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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879262/influence-of-biological-and-social-historical-variables-on-the-time-taken-to-describe-an-angiosperm
#1
Evelin K S Cavallin, Cássia B R Munhoz, Stephen A Harris, Daniel Villarroel, Carolyn E B Proença
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: By convention, scientific naming of angiosperm species began in 1753; it is estimated that 10-20% of species remain undescribed. To complete this task before rare, undescribed species go extinct, a better understanding of the description process is needed. The South American Cerrado biodiversity hotspot was considered a suitable model due to a high diversity of plants, habitats, and social history of species description. METHODS: A randomized sample of 214 species (2% of the angiosperm flora) and 22 variables were analyzed using multivariate analyses and analysis of variance...
November 2016: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814370/can-community-members-identify-tropical-tree-species-for-redd-carbon-and-biodiversity-measurements
#2
Mingxu Zhao, Søren Brofeldt, Qiaohong Li, Jianchu Xu, Finn Danielsen, Simon Bjarke Lægaard Læssøe, Michael Køie Poulsen, Anna Gottlieb, James Franklin Maxwell, Ida Theilade
Biodiversity conservation is a required co-benefit of REDD+. Biodiversity monitoring is therefore needed, yet in most areas it will be constrained by limitations in the available human professional and financial resources. REDD+ programs that use forest plots for biomass monitoring may be able to take advantage of the same data for detecting changes in the tree diversity, using the richness and abundance of canopy trees as a proxy for biodiversity. If local community members are already assessing the above-ground biomass in a representative network of forest vegetation plots, it may require minimal further effort to collect data on the diversity of trees...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809237/discovery-of-bioactive-compounds-by-the-uic-icbg-drug-discovery-program-in-the-18-years-since-1998
#3
REVIEW
Hong-Jie Zhang, Wan-Fei Li, Harry H S Fong, Djaja Doel Soejarto
The International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups (ICBG) Program based at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) is a program aimed to address the interdependent issues of inventory and conservation of biodiversity, drug discovery and sustained economic growth in both developing and developed countries. It is an interdisciplinary program involving the extensive synergies and collaborative efforts of botanists, chemists and biologists in the countries of Vietnam, Laos and the USA. The UIC-ICBG drug discovery efforts over the past 18 years have resulted in the collection of a cumulative total of more than 5500 plant samples (representing more than 2000 species), that were evaluated for their potential biological effects against cancer, HIV, bird flu, tuberculosis and malaria...
October 31, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797537/from-catalepsy-to-psychical-research-the-itinerary-of-timoth%C3%A3-e-puel-1812-1890
#4
Renaud Evrard, Erika Annabelle Pratte
The physician and botanist Timothée Puel (1812-1890) lived through a pivotal period of psychology (1848-1878), between the academic prohibition of the study of animal magnetism to its disjointed recovery in hypnotism and psychical research. One of his cases of "catalepsy complicated with somnambulism" triggered a lively debate on "extraordinary neuroses" within the young Société médico-psychologique [Medico-psychological Society]. In 1874, Puel founded the Revue de psychologie expérimentale [Journal of Experimental Psychology], the first of its kind in French, which he intended as the vehicle of international interest in psychical research, the scholarly and institutionalized study of "psychism" that prepared the way for the recognition of academic psychology...
October 31, 2016: History of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757808/from-goethe-s-plant-archetype-via-haeckel-s-biogenetic-law-to-plant-evo-devo-2016
#5
Karl J Niklas, Ulrich Kutschera
In 1790, the German poet Johann W. v. Goethe (1749-1832) proposed the concept of a hypothetical sessile organism known as the 'Plant Archetype,' which was subsequently reconstructed and depicted by 19th-century botanists, such as Franz Unger (1800-1870) and Julius Sachs (1832-1897), and can be considered one of the first expressions of Evo-Devo thinking. Here, we present the history of this concept in the context of Ernst Haeckel's (1834-1919) biogenetic law espoused in his Generelle Morphologie der Organismen of 1866...
