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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107552/reflections-on-the-history-of-indoor-air-science-focusing-on-the-last-50-years
#1
Jan Sundell
The scientific articles and Indoor Air conference publications of the indoor air sciences (IAS) during the last 50 years are summarized. In total 7524 presentations, from 79 countries, have been made at Indoor Air conferences held between 1978 (49 presentations) and 2014 (1049 presentations). In the Web of Science 26,992 articles on indoor air research (with the word "indoor" as a search term) have been found (as of 1 Jan 2016) of which 70% were published during the last 10 years. The modern scientific history started in the 1970s with a question: "did indoor air pose a threat to health as did outdoor air?" Soon it was recognized that indoor air is more important, from a health point of view, than outdoor air...
January 20, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107208/environment-susceptibility-windows-development-and-child-health
#2
Robert O Wright
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To illustrate the role of the exposome in child health while highlighting unique aspects of this research pertinent to children, such as the time dependency of environmental exposures on fetal programming, as well as the time-dependent nature of child behavior, diet, and motor function, which alter the probability of exposure to different compounds. Future environmental health research will be more hypothesis generating but will also need to heed lessons learned from other 'omic' sciences...
January 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106360/federal-policy-for-the-protection-of-human-subjects-final-rule
#3
(no author information available yet)
The departments and agencies listed in this document announce revisions to modernize, strengthen, and make more effective the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects that was originally promulgated as a Common Rule in 1991. This final rule is intended to better protect human subjects involved in research, while facilitating valuable research and reducing burden, delay, and ambiguity for investigators. These revisions are an effort to modernize, simplify, and enhance the current system of oversight...
19, 2017: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106045/identification-of-shared-and-unique-gene-families-associated-with-oral-clefts
#4
Noriko Funato, Masataka Nakamura
Oral clefts, the most frequent congenital birth defects in humans, are multifactorial disorders caused by genetic and environmental factors. Epidemiological studies point to different etiologies underlying the oral cleft phenotypes, cleft lip (CL), CL and/or palate (CL/P) and cleft palate (CP). More than 350 genes have syndromic and/or nonsyndromic oral cleft associations in humans. Although genes related to genetic disorders associated with oral cleft phenotypes are known, a gap between detecting these associations and interpretation of their biological importance has remained...
January 20, 2017: International Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105927/candidate-snp-markers-of-aggressiveness-related-complications-and-comorbidities-of-genetic-diseases-are-predicted-by-a-significant-change-in-the-affinity-of-tata-binding-protein-for-human-gene-promoters
#5
Irina V Chadaeva, Mikhail P Ponomarenko, Dmitry A Rasskazov, Ekaterina B Sharypova, Elena V Kashina, Marina Yu Matveeva, Tatjana V Arshinova, Petr M Ponomarenko, Olga V Arkova, Natalia P Bondar, Ludmila K Savinkova, Nikolay A Kolchanov
BACKGROUND: Aggressiveness in humans is a hereditary behavioral trait that mobilizes all systems of the body-first of all, the nervous and endocrine systems, and then the respiratory, vascular, muscular, and others-e.g., for the defense of oneself, children, family, shelter, territory, and other possessions as well as personal interests. The level of aggressiveness of a person determines many other characteristics of quality of life and lifespan, acting as a stress factor. Aggressive behavior depends on many parameters such as age, gender, diseases and treatment, diet, and environmental conditions...
