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Hiv, AIDS, hospital infections, tuberculosis

Sukumar Gajjala Reddy, Syed Yousuf Ali, Azheel Khalidi
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemicity is a major concern today as it causes greater loss of productivity than any other disease. HIV infection leads to profound immune deficiency and patients become highly susceptible to opportunistic infections (OIs). HIV epidemic in India is heterogeneous in nature, both in terms of routes of transmission as well as geographical spread. AIMS: (1) Determine prevalence of OIs among HIV-seropositive patients and their relation to CD4 count and to focus on the routes of transmission...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Ioan Alexandru Diaconu, LaurenŢiu MihăiŢă Stratan, Luciana Nichita, Victoria Aramă, Valentina Ruxandra Moroti Constantinescu, Alexandra Ioana Diaconu, Daniela Adriana Ion
The study aims to compare two aspects concerning the diagnosis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated central nervous system (CNS) pathology (neuroAIDS): clinical diagnoses issued ante mortem with pathology results issued post mortem. The group of 39 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients was created over 23 years and is limited by marked heterogeneity. The enrolled cases were treated at the "Prof. Dr. Matei Bals" National Institute for Infectious Diseases, Bucharest, Romania, deceased due to AIDS-related complications and underwent brain necropsies performed in the Pathology Laboratory at the "Colentina" Clinical Hospital, Bucharest...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
Erdaw Tachbele Betre, Gobena Ameni
Purpose: Survival rate of HIV-infected patients on treatment are poorly understood in Ethiopia. The study aimed to determine the probability of survival and predictors of mortality, among HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy in Jinka Hospital, South Omo, Ethiopia. Methods: A six years retrospective cohort study was conducted using 350 patient records among 1,899 antiretroviral therapy clients enrolled in Jinka hospital from September2010 - August 2015. Data was analysed using Kaplan Meier and Cox regression models...
November 6, 2016: Epidemiology and Health
Kathryn Schnippel, Rebecca H Berhanu, Andrew Black, Cynthia Firnhaber, Norah Maitisa, Denise Evans, Edina Sinanovic
BACKGROUND: According to the World Health Organization, South Africa ranks as one of the highest burden of TB, TB/HIV co-infection, and drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) countries. DR-TB treatment is complicated to administer and relies on the use of multiple toxic drugs, with potential for severe adverse drug reactions. We report the occurrence of adverse events (AEs) during a standardised DR-TB treatment regimen at two outpatient, decentralized, public-sector sites in Johannesburg, South Africa...
October 21, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Katharina D Hauck, Shaolin Wang, Charles Vincent, Peter C Smith
BACKGROUND: There is little satisfactory evidence on the harm of safety incidents to patients, in terms of lost potential health and life-years. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the healthy life-years (HLYs) lost due to 6 incidents in English hospitals between the years 2005/2006 and 2009/2010, to compare burden across incidents, and estimate excess bed-days. RESEARCH DESIGN: The study used cross-sectional analysis of the medical records of all inpatients treated in 273 English hospitals...
October 6, 2016: Medical Care
H T Ayele, M S M van Mourik, M J M Bonten
BACKGROUND: Although isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) is effective in the prevention of tuberculosis (TB) in people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV), patient adherence to this strategy is suboptimal. METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted in the HIV/AIDS (acquired immune-deficiency syndrome) out-patient chronic care unit of Dilla University Hospital, Dilla, Ethiopia, from May 2014 to February 2015. Adherence was defined as completion of the 6-month course of treatment with 90% of pills taken, as measured by diary and pill count...
October 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Ankur Gupta-Wright, Katherine L Fielding, Joep J van Oosterhout, Douglas K Wilson, Elizabeth L Corbett, Clare Flach, Krishna P Reddy, Rochelle P Walensky, Jurgens A Peters, Melanie Alufandika-Moyo, Stephen D Lawn
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB) co-infection remains an enormous burden to international public health. Post-mortem studies have highlighted the high proportion of HIV-positive adults admitted to hospital with TB. Determine TB-LAM and Xpert MTB/RIF assays can substantially increase diagnostic yield of TB within one day of hospital admission. However, it remains unclear if this approach can impact clinical outcomes. The STAMP trial aims to test the hypothesis that the implementation a urine-based screening strategy for TB can reduce all cause-mortality among HIV-positive patients admitted to hospital when compared to current, sputum-based screening...