October 18, 2016: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721052/ethnomedicine-for-neonatal-jaundice-a-cross-sectional-survey-in-qom-iran
#6
Mojtaba Heydari, Hosein Heydari, Alireza Saadati, Mohammad Gharehbeglou, Javad Tafaroji, Abolfazl Akbari
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditional Medicine (TM) is popularly used for neonatal jaundice in Iran. OBJECTIVE: to provides evidence for characteristics of traditional medicine use in the treatment of neonatal jaundice in Qom, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Field surveys were carried out during July 2015 - August 2015 in Qom through structured questionnaire in Persian from 212 parents of children with neonatal jaundice. All plant species recorded for the treatment of neonatal jaundice were sampled...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698587/flora-on-occurrence-data-of-the-vascular-flora-of-mainland-portugal
#7
Ana Júlia Pereira, Ana Francisco, Miguel Porto
The Flora-On dataset currently includes 253,310 occurrence records for the class Embryopsidae (vascular plants), comprising data collated via the platform http://flora-on.pt/ relating to observation records of vascular plants across mainland Portugal. Observations are uploaded directly to the database primarily by experienced botanists and naturalists, typically on a weekly basis, and consist of geo-referenced data points for species (or infraspecific taxa) along with their date of observation and phenological state...
2016: PhytoKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695890/seeds-of-doubt-mendel-s-choice-of-hieracium-to-study-inheritance-a-case-of-right-plant-wrong-trait
#8
Ross Bicknell, Andrew Catanach, Melanie Hand, Anna Koltunow
In this review, we explore Gregor Mendel's hybridization experiments with Hieracium , update current knowledge on apomictic reproduction and describe approaches now being used to develop true-breeding hybrid crops. From our perspective, it is easy to conclude that Gregor Mendel's work on pea was insightful, but his peers clearly did not regard it as being either very convincing or of much importance. One apparent criticism was that his findings only applied to pea. We know from a letter he wrote to Carl von Nägeli, a leading botanist, that he believed he needed to "verify, with other plants, the results obtained with Pisum"...
October 1, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679499/prof-huan-yong-chen-a-leading-botanist-and-taxonomist-one-of-the-pioneers-and-founders-of-modern-plant-taxonomy-in-china
#9
Rui-Lan Huang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672517/a-workflow-to-preserve-genome-quality-tissue-samples-from-plants-in-botanical-gardens-and-arboreta
#10
Morgan R Gostel, Carol Kelloff, Kyle Wallick, Vicki A Funk
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Internationally, gardens hold diverse living collections that can be preserved for genomic research. Workflows have been developed for genomic tissue sampling in other taxa (e.g., vertebrates), but are inadequate for plants. We outline a workflow for tissue sampling intended for two audiences: botanists interested in genomics research and garden staff who plan to voucher living collections. METHODS AND RESULTS: Standard herbarium methods are used to collect vouchers, label information and images are entered into a publicly accessible database, and leaf tissue is preserved in silica and liquid nitrogen...
September 2016: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600530/fern-rhizomes-as-fodder-in-norway
#11
Torbjørn Alm
BACKGROUND: Although ferns are often known under collective names in Norway, e.g. blom, a substantial number of vernacular names for individual fern species are known, in particular for useful or poisonous taxa. In the past, the rhizomes (Norwegian: moldfôr) of selected species were collected for fodder. Only scattered records of such use are available from southern Norway, and the tradition's core area is found in the two North Norwegian counties of Nordland and Troms, in accordance with the longer winters encountered in the north, frequently leading to fodder shortage in early spring...
2016: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485866/-historical-textual-research-on-shan-biandou-with-discussion-on-the-misnaming-of-plant-title
#12
J B Li
The original plants of Shan biandou, first seen in Jiu huang ben cao (Materia Medica for Relief of Famines), include the plants of Astragalusgenus, such as A. scaberrimus and/or A. complanatus in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. But Cassia mimosoides was named as Shan biandou by Japanese scholars in the 19th century. This mistaken identification and misnaming, still in use today in Chinese and Japanese circles of botany and materia medica, did cause some confusion. The merits and demerits of using the plant names in Chinese characters from the Japanese language by Chinese botanists were analyzed, the disadvantages of which should be well avoided...
May 2016: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27437169/colector-a-digital-field-notebook-for-voucher-specimen-collection-for-smartphones
#13
Carlos A Maya-Lastra
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: ColectoR was developed to aid botanists in the collection of data for voucher specimens using smartphones, accelerating the process of data capture in situ and its subsequent organization. METHODS AND RESULTS: ColectoR features a minimalist design that uses an intuitive iconic interface. The integration of external application programming interfaces (APIs) and an automated spreadsheet extends its functionality and increases the information and tools available to the user...