December 28, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098161/modelling-of-occupational-exposure-to-inhalable-nickel-compounds
#6
Benjamin Kendzia, Beate Pesch, Dorothea Koppisch, Rainer Van Gelder, Katrin Pitzke, Wolfgang Zschiesche, Thomas Behrens, Tobias Weiss, Jack Siemiatycki, Jerome Lavoué, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Roger Stamm, Thomas Brüning
The aim of this study was to estimate average occupational exposure to inhalable nickel (Ni) using the German exposure database MEGA. This database contains 8052 personal measurements of Ni collected between 1990 and 2009 in adjunct with information on the measurement and workplace conditions. The median of all Ni concentrations was 9 μg/m(3) and the 95th percentile was 460 μg/m(3). We predicted geometric means (GMs) for welders and other occupations centered to 1999. Exposure to Ni in welders is strongly influenced by the welding process applied and the Ni content of the used welding materials...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097613/stakeholder-contributions-to-assessment-monitoring-and-conservation-of-threatened-species-black-skimmer-and-red-knot-as-case-studies
#7
Joanna Burger, Michael Gochfeld, Larry Niles, Nellie Tsipoura, David Mizrahi, Amanda Dey, Christian Jeitner, Taryn Pittfield
Stakeholder contributions to conservation projects often occur during the problem formulation stage, yet the role of stakeholders throughout the process is seldom considered. We examine the diversity of state and federal agencies, conservation organizations, other non-governmental organizations, environmental justice communities, consultants, industry, and the general public in the conservation of red knot (Calidris canutus rufa) and black skimmer (Rynchops niger) in New Jersey. We suggest that (1) governmental agencies provide the legal, regulatory, and management framework, but it is often the universities, conservation organizations, consultants, and the public that conduct the research and perform activities that lead to increased research and conservation efforts; (2) departments within agencies may have conflicting mandates, making it difficult to resolve differences in actions; (3) there is often conflict among and within state agencies and conservation organizations about roles and priorities; and (4) the role of the public is critical to ongoing research and conservation efforts...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094829/news-from-environmental-science-processes-impacts
#8
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092716/view-points-of-an-ecologist-on-practical-environmental-ethic-socioecology-common-pool-resources-and-conservation
#9
Juan Carlos Castilla
The paper centers on environmental practical ethic point of views according to a professional ecologist. Ecology and the science of Socio-ecology are defined. The framework of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment initiative (MA 2003), including the use of ecosystems as the environmental unit of analysis, ecosystem services and human well-being as the center for assessment are discussed. Common-pool resources (CPR) and the allegory of the tragedy of the commons are used to illustrate main scientific and ethical environmental approaches, and above all to highlight the case of climate change, considering ″air-atmosphere″ as a CPR...
September 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092711/-the-future-of-ecology-wisdom-as-the-speculative-centre-of-environmental-ethics
#10
Luca Valera
This article argues that it is necessary to go back to Potter's proposal to rediscover a concept of bioethics wider than medical ethics, and strongly connected to environmental ethics. The two disciplines share, among others, the following dimensions: the consciousness of the sin as a consequence of recent technological developments; the need for a salvation; the need for a science of survival; wisdom as a possible solution. Referring to the latter, the work of Van Rennselaer Potter (father of bioethics) and Arne Næss (father of deep ecology, and in a broader sense, of environmental ethics) are particularly linked: it seems that wisdom should be the virtue providing answers about our way of dwelling the world...
September 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092709/the-centrality-of-philosophical-anthropology-to-a-future-environmental-ethics
#11
Arran Gare
While environmental ethics has successfully established itself in philosophy, as presently conceived it is still largely irrelevant to grappling the global ecological crisis because, as Alasdair MacIntyre has argued, ethical philosophy itself is in grave disorder. MacIntyre's historically oriented recovery of virtue ethics is defended, but it is argued that even MacIntyre was too constrained by received assumptions to overcome this disorder. As he himself realized, his ideas need to be integrated and defended through philosophical anthropology...
September 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091885/assessing-the-impact-of-preload-on-pyrite-rich-sediment-and-groundwater-quality
#12
Ohene Karikari-Yeboah, Jonas Addai-Mensah
Pyrite-rich sediments would, invariably, undergo redox reactions which would lead to acidic aqueous environment containing solubilized toxic metal species. When such sediments are subjected to preload, a technique employed by geotechnical engineers to improve the load-bearing capacity of highly compressible formation, transient flow of pore water, accompanied by acidity transfer, would occur as a response. Despite the concomitant environmental and socio-economic significance, to date, there has been limited interdisciplinary research on the underpinning geotechnical engineering and geo-environmental science issues for pyrite-rich sediments under preload...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091665/trace-element-protein-interactions-in-endolymph-from-the-inner-ear-of-fish-implications-for-environmental-reconstructions-using-fish-otolith-chemistry
#13
Oliver R B Thomas, Katherine Ganio, Blaine R Roberts, Stephen E Swearer
Otoliths, the biomineralised hearing "ear stones" from the inner ear of fish, grow throughout the lifespan of an individual, with deposition of alternating calciferous and proteinaceous bands occurring daily. Trace element : calcium ratios within daily increments measured by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) are often used in fisheries science to reconstruct environmental histories. There is, however, considerable uncertainty as to which elements are interacting with either the proteinaceous or calciferous zones of the otolith, and thus their utility as indicators of environmental change...
