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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063815/effect-of-immediate-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-risk-of-severe-bacterial-infections-in-hiv-positive-people-with-cd4-cell-counts-of-more-than-500-cells-per-%C3%AE-l-secondary-outcome-results-from-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#1
Jemma O'Connor, Michael J Vjecha, Andrew N Phillips, Brian Angus, David Cooper, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Gustavo Lopardo, Satyajit Das, Robin Wood, Aimee Wilkin, Hartwig Klinker, Pacharee Kantipong, Karin L Klingman, David Jilich, Elbushra Herieka, Eileen Denning, Ibrahim Abubakar, Fred Gordin, Jens D Lundgren
BACKGROUND: The effects of antiretroviral therapy on risk of severe bacterial infections in people with high CD4 cell counts have not been well described. In this study, we aimed to quantify the effects of immediate versus deferred ART on the risk of severe bacterial infection in people with high CD4 cell counts in a preplanned analysis of the START trial. METHODS: The START trial was a randomised controlled trial in ART-naive HIV-positive patients with CD4 cell count of more than 500 cells per μL assigned to immediate ART or deferral until their CD4 cell counts were lower than 350 cells per μL...
January 4, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043543/investigation-of-urine-lipoarabinomannan-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-patients-with-or-without-coinfection-with-tuberculosis-in-iran
#2
Payam Tabarsi, Majid Marjani, Afshin Moniri, Parissa Farnia, Mehdi Kazempour Dizaji, John Garssen, Ian M Adcock, Esmaeil Mortaz
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains the leading cause of AIDS-related deaths among adults in countries with resource limitations. The emergence of the Xpert MTB/RIF rapid molecular assay and its subsequent World Health Organization endorsement in 2010 transformed the TB-diagnostic landscape. Xpert provided diagnostic accuracy that was far superior to that of the sputum-smear microscopy test previously used. The detection of mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigen in urine has emerged as a potential point-of-care test for TB...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043517/sequelae-of-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-after-treatment-addressing-patient-needs
#3
Bushra Jamil, Sadia Shakoor, Rumina Hasan
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Extrapulmonary disease accounts for a significant proportion of all cases of tuberculosis (TB) in endemic areas. With increasing prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the case numbers are rising; extrapulmonary involvement can be seen in >50% of patients with concurrent AIDS and TB. In both HIV-positive and HIV-negative cases, due to diagnostic difficulties, extrapulmonary disease is often recognized late and, hence, although completely curable in many cases, as far as bacterial eradication is concerned, is not without consequence...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890948/study-of-infections-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-acquired-immunodeficiency-syndrome-patients-in-shadan-hospital-telangana-india
#4
Sukumar Gajjala Reddy, Syed Yousuf Ali, Azheel Khalidi
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemicity is a major concern today as it causes greater loss of productivity than any other disease. HIV infection leads to profound immune deficiency and patients become highly susceptible to opportunistic infections (OIs). HIV epidemic in India is heterogeneous in nature, both in terms of routes of transmission as well as geographical spread. AIMS: (1) Determine prevalence of OIs among HIV-seropositive patients and their relation to CD4 count and to focus on the routes of transmission...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833967/diagnosing-hiv-associated-cerebral-diseases-the-importance-of-neuropathology-in-understanding-hiv
#5
Ioan Alexandru Diaconu, LaurenŢiu MihăiŢă Stratan, Luciana Nichita, Victoria Aramă, Valentina Ruxandra Moroti Constantinescu, Alexandra Ioana Diaconu, Daniela Adriana Ion
The study aims to compare two aspects concerning the diagnosis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated central nervous system (CNS) pathology (neuroAIDS): clinical diagnoses issued ante mortem with pathology results issued post mortem. The group of 39 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients was created over 23 years and is limited by marked heterogeneity. The enrolled cases were treated at the "Prof. Dr. Matei Bals" National Institute for Infectious Diseases, Bucharest, Romania, deceased due to AIDS-related complications and underwent brain necropsies performed in the Pathology Laboratory at the "Colentina" Clinical Hospital, Bucharest...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820957/survival-and-predictors-of-mortality-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-patients-on-anti-retroviral-treatment-at-jinka-hospital-south-omo-ethiopia-a-six-years-retrospective-cohort-study
#6
Erdaw Tachbele, Gobena Ameni
OBJECTIVES: The survival rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving treatment in Ethiopia is poorly understood. This study aimed to determine the survival rate and predictors of mortality among HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at Jinka Hospital, South Omo, Ethiopia. METHODS: A 6-year retrospective cohort study was conducted using 350 patient records drawn from 1,899 patients on ART at Jinka Hospital from September 2010 to August 2015...
