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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324673/a-framework-to-guide-the-assessment-of-human-machine-systems
#1
Kimberly Stowers, James Oglesby, Shirley Sonesh, Kevin Leyva, Chelsea Iwig, Eduardo Salas
OBJECTIVE: We have developed a framework for guiding measurement in human-machine systems. BACKGROUND: The assessment of safety and performance in human-machine systems often relies on direct measurement, such as tracking reaction time and accidents. However, safety and performance emerge from the combination of several variables. The assessment of precursors to safety and performance are thus an important part of predicting and improving outcomes in human-machine systems...
March 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324616/optimization-of-diazinon-biodegradation-from-aqueous-solutions-by-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-using-response-surface-methodology
#2
Mohammad H Ehrampoush, Abbas Sadeghi, Mohammad T Ghaneian, Ziaeddin Bonyadi
Diazinon is an organophosphate compound that inhibits the activity of acetylcholinesterase. Standards of the World Health Organization and Environmental Protection Agency for diazinon concentration in water are 0.1 and 9 × 10(-6) mg/L, respectively. The aim of this study was the optimization of diazinon biodegradation from aqueous solutions by Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the response surface methodology (RSM). Harvested cells of S. cerevisiae were locally purchased from the Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324254/pilot-testing-model-to-uncover-industrial-symbiosis-in-brazilian-industrial-clusters
#3
Adriana Valélia Saraceni, Luis Mauricio Resende, Pedro Paulo de Andrade Júnior, Joseane Pontes
The main objective of this study was to create a pilot model to uncover industrial symbiosis practices in Brazilian industrial clusters. For this purpose, a systematic revision was conducted in journals selected from two categories of the ISI Web of Knowledge: Engineering, Environmental and Engineering, Industrial. After an in-depth revision of literature, results allowed the creation of an analysis structure. A methodology based on fuzzy logic was applied and used to attribute the weights of industrial symbiosis variables...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319856/systems-biology-solutions-for-biochemical-production-challenges
#4
REVIEW
Anne Sofie Lærke Hansen, Rebecca M Lennen, Nikolaus Sonnenschein, Markus J Herrgård
There is an urgent need to significantly accelerate the development of microbial cell factories to produce fuels and chemicals from renewable feedstocks in order to facilitate the transition to a biobased society. Methods commonly used within the field of systems biology including omics characterization, genome-scale metabolic modeling, and adaptive laboratory evolution can be readily deployed in metabolic engineering projects. However, high performance strains usually carry tens of genetic modifications and need to operate in challenging environmental conditions...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319721/methods-for-specifying-spatial-boundaries-of-cities-in-the-world-the-impacts-of-delineation-methods-on-city-sustainability-indices
#5
Yuta Uchiyama, Koichiro Mori
The purpose of this paper is to analyze how different definitions and methods for delineating the spatial boundaries of cities have an impact on the values of city sustainability indicators. It is necessary to distinguish the inside of cities from the outside when calculating the values of sustainability indicators that assess the impacts of human activities within cities on areas beyond their boundaries. For this purpose, spatial boundaries of cities should be practically detected on the basis of a relevant definition of a city...
March 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298279/the-potential-impact-of-animal-science-research-on-global-maternal-and-child-nutrition-and-health-a-landscape-review
#6
REVIEW
Jack Odle, Sheila K Jacobi, R Dean Boyd, Dale E Bauman, Russell V Anthony, Fuller W Bazer, Adam L Lock, Andrew C Serazin
High among the challenges facing mankind as the world population rapidly expands toward 9 billion people by 2050 is the technological development and implementation of sustainable agriculture and food systems to supply abundant and wholesome nutrition. In many low-income societies, women and children are the most vulnerable to food insecurity, and it is unequivocal that quality nutrition during the first 1000 d of life postconception can be transformative in establishing a robust, lifelong developmental trajectory...
March 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296261/determinants-of-adherence-to-lifestyle-intervention-in-adults-with-obesity-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
E Burgess, P Hassmén, K L Pumpa
Lifestyle intervention programmes are efficacious in the management of obesity but often report poor attendance and adherence rates that hinder treatment effectiveness and health outcomes. The aim of this systematic review is to identify (i) barriers to behaviour change and (ii) predictors of adherence to lifestyle intervention programmes in adults with obesity. Studies were identified by systematically reviewing the literature within Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science from inception to August 2016...
