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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177395/-infection-by-the-mycobacterium-avium-intracellulare-complex-in-patients-with-hiv-aids-in-a-peruvian-hospital-a-series-of-cases
#1
César Ticona-Huaroto, Lilian Astocondor-Salazar, Juan Montenegro-Idrogo, Gustavo Valencia-Mesias, Jaime Soria
There is little information on the presence of the Mycobacterium avium-Intracellulare (MAC) complex in Peru. Five cases of MAC infection are described in patients with HIV/AIDS at the National Hospital Dos de Mayo, Lima - Peru. The patients presented, mainly, persistent fever, chronic diarrhea, consumptive syndrome, pancytopenia and citofagocitosis. In all of them, resistant acid-alcohol bacilli were identified in feces, so they received antituberculous treatment. The culture of feces was negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and, later, in all cases MAC was identified using a molecular test (genotype) in the culture of feces...
April 2017: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165514/-disseminated-histoplasmosis-and-hiv-infection-case-series-in-a-peruvian-hospital
#2
Giancarlo Pérez-Lazo, Julio Maquera-Afaray, Christian R Mejia, Raúl Castillo
BACKGROUND: Histoplasmosis is an endemic fungal infection in Peru and HIV coinfection leads to difficult diagnoses and high associated mortality. AIM: To describe clinical, epidemiological and clinical outcomes in patients with HIV infection with diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis (DH) at Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen National Hospital, Lima, Peru. METHODS: Retrospective, descriptive study; information was obtained from the computer registry of patients with HIV infection diagnosed with DH, during the period 1996-2014...
August 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132400/hospitalization-causes-and-outcomes-in-hiv-patients-in-the-late-antiretroviral-era-in-colombia
#3
María Fernanda Álvarez Barreneche, Carlos Andrés Restrepo Castro, Alicia Hidrón Botero, Juan Pablo Villa Franco, Ivan Mauricio Trompa Romero, Laura Restrepo Carvajal, Alejandro Eusse García, Adriana Ocampo Mesa, Lina María Echeverri Toro, Glenys Patricia Porras Fernández de Castro, Jaime Mauricio Ramírez Rivera, Carlos Andrés Agudelo Restrepo
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has modified the natural history of HIV-infection: the incidence of opportunistic infections (OIs) has decreased and mortality associated to HIV has improved dramatically. The reasons for hospitalization have changed; OIs are no longer the most common reason for admission. This study describes the patient population, admission diagnosis and hospital course of HIV patients in Colombia in the ART era. METHODS: Patients admitted with HIV/AIDS at six hospitals in Medellin, Colombia between August 1, 2014 and July 31, 2015 were included...
November 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028662/stool-xpert-mtb-rif-and-urine-lipoarabinomannan-lam-for-diagnosing-tuberculosis-in-hospitalized-hiv-infected-children
#4
Sylvia M LaCourse, Patricia B Pavlinac, Lisa M Cranmer, Irene N Njuguna, Cyrus Mugo, John Gatimu, Joshua Stern, Judd L Walson, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Julius Oyugi, Dalton Wamalwa, Grace John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) causes substantial morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected children. Sample collection and paucibacillary nature of TB in children makes diagnosis challenging. Rapid diagnostic tools using easily obtained specimens are urgently needed. METHODS: Hospitalized, HIV-infected children ≤12 years enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (NCT02063880) comparing urgent to poststabilization ART initiation in Kenya underwent TB evaluation. At enrollment, sputum or gastric aspirates (GA) were collected for TB culture and Xpert, stool for Xpert, and urine for lateral flow lipoarabinomannan (LAM )...
October 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990409/hiv-primary-care-by-the-infectious-disease-physician-in-the-united-states-extending-the-continuum-of-care
#5
Seetha Lakshmi, Susan E Beekmann, Philip M Polgreen, Allan Rodriguez, Maria L Alcaide
Models of care for people living with HIV (PLWH) have varied over time due to long term survival, development of HIV-associated non-AIDS conditions, and HIV specific primary care guidelines that differ from those of the general population. The objectives of this study are to assess how often infectious disease (ID) physicians provide primary care for PLWH, assess their practice patterns and barriers in the provision of primary care. We used a 6-item survey electronically distributed to ID physician members of Emerging Infections Network (EIN)...
