and resource intensive nature of traditional toxicity tests, and unexpected adverse effects that occur in pharmaceutical clinical trials despite the extensive toxicological testing.Over a decade ago, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Toxicology Program (NTP), National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) formed a federal consortium for "Toxicology in the 21st Century" (Tox21) with a focus on developing and evaluating in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) methods for hazard identification and providing mechanistic insights...
March 8, 2018: ALTEX
Isaac R Galatzer-Levy, Kelly Ruggles, Zhe Chen
Diverse environmental and biological systems interact to influence individual differences in response to environmental stress. Understanding the nature of these complex relationships can enhance the development of methods to: (1) identify risk, (2) classify individuals as healthy or ill, (3) understand mechanisms of change, and (4) develop effective treatments. The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative provides a theoretical framework to understand health and illness as the product of multiple inter-related systems but does not provide a framework to characterize or statistically evaluate such complex relationships...
January 2018: Chronic Stress
Johanna R Rochester, Ashley L Bolden, Carol F Kwiatkowski
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has increased in prevalence in the past decade. Studies attempting to identify a specific genetic component have not been able to account for much of the heritability of ADHD, indicating there may be gene-environment interactions underlying the disorder, including early exposure to environmental chemicals. Based on several relevant studies, we chose to examine bisphenol A (BPA) as a possible contributor to ADHD in humans. BPA is a widespread environmental chemical that has been shown to disrupt neurodevelopment in rodents and humans...
March 3, 2018: Environment International
Lu Wang, Yanan Wu, Jia Xie, Sheng Wu, Zhenqiang Wu
The green synthesis of nanoparticles has become increasingly promising due to their potential applications in nanomedicine and materials science. In this study, silver nanoparticles (P-AgNPs) were synthesized from aqueous extracts of P. guajava L. leaf. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were confirmed by UV-vis spectrophotometry at 438 nm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and zetasizer analyses showed that the average sizes of the P-AgNPs were 20-35 nm, 25 nm, and 25-35 nm, respectively...
May 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
V Ayano Ogawa, Cecilia M Shah, James M Hughes, Lonnie J King
Antimicrobial resistance is a major threat to global health security. While the global community has made recent advances to mitigate the threat of antimicrobial resistance, we continue to face challenges in creating solutions and concrete actions that will yield the greatest immediate impact. To examine the critical areas in human, animal and environmental health that contribute to the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance, the Forum on Microbial Threats of the U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine hosted a public workshop on June 20-21, 2017 in Washington, DC...
March 9, 2018: EcoHealth
Deniz Çolakkadıoğlu, Muzaffer Yücel, Barış Kahveci, Özüm Aydınol
The aims of this study are to identify via harnessing noise mapping the effects of noise pollution at Çukurova University campus on the academic setting and to reveal the obtained change values in noise pollution on the campus during the period 2010-2017. In line with these aims, the first step has been to map the highway-induced environmental noise on Çukurova University campus during daytime (07:00-19:00) and evening (19:00-23:00) hours by employing SoundPLAN 7.3 software. Traffic-induced noise distribution maps for years 2010 and 2017 on the campus were analyzed by threshold values stipulated by the Regulation on Environmental Noise Assessment and Management that is compliance with the European Union Directive on Environmental Noise (2002/49/EC) and after the conducted analyses, traffic-induced environmental noise measured on Çukurova University campus since the past to that date was identified in terms of spatial change...
March 9, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Nastassia V Patin, Zoe A Pratte, Matthew Regensburger, Eric Hall, Kailen Gilde, Alistair D M Dove, Frank J Stewart
Artificial habitats for animals have high commercial and societal value. Microbial communities (microbiomes) in such habitats may play ecological roles similar to those in nature. However, this hypothesis remains largely untested. Georgia Aquarium's Ocean Voyager (OV) exhibit is a closed-system aquatic habitat that mimics the oligotrophic open ocean and houses thousands of large marine animals, including fish, sea turtles, and whale sharks. We present a 14-month time series characterizing the OV water column microbiome...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Gary A Toranzos, Raúl J Cano
Environmental forensics is a tool that uses chemical, physical, and statistical techniques to investigate contaminants in the environment as a means to determine attribution for legal purposes. Environmental microbiology is a branch of science that has benefited from the use of metagenomics. The term microbial forensics, which includes nucleic acid sequencing methods, is now used to investigate the sources of microorganisms for attribution purposes as well. Environmental microbial forensics can fully address the questions that must be answered for attribution of causation and subsequent remedial actions within a reasonably short time frame...
March 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Anna Lartey, Janice Meerman, Ramani Wijesinha-Bettoni
BACKGROUND: The International Union of Nutritional Sciences held its 21st International Congress of Nutrition in October 2017 in Buenos Aires, Argentina under the theme - From Sciences to Nutrition Security. In addition to multiple sessions on food systems and their links to diet, nutrition and health, the Congress closing lecture focused on the need to transform food systems so as to increase their capacity to provide healthy diets, making a call for greater involvement of nutrition scientists...
March 8, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
George A Bray, William E Heisel, Ashkan Afshin, Michael D Jensen, William H Dietz, Michael Long, Robert F Kushner, Stephen R Daniels, Thomas A Wadden, Adam G Tsai, Frank B Hu, John M Jakicic, Donna H Ryan, Bruce M Wolfe, Thomas H Inge
The prevalence of obesity, measured by body mass index, has risen to unacceptable levels in both men and women in the United States and worldwide with resultant hazardous health implications. Genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors influence the development of obesity, and both the general public and health professionals stigmatize those who suffer from the disease. Obesity is associated with and contributes to a shortened life span, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, some cancers, kidney disease, obstructive sleep apnea, gout, osteoarthritis, and hepatobiliary disease, among others...
March 6, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Lynne T Haber, Michael L Dourson, Bruce C Allen, Richard C Hertzberg, Ann Parker, Melissa J Vincent, Andrew Maier, Alan R Boobis
Benchmark dose (BMD) modeling is now the state of the science for determining the point of departure for risk assessment. Key advantages include the fact that the modeling takes account of all of the data for a particular effect from a particular experiment, increased consistency, and better accounting for statistical uncertainties. Despite these strong advantages, disagreements remain as to several specific aspects of the modeling, including differences in the recommendations of the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)...
March 8, 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Alejandro Bosch-Alcaraz, Anna Falcó-Pegueroles, Iolanda Jordan
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the meaning of comfort and to contextualise it within the framework of paediatric critical care. BACKGROUND: The concept of comfort is closely linked to care in all health contexts. However, in specific settings such as the paediatric critical care unit it takes on particular importance. DESIGN: A literature review was conducted. METHODS: A literature search was performed of articles in English and Spanish in international health science databases, from 1992 to March 2017, applying the quality standards established by the PRISMA methodology and the Joanna Briggs Institute...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
A Klin, W Jones
The future of neurodevelopmental medicine has the potential of situating child neurology at the forefront of a broad-based public health effort to optimize neurodevelopmental outcomes of children born with high-prevalence and diverse genetic, pre- and peri-natal, and environmental burdens compromising early brain development and leading to lifetime disabilities. Building on advancements in developmental social neuroscience and in implementation science, this shift is already occurring in the case of emblematic neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
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