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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706786/the-hidden-heuchera-how-science-twitter-uncovered-a-globally-imperiled-species-in-pennsylvania-usa
#1
Scott Schuette, Ryan A Folk, Jason T Cantley, Christopher T Martine
The genus Heuchera is recognized as one of the most diverse endemic radiations of Saxifragaceae in North America, yet species delimitation and geographic distribution within the group remain controversial. Many species remain difficult to identify, including Heuchera alba , a narrow Appalachian endemic and globally imperiled (G2) taxon recorded only from West Virginia and Virginia that occurs in sympatry with H. pubescens and H. americana . A recent survey of the cliffside flora of the Shikellamy Bluffs, PA recorded dozens of Heuchera individuals that, through the use of social media, were positively identified as H...
2018: PhytoKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705516/icones-plantarum-malabaricarum-early-18th-century-botanical-drawings-of-medicinal-plants-from-colonial-ceylon
#2
Tinde Van Andel, Ariane Scholman, Mieke Beumer
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: From 1640-1796, the Dutch East India Company (VOC) occupied the island of Ceylon (now Sri Lanka). Several VOC officers had a keen interest in the medicinal application of the local flora. The Leiden University Library holds a two-piece codex entitled: Icones Plantarum Malabaricarum, adscriptis nominibus et viribus, Vol. I. & II. (Illustrations of Plants from the Malabar, assigned names and strength). This manuscript contains 262 watercolour drawings of medicinal plants from Sri Lanka, with handwritten descriptions of local names, habitus, medicinal properties and therapeutic applications...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603138/a-roadmap-for-global-synthesis-of-the-plant-tree-of-life
#3
Wolf L Eiserhardt, Alexandre Antonelli, Dominic J Bennett, Laura R Botigué, J Gordon Burleigh, Steven Dodsworth, Brian J Enquist, Félix Forest, Jan T Kim, Alexey M Kozlov, Ilia J Leitch, Brian S Maitner, Siavash Mirarab, William H Piel, Oscar A Pérez-Escobar, Lisa Pokorny, Carsten Rahbek, Brody Sandel, Stephen A Smith, Alexandros Stamatakis, Rutger A Vos, Tandy Warnow, William J Baker
Providing science and society with an integrated, up-to-date, high quality, open, reproducible and sustainable plant tree of life would be a huge service that is now coming within reach. However, synthesizing the growing body of DNA sequence data in the public domain and disseminating the trees to a diverse audience are often not straightforward due to numerous informatics barriers. While big synthetic plant phylogenies are being built, they remain static and become quickly outdated as new data are published and tree-building methods improve...
March 30, 2018: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569169/flower-like-heads-from-flower-like-meristems-pseudanthium-development-in-davidia-involucrata-nyssaceae
#4
Regine Claßen-Bockhoff, Melanie Arndt
Flower-like inflorescences (pseudanthia) have fascinated botanists for a long time. They are explained as condensed inflorescences implying that the pseudanthium develops from an inflorescence meristem (IM). However, recent developmental studies identified a new form of reproductive meristem, the floral unit meristem (FUM). It differs from IMs by lacking acropetal growth and shares fractionation, expansion and autonomous space filling with flower meristems (FM). The similarity among FUMs and FMs raises the question how far flower-like heads originate from flower-like meristems...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515616/recruiting-conventional-tree-architecture-models-into-state-of-the-art-lidar-mapping-for-investigating-tree-growth-habits-in-structure
#5
Yi Lin, Miao Jiang, Petri Pellikka, Janne Heiskanen
Mensuration of tree growth habits is of considerable importance for understanding forest ecosystem processes and forest biophysical responses to climate changes. However, the complexity of tree crown morphology that is typically formed after many years of growth tends to render it a non-trivial task, even for the state-of-the-art 3D forest mapping technology-light detection and ranging (LiDAR). Fortunately, botanists have deduced the large structural diversity of tree forms into only a limited number of tree architecture models, which can present a-priori knowledge about tree structure, growth, and other attributes for different species...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445389/interspecific-divergence-of-two-sinalliaria-brassicaceae-species-in-eastern-china
#6
Lei Zhang, Tingting Zeng, Huan Hu, Liqiang Fan, Honglei Zheng, Quanjun Hu
How endemic species originated in eastern Asia has interested botanists for a long time. In this study, we combined experimental and computational modeling approaches to examine the morphological and genetic divergence and reproductive isolation of two tentative species of Sinalliaria (Brassicaceae) endemic to eastern China, S. limprichtiana and S. grandifolia . Most of the examined morphological characters (including hairs of leaf blades and stems, corolla length and width, and flower stalk length) were well-delineated between two species at the same ploidy level, and there was clear evidence of reproductive isolation between them (mainly due to post-pollination barriers) in the common garden environment...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391153/an-historical-note-on-the-cell-theory
#7
REVIEW
Domenico Ribatti
The development of the microscope was a precondition for the discovery of cells. This instrument magnifies objects too small to be seen by the naked eye. In 1673, the Dutch botanist, Anton van Leeuwenhoek, made a more advanced microscope and reported seeing a myriad of microscopic "animalcules" in water. He also made further studies of red blood cells and sperm cells. Most studies that followed were done on the easily studied plant tissues. Plant cells, rigidly encased in their cell walls, were ideal to study in situ...