March 15, 2017: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295373/building-a-better-foundation-improving-root-trait-measurements-to-understand-and-model-plant-and-ecosystem-processes
#8
M Luke McCormack, Dali Guo, Colleen M Iversen, Weile Chen, David M Eissenstat, Christopher W Fernandez, Le Li, Chengen Ma, Zeqing Ma, Hendrik Poorter, Peter B Reich, Marcin Zadworny, Amy Zanne
Trait-based approaches provide a useful framework to investigate plant strategies for resource acquisition, growth, and competition, as well as plant impacts on ecosystem processes. Despite significant progress capturing trait variation within and among stems and leaves, identification of trait syndromes within fine-root systems and between fine roots and other plant organs is limited. Here we discuss three underappreciated areas where focused measurements of fine-root traits can make significant contributions to ecosystem science...
March 13, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294522/a-quantitative-screening-level-approach-to-incorporate-chemical-exposure-and-risk-safety-into-alternative-assessment-evaluations
#9
Scott M Arnold, Bill Greggs, Katy O Goyak, Bryce D Landenberger, Ann M Mason, Brett Howard, Rosemary Zaleski, Brett Howard, Rosemary T Zaleski
As the general public and retailers ask for disclosure of chemical ingredients in the marketplace, a number of hazard screening tools were developed to evaluate the so called "greenness" of individual chemical ingredients and/or formulations. The majority of these tools focus only on hazard, often using chemical lists, ignoring the other part of the risk equation: exposure. Using a hazard-only focus can result in regrettable substitutions, changing one chemical ingredient for another that turns out to be more hazardous or shifts the toxicity burden to others...
March 10, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293683/qsars-and-computational-chemistry-methods-in-environmental-chemical-sciences
#10
EDITORIAL
Kathrin Fenner, Paul G Tratnyek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290972/malignant-hyperthermia-susceptibility-and-fitness-for-duty
#11
Michael A Lee, Erin B McGlinch, Maria C McGlinch, John F Capacchione
INTRODUCTION: Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is an inherited hypermetabolic condition characterized by uncontrolled calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle, usually from exposure to inhaled general anesthetics and/or the depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent succinylcholine. Multiple case reports now reveal that crises may be precipitated by environmental factors such as exercise or high ambient temperatures. Common signs of an MH crisis include life-threatening hyperthermia, metabolic acidosis, muscle rigidity, and tachycardia...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289515/biochemical-strategies-for-the-detection-and-detoxification-of-toxic-chemicals-in-the-environment
#12
EDITORIAL
Ferdinando Febbraio
Addressing the problems related to the widespread presence of an increasing number of chemicals released into the environment by human activities represents one of the most important challenges of this century. In the last few years, to replace the high cost, in terms of time and money, of conventional technologies, the scientific community has directed considerable research towards the development both of new detection systems for the measurement of the contamination levels of chemicals in people's body fluids and tissue, as well as in the environment, and of new remediation strategies for the removal of such chemicals from the environment, as a means of the prevention of human diseases...
February 26, 2017: World Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289392/the-manipulation-of-pace-within-endurance-sport
#13
REVIEW
Sabrina Skorski, Chris R Abbiss
In any athletic event, the ability to appropriately distribute energy is essential to prevent premature fatigue prior to the completion of the event. In sport science literature this is termed "pacing." Within the past decade, research aiming to better understand the underlying mechanisms influencing the selection of an athlete's pacing during exercise has dramatically increased. It is suggested that pacing is a combination of anticipation, knowledge of the end-point, prior experience and sensory feedback. In order to better understand the role each of these factors have in the regulation of pace, studies have often manipulated various conditions known to influence performance such as the feedback provided to participants, the starting strategy or environmental conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289265/contact-structure-mobility-environmental-impact-and-behaviour-the-importance-of-social-forces-to-infectious-disease-dynamics-and-disease-ecology
#14
REVIEW
Ronan F Arthur, Emily S Gurley, Henrik Salje, Laura S P Bloomfield, James H Jones
Human factors, including contact structure, movement, impact on the environment and patterns of behaviour, can have significant influence on the emergence of novel infectious diseases and the transmission and amplification of established ones. As anthropogenic climate change alters natural systems and global economic forces drive land-use and land-cover change, it becomes increasingly important to understand both the ecological and social factors that impact infectious disease outcomes for human populations...