September 22, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Manolya Acar, Murat Sütçü, Hacer Aktürk, Selda Hançerli Törün, Nurinisa Karagöz, Hayati Beka, Ensar Yekeler, Ali Ağaçfidan, Nuran Salman, Ayper Somer
Cryptococcus neoformans is an important opportunistic pathogen that causes serious mortality and morbidity in AIDS patients. Although its incidence has decreased with proper antiretroviral treatment (ART), it is still a major concern in areas with low socioeconomic HIV endemic countries with poor sources of therapy. In our country, pediatric HIV infection and so, HIV-related opportunistic infections are very rare. In order to pay attention to this unusual collaboration; herein, we presented a pediatric case who was diagnosed with HIV and disseminated cryptococcus infection concomitantly...
July 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
T Qi, R Zhang, Y Shen, L Liu, D Lowrie, W Song, J Chen, Z Wang, J Shen, R Cai, L Guan, B Luo, Y Tang, H Lu
Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS. The etiology varies in different regions and different periods. We aimed to survey the etiological and clinical features of BSIs in HIV patients in mainland China. We assessed all HIV patients with a positive blood culture in a Chinese teaching hospital from September 2009 through December 2014. We excluded those with specimens likely to have been contaminated. We used Pearson's chi-squared test to measure the differences in characteristics among subgroups of different pathogens...
November 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Ishwar Siddappa Hasabi, Arun Beekanahalli Shivashankarappa, Chandrashekar Kachapur, Ram Suresh Kaulgud
INTRODUCTION: Compliance to Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) is a primary determinant of treatment success of HIV-AIDS. Many studies have shown inadequate compliance to ART in the Indian population. AIM: To assess the compliance to ART among HIV infected patients, to explore the factors affecting compliance and impact of compliance on CD4 count. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 200 adult patients attending ART center, KIMS, Hubli...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Ntsieni S Mashau, Vhonani O Netshandama, Makondelela J Mudau
BACKGROUND: The establishment of home-based care (HBC) programmes in developing countries has resulted in a shift of burden from hospitals to communities where palliative care is provided by voluntary home-based caregivers. AIM: The study investigated the impact of caregiving on voluntary home-based caregivers. SETTING: The study was conducted at HBC organisations located in Mutale Municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa. METHODS: A quantitative cross-sectional descriptive survey design was applied to investigate the impact of caregiving on voluntary home-based caregivers...
2016: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
Suman Mitra, Anindya Mukherjee, Dibbendhu Khanra, Ananya Bhowmik, Krishnendu Roy, Arunansu Talukdar
CONTEXT: Parasitic opportunistic infections (POIs) frequently occur in HIV/AIDS patients and affect the quality of life. AIMS: This study assessing the standard organisms in the stool of HIV-positive patients, their comparison with HIV-negative controls, their relation with various factors, is the first of its kind in the eastern part of India. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: hospital-based case-control study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 194 antiretroviral therapy naïve HIV-positive patients (18-60 years) were taken as cases and 98 age- and sex-matched HIV-negative family members as controls...
April 2016: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
Kimiyuki Ikeda, Hirotaka Nishikiori, Shun Kondo, Tomofumi Kobayashi, Tetsuya Taya, Yuki Mori, Makoto Shioya, Koji Kuronuma, Hiroki Takahashi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: According to recent news, patients with concurrent tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are increasingly common worldwide. This study aimed to investigate whether TB/HIV co-infected patients are visiting Hokkaido. METHOD: We conducted a questionnaire survey regarding foreign patients infected with TB or TB/HIV who visited Hokkaido between January 2001 and September 2014. We mailed questionnaires to health centers, AIDS treatment care hospitals, and TB hospitals in Hokkaido prefecture...