March 1, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316469/numerical-research-on-the-effects-the-skyglow-could-have-in-phytochromes-and-rqe-photoreceptors-of-plants
#8
H A Solano-Lamphar, M Kocifaj
The increase of artificial light at night has a terrible impact on organisms with nightlife patterns such as a migration, nutrition, reproduction and collective interaction. Plants are not free from this issue as they have life cycle events occurring not only yearly but also daily. Such events relate to daytime variations with seasons in which the flowers of deciduous trees bloom and the leaves of certain trees fall off and change color. A response of plants to artificial light at night still remains poorly quantified; but recent scientific research suggest that skyglow can disturb plants processes...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194624/a-three-locus-pcr-based-method-for-forensic-identification-of-plant-material
#9
Tushar Srivastava, Michael Wu, Julia Kakhnovich, Bridgit Waithaka, Nathan H Lents
Plant residue is currently an underutilized resource in forensic investigations despite the fact that many crime scenes, as well as suspects and victims, harbor plant-derived residue that could be recovered and analyzed. Notwithstanding the considerable skill of forensic botanists, current methods of species determination could benefit from tools for DNA-based species identification. However, DNA barcoding in plants has been hampered by sequence complications in the plant genome. Following a database search for usable barcodes, broad-spectrum primers were designed and utilized to amplify and sequence the rbcL, trnL-F, and rrn18 genetic loci from a variety of household plants...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167161/inferring-long-distance-dispersal-modes-in-american-amphitropically-disjunct-species-through-adaptive-dispersal-structures
#10
John J Schenk, Kelsey Saunders
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: A repeated pattern of American amphitropical disjunct species or sister species distributed on either side of the equator has long-fascinated botanists, but the modes of these disjunctions remain untested. We evaluated diaspore morphology to generate hypotheses on probable dispersal mechanisms. METHODS: The sizes and structures of diaspores, habit, habitat, distribution, and dispersal units were collected for 108 species from literature searches and herbarium specimens...
November 22, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137849/genera-evolution-and-botanists-in-1940-edgar-anderson-s-survey-of-modern-opinion
#11
Kim Kleinman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 11, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019597/the-botanist-george-gardner-and-his-impressions-of-slave-culture-in-brazil-rio-de-janeiro-1810-1850
#12
José Carlos Barreiro
This article analyzes the English botanist George Gardner's trip to Brazil during the 1830s. After graduating from the University of Glasgow Gardner was influenced by his teacher and by readings of contemporary naturalists and set off for Brazil in March of 1836, arriving two months later in Rio de Janeiro. The article presents Gardner's impressions of slavery in Brazil, in an attempt to unveil the symbolic universe of a play he witnessed and described, which took place on a farm in Rio de Janeiro on Christmas night...
July 2017: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971127/integrated-dataset-of-anatomical-morphological-and-architectural-traits-for-plant-species-in-madagascar
#13
Amira Azizan, Emma Guillon, Yves Caraglio, Patrick Langbour, Sébastien Paradis, Pierre Bonnet, Yannick Brohard, Christine Heinz, Nabila Boutahar, Loïc Brancheriau
In this work, we present a dataset, which provides information on the structural diversity of some endemic tropical species in Madagascar. The data were from CIRAD xylotheque (since 1937), and were also collected during various fieldworks (since 1964). The field notes and photographs were provided by French botanists; particularly by Francis Hallé. The dataset covers 250 plant species with anatomical, morphological, and architectural traits indexed from digitized wood slides and fieldwork documents. The digitized wood slides were constituted by the transverse, tangential, and radial sections with three optical magnifications...