October 9, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969114/oxidative-stress-markers-in-tuberculosis-and-hiv-tb-co-infection
#6
Shreewardhan Haribhau Rajopadhye, Sandeepan R Mukherjee, Abhay S Chowdhary, Sucheta P Dandekar
INTRODUCTION: Dysfunction of redox homeostasis has been implicated in many pathological conditions. An imbalance of pro- and anti-oxidants have been observed in Tuberculosis (TB) and its co-morbidities especially HIV/AIDS. The pro inflammatory milieu in either condition aggravates the physiological balance of the redox mechanisms. The present study therefore focuses on assessing the redox status of patients suffering from TB and HIV-TB co-infection. AIM: To assess the oxidative stress markers in the HIV-TB and TB study cohort...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892896/detection-of-cytomegalovirus-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-from-hiv-positive-individuals-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#7
Arati Mane, Pankaj Gujar, Shraddha Gaikwad, Tilak Dhamgaye, Arun Risbud
INTRODUCTION: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia is one of the frequent viral pneumonia reported in persons with HIV infection. Knowledge of pulmonary CMV infection is important for deciding appropriate diagnostic strategies. However, there is scanty literature addressing the role of CMV aetiology among HIV positive individuals presenting with Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) using Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) samples from India. AIM: To detect CMV in BAL fluid from HIV-positive individuals presenting with CAP...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797184/late-presentation-hiv-aids-are-still-a-challenge-in-brazil-and-worldwide
#8
Shirley Komninakis, Magaly Lima Mota, James Richard Hunter, Ricardo Sobhie Diaz
Despite all the efforts to contain the HIV/AIDS epidemics there still are individuals of unknown diagnosis. These present high risk of mortality, and following diagnosis respond very poorly to treatment. Late testing also represents a reduced opportunity in controlling the transmission of HIV and causes an indirect increase in the transmission rates of other diseases, such as tuberculosis. In European countries, as well as in the United States, a great number of people, represented specially by illegal immigrants, black individuals and women markedly present at a later state of infection...
August 11, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567196/cytopenias-among-art-naive-patients-with-advanced-hiv-disease-on-enrolment-to-care-and-treatment-services-at-a-tertiary-hospital-in-tanzania-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Daniel W Gunda, Kahamba G Godfrey, Semvua B Kilonzo, Bonaventura C Mpondo
BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS causes high morbidity and mortality through both immunosuppression and complications not directly related to immunosuppression. Haematological abnormalities, including various cytopenias, occur commonly in HIV through immune and non-immune pathways. Though these complications could potentially cause serious clinical implications, published literature on the magnitude of this problem and its associated factors in Tanzania is scarce. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and risk factors of HIV-associated cytopenias among ART-naive patients enrolling for care and treatment services at Bugando Care and Treatment Centre (CTC) in Mwanza, Tanzania...
March 2017: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553027/a-ten-year-audit-of-maternal-mortality-millennium-development-still-a-distant-goal
#10
Anshuja Singla, Shalini Rajaram, Sumita Mehta, Gita Radhakrishnan
OBJECTIVE: To assess various causes of maternal mortality over a ten year period. DESIGN: Retrospective audit of hospital case records. SETTING: Tertiary care hospital. POPULATION: Pregnant women who expired in the premises of GTB Hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective audit of case records of maternal deaths was conducted for a ten year period (January 2005 to December 2014). RESULTS: There were a total of 647 maternal deaths out of 1,16,641 live births...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539863/pulmonary-aspergillosis-as-opportunistic-mycoses-in-a-cohort-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-patients-report-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-north-india
#11
Ravinder Kaur, Bhanu Mehra, Megh Singh Dhakad, Ritu Goyal, Richa Dewan
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of pulmonary aspergillosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons is rising. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of pulmonary aspergillosis in a cohort of HIV-positive patients (n = 71) presenting with lower respiratory tract infection at a tertiary care medical center in India. METHODS: Sputum samples were collected, and potassium hydroxide mount, cultural characteristics, and lactophenol cotton blue preparations were employed to aid in the identification of Aspergillus species...
April 2017: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527251/-pathological-findings-in-patients-with-hiv-infection-and-lymphadenopathies
#12
Federico Rodríguez-Vega, Miguel Botero, Jorge Alberto Cortés, Ángela Tobón
INTRODUCTION: Lymphadenopathy is a frequent clinical finding in HIV-infected patients. The differential diagnosis includes infection, malignancy or reactive changes. Currently, there are no data on this topic in the region. OBJECTIVES: To describe the etiology of lymph node pathology in HIV-infected patients from the Hospital La María in Medellín, Colombia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical records of HIV-infected patients with lymphadenopathy who underwent excisional lymph node biopsy between June 2009 and October 2011 were retrospectively evaluated...