February 2016: Kekkaku: [Tuberculosis]
J Hiesgen, C Schutte, S Olorunju, J Retief
AIM: This retrospective cohort study analyzes the impact of possible risk factors on the survival chance of patients with cryptococcal meningitis. These factors include the patient's socio-economic background, age, gender, presenting symptoms, comorbidities, laboratory findings and, in particular, non-adherence versus adherence to therapy. METHODS: Data were collected from all adult patients admitted to Kalafong Hospital with laboratory confirmed cryptococcal meningitis over a period of 24 months...
June 2, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Nina Mariana, Purwantyastuti, Instiaty, Adria Rusli
AIM: to determine the effect of a rifampicin-containing tuberculosis regimen on efavirenz plasma concentrations and viral load in HIV/AIDS-Tuberculosis infection patients who received efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: plasma efavirenz concentrations and HIV viral load were measured in HIV/AIDS patients treated with 600 mg efavirenz-based antiretroviral for 3 to 6 months and in HIV/AIDS-Tuberculosis infection patients treated with similar antiretroviral regimen plus rifampicin-containing antituberculosis in Sulianti Saroso Infectious disease Hospital, Jakarta...
January 2016: Acta Medica Indonesiana
Bin Luo, Jianjun Sun, Rentian Cai, Yinzhong Shen, Li Liu, Jiangrong Wang, Renfang Zhang, Jiayin Shen, Hongzhou Lu
To investigate the frequency and the spectrum of major opportunistic infections (OIs), evaluate the major clinical factors associated with each specific OI, and identify the risk factors for in-hospital death among HIV patients in East China.A retrospective cohort study was made including all the HIV-infected patients who were admitted for the first time to the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center during June 1, 2013 to June 1, 2015. The demographic and clinical data were collected. Comparison of continuous variables was analyzed by one-way ANOVA and rank sum test...
May 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Virendra Chandrashekhar Patil, Harsha V Patil
BACKGROUND: AIDS has become chronic illness which is well treated with antiretroviral therapy and management of opportunistic infections (OIs). AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The study clinical profile and outcome of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was retrospective observational study carried out over a period of 1 year (January 2011-December 2011). All HIV patients admitted in medicine ward, and ICU were enrolled...
January 2016: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Johannes P Mouton, Christine Njuguna, Nicole Kramer, Annemie Stewart, Ushma Mehta, Marc Blockman, Melony Fortuin-De Smidt, Reneé De Waal, Andy G Parrish, Douglas P K Wilson, Ehimario U Igumbor, Getahun Aynalem, Mukesh Dheda, Gary Maartens, Karen Cohen
Limited data exist on the burden of serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in sub-Saharan Africa, which has high HIV and tuberculosis prevalence. We determined the proportion of adult admissions attributable to ADRs at 4 hospitals in South Africa. We characterized drugs implicated in, risk factors for, and the preventability of ADR-related admissions.We prospectively followed patients admitted to 4 hospitals' medical wards over sequential 30-day periods in 2013 and identified suspected ADRs with the aid of a trigger tool...
May 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Clarice Brinck Brum, Daniela Fernandes Ramos, Fernanda de Souza Abilleira, Ana Bárbara Scholante Silva, Andrea von Groll, Pedro Eduardo Almeida da Silva
INTRODUCTION: The World Health Organization endorses the BACTEC Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT)(tm) system as a rapid, sensitive, and specific method to diagnostic of tuberculosis. Here, we compared the performance of this system against Ogawa-Kudoh cultures and microscopy. METHODS: A total of 927 samples were obtained between December 2011 and December 2013 from 652 cases of suspected tuberculosis at the School Hospital of the Federal University of Rio Grande in Brazil...
February 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
César F Romero, José L Soto-Hernández, Cecilia Bonnet, Graciela Cárdenas
INTRODUCTION: Currently, AIDS is the worldwide leading cause of death among 15- to 59-year-old individuals. This trend has had particularly harsh social and economic consequences in sub-Saharan Africa, where more than half of global AIDS deaths take place. In the United States, an estimated 1.2 million people are infected with HIV. In 2012, a worldwide estimate of 1.7 million deaths due to AIDS-related causes was reported.About 10% to 12% of all AIDS patients will develop intracranial tumors...
May 2016: Neurologist
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