January 16, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090410/retrospective-analysis-of-heavy-metal-contamination-in-rhode-island-based-on-old-and-new-herbarium-specimens
#14
Sofia M Rudin, David W Murray, Timothy J S Whitfeld
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Herbarium specimens may provide a record of past environmental conditions, including heavy metal pollution. To explore this potential, we compared concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc in historical and new collections from four sites in Rhode Island, USA. METHODS: We compared historical specimens (1846 to 1916) to congener specimens collected in 2015 at three former industrial sites in Providence, Rhode Island, and one nonindustrial site on Block Island...
January 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088098/environmental-impact-of-engineered-carbon-nanoparticles-from-releases-to-effects-on-the-aquatic-biota
#15
REVIEW
Antoine Mottier, Florence Mouchet, Éric Pinelli, Laury Gauthier, Emmanuel Flahaut
Nano-ecotoxicology is an emerging science which aims to assess the environmental effect of nanotechnologies. The development of this particular aspect of ecotoxicology was made necessary in order to evaluate the potential impact of recently produced and used materials: nanoparticles (NPs). Among all the types of NPs, carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) especially draw attention giving the increasing number of applications and integration into consumer products. However the potential impacts of CNPs in the environment remain poorly known...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086971/characteristics-and-use-of-urban-health-indicator-tools-by-municipal-built-environment-policy-and-decision-makers-a-systematic-review-protocol
#16
Helen Pineo, Ketevan Glonti, Harry Rutter, Nicole Zimmermann, Paul Wilkinson, Michael Davies
BACKGROUND: There is wide agreement that there is a lack of attention to health in municipal environmental policy-making, such as urban planning and regeneration. Explanations for this include differing professional norms between health and urban environment professionals, system complexity and limited evidence for causality between attributes of the built environment and health outcomes. Data from urban health indicator (UHI) tools are potentially a valuable form of evidence for local government policy and decision-makers...
January 13, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077402/elemental-metabolomics
#17
Ping Zhang, Constantinos A Georgiou, Vladimir Brusic
Elemental metabolomics is quantification and characterization of total concentration of chemical elements in biological samples and monitoring of their changes. Recent advances in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry have enabled simultaneous measurement of concentrations of > 70 elements in biological samples. In living organisms, elements interact and compete with each other for absorption and molecular interactions. They also interact with proteins and nucleotide sequences. These interactions modulate enzymatic activities and are critical for many molecular and cellular functions...
January 10, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068484/informatics-and-data-analytics-to-support-exposome-based-discovery-for-public-health
#18
Arjun K Manrai, Yuxia Cui, Pierre R Bushel, Molly Hall, Spyros Karakitsios, Carolyn J Mattingly, Marylyn Ritchie, Charles Schmitt, Denis A Sarigiannis, Duncan C Thomas, David Wishart, David M Balshaw, Chirag J Patel
The complexity of the human exposome-the totality of environmental exposures encountered from birth to death-motivates systematic, high-throughput approaches to discover the environmental determinants of disease. In this review, we describe the state of science in analyzing the human exposome and provide recommendations for the public health community to consider in dealing with analytic challenges of exposome-based biomedical research. We describe extant and novel analytic methods needed to associate the exposome with critical health outcomes and contextualize the data-centered challenges by drawing parallels to other research endeavors such as human genomics research...
December 23, 2016: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068053/surface-modification-of-gold-nanoparticles-with-small-molecules-for-biochemical-analysis
#19
Yiping Chen, Yunlei Xianyu, Xingyu Jiang
As one of the major tools for and by chemical science, biochemical analysis is becoming increasingly important in fields like clinical diagnosis, food safety, environmental monitoring, and the development of chemistry and biochemistry. The advancement of nanotechnology boosts the development of analytical chemistry, particularly the nanoparticle (NP)-based approaches for biochemical assays. Functional NPs can greatly improve the performance of biochemical analysis because they can accelerate signal transduction, enhance the signal intensity, and enable convenient signal readout due to their unique physical and chemical properties...
January 9, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067083/-examination-of-psychomotor-development-in-relation-to-social-environmental-factors-in-preterm-children-at-2-years-old
#20
Flóra Kenyhercz, Beáta Nagy
INTRODUCTION: The development of children born prematurely is an important aspect in public health, because preterm birth rates are not decreasing with the development of medical sciences. AIM: Description of psychomotor development of preterm children related to potentially influencing environmental factors. METHOD: Children born below 2.500 grams at the age of two (n = 75). Psychomotor development, quality of home environment, socio-demographic background were measured...
January 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
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