July 2016: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412708/bad-math-in-linnaeus-philosophia-botanica
#14
János Podani, András Szilágyi
In Philosophia Botanica (1751), Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) presented a calculation of the number of plant genera that may be distinguished based on his taxonomic concepts. In order to derive that number, he relied upon the organs of fructification, which represent the flower and the fruit, by selecting over 30 elements from them, and then assuming that each could vary by four dimensions. However, while Linnaeus was good in counting stamens and pistils, he and many of his followers who edited or translated Philosophia Botanica were less careful, basing their calculations of the number of possible genera on flawed assumptions, or even introducing basic arithmetic errors...
September 2016: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27399603/career-collections-reports-and-publications-of-dr-francis-buchanan-later-hamilton-1762-1829-natural-history-studies-in-nepal-burma-myanmar-bangladesh-and-india-part-1
#15
Mark F Watson, Henry J Noltie
During his 20-year career as a surgeon-naturalist with the British East India Company, Francis Buchanan (later Hamilton, known in botany as Buchanan-Hamilton and in ichthyology as Hamilton-Buchanan) undertook pioneering survey explorations in several diverse regions of the Indian subcontinent. A naturalist at heart, his collections of plants and animals are often the first from such regions, notably Nepal, Burma (Myanmar) and Bangladesh. Buchanan had wide-ranging interests beyond natural history, using his talent for observation and meticulous recording to amass a huge body of information on the lands and peoples he encountered...
July 11, 2016: Annals of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27301857/-louis-xiv-s-ginseng-shaping-of-knowledge-on-an-herbal-medicine-in-the-late-17th-and-the-early-18th-century-france
#16
Hye-Min Lee
This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state's policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie...
April 2016: Ŭi Sahak
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27278105/deceived-by-orchids-sex-science-fiction-and-darwin
#17
Jim Endersby
Between 1916 and 1927, botanists in several countries independently resolved three problems that had mystified earlier naturalists - including Charles Darwin: how did the many species of orchid that did not produce nectar persuade insects to pollinate them? Why did some orchid flowers seem to mimic insects? And why should a native British orchid suffer 'attacks' from a bee? Half a century after Darwin's death, these three mysteries were shown to be aspects of a phenomenon now known as pseudocopulation, whereby male insects are deceived into attempting to mate with the orchid's flowers, which mimic female insects; the males then carry the flower's pollen with them when they move on to try the next deceptive orchid...
June 2016: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27238367/genetics-and-plant-development
#18
Nathanaël Prunet, Elliot M Meyerowitz
There are only three grand theories in biology: the theory of the cell, the theory of the gene, and the theory of evolution. Two of these, the cell and gene theories, originated in the study of plants, with the third resulting in part from botanical considerations as well. Mendel's elucidation of the rules of inheritance was a result of his experiments on peas. The rediscovery of Mendel's work in 1900 was by the botanists de Vries, Correns, and Tschermak. It was only in subsequent years that animals were also shown to have segregation of genetic elements in the exact same manner as had been shown in plants...
July 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27212887/the-rediscovery-of-the-great-winterberg-endemic-lotononis-harveyi-b-e-van-wyk-after-147-years-and-notes-on-the-poorly-known-amathole-endemic-macowania-revoluta-oliv-southern-great-escarpment-south-africa
#19
Vincent Ralph Clark, Joanne Bentley, Anthony P Dold, Vathiswa Zikishe, Nigel P Barker
South Africa's 800 km-long southern Great Escarpment hosts numerous endemic plant species only known from their type specimens or from very few records. This is a legacy of a 100-150 year lag between the pioneer work of 19(th) century botanists and repeat fieldwork in the 21(st) century. As a result, population and ecological data are lacking for many local endemic species. Here we report on the rediscovery of Lotononis harveyi B.-E.van Wyk 147 years after its original description, and provide the first detailed ecological notes on the poorly known shrub Macowania revoluta Oliv...
2016: PhytoKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27134345/a-perfect-flower-from-the-jurassic-of-china
#20
Zhong-Jian Liu, Xin Wang
Flower, enclosed ovule and tetrasporangiate anther are three major characters distinguishing angiosperms from other seed plants. Morphologically, typical flowers are characterised by an organisation with gynoecium and androecium surrounded by corolla and calyx. Theoretically, flowers are derived from their counterparts in ancient ancestral gymnosperms. However, as for when, how and from which groups, there is no consensus among botanists yet. Although angiosperm-like pollen and angiosperms have been claimed in the Triassic and Jurassic, typical flowers with the aforesaid three key characters are still missing in the pre-Cretaceous age, making many interpretations of flower evolution tentative...
July 3, 2016: Historical Biology
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