January 24, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392698/assessment-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-in-the-reduction-of-tuberculosis-among-art-patients-in-arba-minch-hospital-ethiopia
#13
Ashenafi Abossie, Tsegaye Yohanes
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the most frequent life-threatening opportunistic disease among people living with HIV and remains a leading cause of mortality, even among persons receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis have been recommended for the benefit of HIV/AIDS-infected individuals to prevent opportunistic infections. The aim of this study was to assess IPT prophylaxis in the reduction of TB among ART patients. METHODS: The study was a hospital-based retrospective study...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383411/patient-characteristics-and-perceived-health-status-of-individuals-with-hiv-and-tuberculosis-coinfection-in-guangxi-china
#14
Yujia Zhu, Jizhou Wu, Xue Feng, Huanhuan Chen, Huaxiang Lu, Li Chen, Liuhong Luo, Chao Rui
To explore demographics, clinical and medication profiles, patients' social support, and perceived health status in HIV/TB coinfected patients in Guangxi, China.We performed a cross-sectional study in the HIV clinic of the Guigang City People's Hospital (N = 150). Health professionals conducted face-to-face interviews and collected data from patients' electronic medical records regarding patients' demographic, clinical, and medication information, as well as their social support and perceived health status...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329668/stevens-johnson-syndrome-and-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-in-us-adults
#15
Derek Y Hsu
Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are life-threatening disorders. The incidences, mortality and cost of SJS and TEN in US adults are not well-characterized. We analyzed data from the 2009-2012 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, containing a representative 20% sample of all hospitalizations in the US. SJS, SJS/TEN and TEN were identified by a validated algorithm using ICD-9- CM codes. The mean incidences of SJS, SJS/TEN and TEN were 9.3, 1.6, and 1.9 per million people per year, respectively...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275458/demographic-and-clinical-correlates-of-hiv-1-rna-levels-in-antiretroviral-therapy-naive-adults-attending-a-tertiary-hospital-in-jos-nigeria
#16
EDITORIAL
Joseph Anejo-Okopi, Isaac Okoh Abah, Yakhat Barshep, Augustine Odo Ebonyi, Comfort Daniyam, Samson Ejiji Isa, Gomerep Simji, Stephen Oguche, Patricia Agaba, Patricia Lar, Oche Agbaji, John A Idoko
BACKGROUND: Plasma HIV-RNA viral load (VL) of HIV-infected persons is an important prognostic factor in HIV management. We determined the VL among antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive patients to identify the association between patients' demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics with VL. METHOD: A cross-sectional study of 224 ART-naive HIV-1-infected patients (≥15 years of age) accessing care at the Jos University Teaching Hospital AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria ART treatment centre, from October 2010 to April 2011...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213689/serious-fungal-infections-in-egypt
#17
S M Zaki, D W Denning
We aimed to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Egypt, currently unknown, based on the size of the populations at risk and available epidemiological data. Data were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO), the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), and published reports with clearcut denominators. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology. The population of Egypt in 2011 was ∼82,500,000; 31% children, and 8% women >60 years of age...
June 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198210/a-minority-of-patients-newly-diagnosed-with-aids-are-started-on-antiretroviral-therapy-at-the-time-of-diagnosis-in-a-large-public-hospital-in-the-southeastern-united-states
#18
Neela D Goswami, Jonathan Colasanti, Jonathan J Khoubian, Yijian Huang, Wendy S Armstrong, Carlos Del Rio
Prompt antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation after AIDS diagnosis, in the absence of certain opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis and cryptococcal meningitis, delays disease progression and death, but system barriers to inpatient ART initiation at large hospitals in the era of modern ART have been less studied. We reviewed hospitalizations for persons newly diagnosed with AIDS at Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia in 2011 and 2012. Individual- and system-level variables were collected. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for ART initiation prior to discharge...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063815/effect-of-immediate-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-risk-of-severe-bacterial-infections-in-hiv-positive-people-with-cd4-cell-counts-of-more-than-500-cells-per-%C3%AE-l-secondary-outcome-results-from-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jemma O'Connor, Michael J Vjecha, Andrew N Phillips, Brian Angus, David Cooper, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Gustavo Lopardo, Satyajit Das, Robin Wood, Aimee Wilkin, Hartwig Klinker, Pacharee Kantipong, Karin L Klingman, David Jilich, Elbushra Herieka, Eileen Denning, Ibrahim Abubakar, Fred Gordin, Jens D Lundgren
BACKGROUND: The effects of antiretroviral therapy on risk of severe bacterial infections in people with high CD4 cell counts have not been well described. In this study, we aimed to quantify the effects of immediate versus deferred ART on the risk of severe bacterial infection in people with high CD4 cell counts in a preplanned analysis of the START trial. METHODS: The START trial was a randomised controlled trial in ART-naive HIV-positive patients with CD4 cell count of more than 500 cells per μL assigned to immediate ART or deferral until their CD4 cell counts were lower than 350 cells per μL...
March 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043543/investigation-of-urine-lipoarabinomannan-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-patients-with-or-without-coinfection-with-tuberculosis-in-iran
#20
Payam Tabarsi, Majid Marjani, Afshin Moniri, Parissa Farnia, Mehdi Kazempour Dizaji, John Garssen, Ian M Adcock, Esmaeil Mortaz
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains the leading cause of AIDS-related deaths among adults in countries with resource limitations. The emergence of the Xpert MTB/RIF rapid molecular assay and its subsequent World Health Organization endorsement in 2010 transformed the TB-diagnostic landscape. Xpert provided diagnostic accuracy that was far superior to that of the sputum-smear microscopy test previously used. The detection of mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigen in urine has emerged as a potential point-of-care test for TB...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
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