December 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931320/chemical-and-biomolecular-analyses-to-discriminate-three-taxa-of-pistacia-genus-from-sardinia-island-italy-and-their-antifungal-activity
#14
Arianna Marengo, Alessandra Piras, Danilo Falconieri, Silvia Porcedda, Pierluigi Caboni, Pierluigi Cortis, Caterina Foddis, Claudia Loi, Maria José Gonçalves, Lígia Salgueiro, Andrea Maxia
This work reports the results and the comparison concerning the chemical and biomolecular analyses and the antifungal activity of three wild Pistacia species (Anacardiaceae) from Sardinia. Volatile oils from leaves and twigs of Pistacia x saportae, Pistacia lentiscus and Pistacia terebinthus were characterised using GC-FID and GC-MS techniques and tested against some fungal strains. Two DNA nuclear regions (ITS and 5S-rRNA-NTS) were amplified through PCR technique and sequenced. The three **Pistacia have similar chemical profile, although there are some important quantitative differences...
September 20, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898658/phyllotaxis
#15
Cris Kuhlemeier
Leaves and flowers are arranged in regular patterns around the stem of a plant, a phenomenon known as phyllotaxis. Different arrangements occur, such as distichous, decussate or spiral (Figure 1). Most prevalent in nature are spirals in which the average divergence angles between successive organs are close to 137.5°, the so-called 'golden angle'. It is this exact number that has given phyllotaxis its special flavor as a quantitative developmental problem, and over the centuries, it has enjoyed the attention of scientists far beyond botany...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898650/wilhelm-hofmeister-and-the-foundations-of-plant-science
#16
EDITORIAL
Cyrus Martin
On January 12th 1877, the Grim Reaper visited Wilhelm Hofmeister (Figure 1) for the last time. Having recently witnessed the death of a wife, two daughters, and two sons (only two of his nine children survived him), the German botanist, perhaps succumbing to the weight of his own grief, suffered a series of strokes and then promptly died at the age of 52 in Lindenau, Germany. He has since faded into the dusty annals of 19th century botany, his contributions to our knowledge about plants, how they come into being, develop and interact with their environment, mostly forgotten...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797242/going-deeper-in-the-automated-identification-of-herbarium-specimens
#17
Jose Carranza-Rojas, Herve Goeau, Pierre Bonnet, Erick Mata-Montero, Alexis Joly
BACKGROUND: Hundreds of herbarium collections have accumulated a valuable heritage and knowledge of plants over several centuries. Recent initiatives started ambitious preservation plans to digitize this information and make it available to botanists and the general public through web portals. However, thousands of sheets are still unidentified at the species level while numerous sheets should be reviewed and updated following more recent taxonomic knowledge. These annotations and revisions require an unrealistic amount of work for botanists to carry out in a reasonable time...
August 11, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757863/automatic-image-based-plant-disease-severity-estimation-using-deep-learning
#18
Guan Wang, Yu Sun, Jianxin Wang
Automatic and accurate estimation of disease severity is essential for food security, disease management, and yield loss prediction. Deep learning, the latest breakthrough in computer vision, is promising for fine-grained disease severity classification, as the method avoids the labor-intensive feature engineering and threshold-based segmentation. Using the apple black rot images in the PlantVillage dataset, which are further annotated by botanists with four severity stages as ground truth, a series of deep convolutional neural networks are trained to diagnose the severity of the disease...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694778/north-african-medicinal-plants-traditionally-used-in-cancer-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Jorge M Alves-Silva, Abderrahmane Romane, Thomas Efferth, Lígia Salgueiro
Background: Cancer is a major cause of mortality worldwide with increasing numbers by the years. In North Africa, the number of cancer patients is alarming. Also shocking is that a huge number of cancer patients only have access to traditional medicines due to several factors, e.g., economic difficulties. In fact, medicinal plants are widely used for the treatment of several pathologies, including cancer. Truthfully, herbalists and botanists in North African countries prescribe several plants for cancer treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664395/three-new-species-of-begonia-sect-baryandra-from-panay-island-philippines
#20
Ching-I Peng, Rosario Rivera Rubite, Che-Wei Lin, Mark Hughes, Yoshiko Kono, Kuo-Fang Chung
BACKGROUND: The flora of Panay Island is under-collected compared with the other islands of the Philippines. In a joint expedition to the island, botanists from Taiwan and the Philippines found three unknown Begonia species and compared them with potentially allied species. RESULTS: The three species are clearly assignable to Begonia sect. Baryandra which is largely endemic to the Philippines. Studies of literature, herbarium specimens, and living plants support the recognition of the three new species: Begonia culasiensis, B...
December 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
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