2016: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769174/severe-adverse-events-during-second-line-tuberculosis-treatment-in-the-context-of-high-hiv-co-infection-in-south-africa-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#7
Kathryn Schnippel, Rebecca H Berhanu, Andrew Black, Cynthia Firnhaber, Norah Maitisa, Denise Evans, Edina Sinanovic
BACKGROUND: According to the World Health Organization, South Africa ranks as one of the highest burden of TB, TB/HIV co-infection, and drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) countries. DR-TB treatment is complicated to administer and relies on the use of multiple toxic drugs, with potential for severe adverse drug reactions. We report the occurrence of adverse events (AEs) during a standardised DR-TB treatment regimen at two outpatient, decentralized, public-sector sites in Johannesburg, South Africa...
October 21, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753744/healthy-life-years-lost-and-excess-bed-days-due-to-6-patient-safety-incidents-empirical-evidence-from-english-hospitals
#8
Katharina D Hauck, Shaolin Wang, Charles Vincent, Peter C Smith
BACKGROUND: There is little satisfactory evidence on the harm of safety incidents to patients, in terms of lost potential health and life-years. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the healthy life-years (HLYs) lost due to 6 incidents in English hospitals between the years 2005/2006 and 2009/2010, to compare burden across incidents, and estimate excess bed-days. RESEARCH DESIGN: The study used cross-sectional analysis of the medical records of all inpatients treated in 273 English hospitals...
October 6, 2016: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725045/predictors-of-adherence-to-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-in-people-living-with-hiv-in-ethiopia
#9
H T Ayele, M S M van Mourik, M J M Bonten
BACKGROUND: Although isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) is effective in the prevention of tuberculosis (TB) in people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV), patient adherence to this strategy is suboptimal. METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted in the HIV/AIDS (acquired immune-deficiency syndrome) out-patient chronic care unit of Dilla University Hospital, Dilla, Ethiopia, from May 2014 to February 2015. Adherence was defined as completion of the 6-month course of treatment with 90% of pills taken, as measured by diary and pill count...
October 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659507/rapid-urine-based-screening-for-tuberculosis-to-reduce-aids-related-mortality-in-hospitalized-patients-in-africa-the-stamp-trial-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Ankur Gupta-Wright, Katherine L Fielding, Joep J van Oosterhout, Douglas K Wilson, Elizabeth L Corbett, Clare Flach, Krishna P Reddy, Rochelle P Walensky, Jurgens A Peters, Melanie Alufandika-Moyo, Stephen D Lawn
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB) co-infection remains an enormous burden to international public health. Post-mortem studies have highlighted the high proportion of HIV-positive adults admitted to hospital with TB. Determine TB-LAM and Xpert MTB/RIF assays can substantially increase diagnostic yield of TB within one day of hospital admission. However, it remains unclear if this approach can impact clinical outcomes. The STAMP trial aims to test the hypothesis that the implementation a urine-based screening strategy for TB can reduce all cause-mortality among HIV-positive patients admitted to hospital when compared to current, sputum-based screening...
September 22, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525403/-a-pediatric-case-of-hiv-who-diagnosed-by-virtue-of-disseminated-cryptococcus-infection
#11
Manolya Acar, Murat Sütçü, Hacer Aktürk, Selda Hançerli Törün, Nurinisa Karagöz, Hayati Beka, Ensar Yekeler, Ali Ağaçfidan, Nuran Salman, Ayper Somer
Cryptococcus neoformans is an important opportunistic pathogen that causes serious mortality and morbidity in AIDS patients. Although its incidence has decreased with proper antiretroviral treatment (ART), it is still a major concern in areas with low socioeconomic HIV endemic countries with poor sources of therapy. In our country, pediatric HIV infection and so, HIV-related opportunistic infections are very rare. In order to pay attention to this unusual collaboration; herein, we presented a pediatric case who was diagnosed with HIV and disseminated cryptococcus infection concomitantly...
July 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502930/etiology-and-clinical-features-of-229-cases-of-bloodstream-infection-among-chinese-hiv-aids-patients-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study
#12
T Qi, R Zhang, Y Shen, L Liu, D Lowrie, W Song, J Chen, Z Wang, J Shen, R Cai, L Guan, B Luo, Y Tang, H Lu
Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS. The etiology varies in different regions and different periods. We aimed to survey the etiological and clinical features of BSIs in HIV patients in mainland China. We assessed all HIV patients with a positive blood culture in a Chinese teaching hospital from September 2009 through December 2014. We excluded those with specimens likely to have been contaminated. We used Pearson's chi-squared test to measure the differences in characteristics among subgroups of different pathogens...
November 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27437267/a-study-of-compliance-to-antiretroviral-therapy-among-hiv-infected-patients-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-north-karnataka
#13
Ishwar Siddappa Hasabi, Arun Beekanahalli Shivashankarappa, Chandrashekar Kachapur, Ram Suresh Kaulgud
INTRODUCTION: Compliance to Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) is a primary determinant of treatment success of HIV-AIDS. Many studies have shown inadequate compliance to ART in the Indian population. AIM: To assess the compliance to ART among HIV infected patients, to explore the factors affecting compliance and impact of compliance on CD4 count. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 200 adult patients attending ART center, KIMS, Hubli...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27380854/self-reported-impact-of-caregiving-on-voluntary-home-based-caregivers-in-mutale-municipality-south-africa
#14
Ntsieni S Mashau, Vhonani O Netshandama, Makondelela J Mudau
BACKGROUND: The establishment of home-based care (HBC) programmes in developing countries has resulted in a shift of burden from hospitals to communities where palliative care is provided by voluntary home-based caregivers. AIM: The study investigated the impact of caregiving on voluntary home-based caregivers. SETTING: The study was conducted at HBC organisations located in Mutale Municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa. METHODS: A quantitative cross-sectional descriptive survey design was applied to investigate the impact of caregiving on voluntary home-based caregivers...