May 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284941/scientific-production-on-indoor-air-quality-of-environments-used-for-physical-exercise-and-sports-practice-bibliometric-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Alexandro Andrade, Fábio Hech Dominski, Danilo Reis Coimbra
INTRODUCTION: In order to minimize adverse health effects and increase the benefits of physical activity, it is important to systematize indoor air quality study in environments used for physical exercise and sports. OBJECTIVES: To investigate and analyze the scientific production related to indoor air quality of environments used for physical exercise and sports practice through a bibliometric analysis. METHODS: The databases Scielo, Science Direct, Scopus, Lilacs, Medline via Pubmed, and SportDiscus were searched from their inception to March 2016...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284650/energy-and-mass-balances-related-to-climate-change-and-remediation
#16
REVIEW
Angela D Lueking, Milton W Cole
The goal of this paper is to provide a forum for a broad interdisciplinary group of scientists and engineers to see how concepts of climate change, energy, and carbon remediation strategies are related to quite basic scientific principles. A secondary goal is to show relationships between general concepts in traditional science and engineering fields and to show how they are relevant to broader environmental concepts. This paper revisits Fourier's early mathematical derivation of the average temperature of the Earth from first principles, i...
March 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282048/hydrolytic-cleavage-of-both-cs2-carbon-sulfur-bonds-by-multinuclear-pd-ii-complexes-at-room-temperature
#17
Xuan-Feng Jiang, Hui Huang, Yun-Feng Chai, Tracy Lynn Lohr, Shu-Yan Yu, Wenzhen Lai, Yuan-Jiang Pan, Massimiliano Delferro, Tobin J Marks
Developing homogeneous catalysts that convert CS2 and COS pollutants into environmentally benign products is important for both fundamental catalytic research and applied environmental science. Here we report a series of air-stable dimeric Pd complexes that mediate the facile hydrolytic cleavage of both CS2 carbon-sulfur bonds at 25 °C to produce CO2 and trimeric Pd complexes. Oxidation of the trimeric complexes with HNO3 regenerates the dimeric starting complexes with the release of SO2 and NO2. Isotopic labelling confirms that the carbon and oxygen atoms of CO2 originate from CS2 and H2O, respectively, and reaction intermediates were observed by gas-phase and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, as well as by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy...
February 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281140/human-predisposition-to-cognitive-impairment-and-its-relation-with-environmental-exposure-to-potentially-toxic-elements
#18
Marina M S Cabral Pinto, A Paula Marinho-Reis, Agostinho Almeida, Carlos M Ordens, Maria M V G Silva, Sandra Freitas, Mário R Simões, Paula I Moreira, Pedro A Dinis, M Luísa Diniz, Eduardo A Ferreira da Silva, M Teresa Condesso de Melo
New lines of evidence suggest that less than 10% of neurodegenerative diseases have a strict genetic aetiology and other factors may be prevalent. Environmental exposures to potentially toxic elements appear to be a risk factor for Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and sclerosis diseases. This study proposes a multidisciplinary approach combining neurosciences, psychology and environmental sciences while integrating socio-economic, neuropsychological, environmental and health data. We present the preliminary results of a neuropsychological assessment carried out in elderly residents of the industrial city of Estarreja...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280619/prognostic-value-of-diffuse-versus-intestinal-histotype-in-patients-with-gastric-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Fausto Petrelli, Rosa Berenato, Luca Turati, Alessia Mennitto, Francesca Steccanella, Marta Caporale, Pierpaolo Dallera, Filippo de Braud, Ezio Pezzica, Maria Di Bartolomeo, Giovanni Sgroi, Vincenzo Mazzaferro, Filippo Pietrantonio, Sandro Barni
BACKGROUND: There are two distinct types of gastric carcinoma (GC), intestinal, more frequently sporadic and linked to environmental factors, and diffuse (undifferentiated) that is highly metastatic and characterized by rapid disease progression and a poor prognosis. However, there are many conflicting data in the literature concerning the association between histology and prognosis in GC. This meta-analysis was performed to provide demonstration if histology according to Lauren classification is associated with different prognosis in patients with GC...
February 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279485/discovering-protein-coding-genes-from-the-environment-time-for-the-eukaryotes
#20
REVIEW
Roland Marmeisse, Harald Kellner, Laurence Fraissinet-Tachet, Patricia Luis
Eukaryotic microorganisms from diverse environments encompass a large number of taxa, many of them still unknown to science. One strategy to mine these organisms for genes of biotechnological relevance is to use a pool of eukaryotic mRNA directly extracted from environmental samples. Recent reports demonstrate that the resulting metatranscriptomic cDNA libraries can be screened by expression in yeast for a wide range of genes and functions from many of the different eukaryotic taxa. In combination with novel emerging high-throughput technologies, we anticipate that this approach should contribute to exploring the functional diversity of the eukaryotic microbiota...
March 6, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
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