May 31, 2016: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293363/enteric-parasitic-infection-among-antiretroviral-therapy-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-seropositive-people-infection-begets-infection-experience-from-eastern-india
#15
Suman Mitra, Anindya Mukherjee, Dibbendhu Khanra, Ananya Bhowmik, Krishnendu Roy, Arunansu Talukdar
CONTEXT: Parasitic opportunistic infections (POIs) frequently occur in HIV/AIDS patients and affect the quality of life. AIMS: This study assessing the standard organisms in the stool of HIV-positive patients, their comparison with HIV-negative controls, their relation with various factors, is the first of its kind in the eastern part of India. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: hospital-based case-control study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 194 antiretroviral therapy naïve HIV-positive patients (18-60 years) were taken as cases and 98 age- and sex-matched HIV-negative family members as controls...
April 2016: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27263222/-the-current-situation-of-foreign-tuberculosis-patients-and-their-concurrent-hiv-infection-in-hokkaido
#16
Kimiyuki Ikeda, Hirotaka Nishikiori, Shun Kondo, Tomofumi Kobayashi, Tetsuya Taya, Yuki Mori, Makoto Shioya, Koji Kuronuma, Hiroki Takahashi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: According to recent news, patients with concurrent tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are increasingly common worldwide. This study aimed to investigate whether TB/HIV co-infected patients are visiting Hokkaido. METHOD: We conducted a questionnaire survey regarding foreign patients infected with TB or TB/HIV who visited Hokkaido between January 2001 and September 2014. We mailed questionnaires to health centers, AIDS treatment care hospitals, and TB hospitals in Hokkaido prefecture...
February 2016: Kekkaku: [Tuberculosis]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27255493/cryptococcal-meningitis-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-pretoria-mortality-and-risk-factors-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#17
J Hiesgen, C Schutte, S Olorunju, J Retief
AIM: This retrospective cohort study analyzes the impact of possible risk factors on the survival chance of patients with cryptococcal meningitis. These factors include the patient's socio-economic background, age, gender, presenting symptoms, comorbidities, laboratory findings and, in particular, non-adherence versus adherence to therapy. METHODS: Data were collected from all adult patients admitted to Kalafong Hospital with laboratory confirmed cryptococcal meningitis over a period of 24 months...
June 2, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27241539/efavirenz-plasma-concentrations-and-hiv-viral-load-in-hiv-aids-tuberculosis-infection-patients-treated-with-rifampicin
#18
Nina Mariana, Purwantyastuti, Instiaty, Adria Rusli
AIM: to determine the effect of a rifampicin-containing tuberculosis regimen on efavirenz plasma concentrations and viral load in HIV/AIDS-Tuberculosis infection patients who received efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: plasma efavirenz concentrations and HIV viral load were measured in HIV/AIDS patients treated with 600 mg efavirenz-based antiretroviral for 3 to 6 months and in HIV/AIDS-Tuberculosis infection patients treated with similar antiretroviral regimen plus rifampicin-containing antituberculosis in Sulianti Saroso Infectious disease Hospital, Jakarta...
January 2016: Acta Medica Indonesiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27227959/spectrum-of-opportunistic-infections-and-risk-factors-for-in-hospital-mortality-of-admitted-aids-patients-in-shanghai
#19
Bin Luo, Jianjun Sun, Rentian Cai, Yinzhong Shen, Li Liu, Jiangrong Wang, Renfang Zhang, Jiayin Shen, Hongzhou Lu
To investigate the frequency and the spectrum of major opportunistic infections (OIs), evaluate the major clinical factors associated with each specific OI, and identify the risk factors for in-hospital death among HIV patients in East China.A retrospective cohort study was made including all the HIV-infected patients who were admitted for the first time to the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center during June 1, 2013 to June 1, 2015. The demographic and clinical data were collected. Comparison of continuous variables was analyzed by one-way ANOVA and rank sum test...
May 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27190411/clinical-manifestations-and-outcome-of-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-at-tertiary-care-teaching-hospital
#20
Virendra Chandrashekhar Patil, Harsha V Patil
BACKGROUND: AIDS has become chronic illness which is well treated with antiretroviral therapy and management of opportunistic infections (OIs). AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The study clinical profile and outcome of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was retrospective observational study carried out over a period of 1 year (January 2011-December 2011). All HIV patients admitted in medicine ward, and ICU were enrolled...
January 2016: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
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