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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316469/numerical-research-on-the-effects-the-skyglow-could-have-in-phytochromes-and-rqe-photoreceptors-of-plants
#1
H A Solano-Lamphar, M Kocifaj
The increase of artificial light at night has a terrible impact on organisms with nightlife patterns such as a migration, nutrition, reproduction and collective interaction. Plants are not free from this issue as they have life cycle events occurring not only yearly but also daily. Such events relate to daytime variations with seasons in which the flowers of deciduous trees bloom and the leaves of certain trees fall off and change color. A response of plants to artificial light at night still remains poorly quantified; but recent scientific research suggest that skyglow can disturb plants processes...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194624/a-three-locus-pcr-based-method-for-forensic-identification-of-plant-material
#2
Tushar Srivastava, Michael Wu, Julia Kakhnovich, Bridgit Waithaka, Nathan H Lents
Plant residue is currently an underutilized resource in forensic investigations despite the fact that many crime scenes, as well as suspects and victims, harbor plant-derived residue that could be recovered and analyzed. Notwithstanding the considerable skill of forensic botanists, current methods of species determination could benefit from tools for DNA-based species identification. However, DNA barcoding in plants has been hampered by sequence complications in the plant genome. Following a database search for usable barcodes, broad-spectrum primers were designed and utilized to amplify and sequence the rbcL, trnL-F, and rrn18 genetic loci from a variety of household plants...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167161/inferring-long-distance-dispersal-modes-in-american-amphitropically-disjunct-species-through-adaptive-dispersal-structures
#3
John J Schenk, Kelsey Saunders
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: A repeated pattern of American amphitropical disjunct species or sister species distributed on either side of the equator has long-fascinated botanists, but the modes of these disjunctions remain untested. We evaluated diaspore morphology to generate hypotheses on probable dispersal mechanisms. METHODS: The sizes and structures of diaspores, habit, habitat, distribution, and dispersal units were collected for 108 species from literature searches and herbarium specimens...
November 22, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137849/genera-evolution-and-botanists-in-1940-edgar-anderson-s-survey-of-modern-opinion
#4
Kim Kleinman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 11, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019597/the-botanist-george-gardner-and-his-impressions-of-slave-culture-in-brazil-rio-de-janeiro-1810-1850
#5
José Carlos Barreiro
This article analyzes the English botanist George Gardner's trip to Brazil during the 1830s. After graduating from the University of Glasgow Gardner was influenced by his teacher and by readings of contemporary naturalists and set off for Brazil in March of 1836, arriving two months later in Rio de Janeiro. The article presents Gardner's impressions of slavery in Brazil, in an attempt to unveil the symbolic universe of a play he witnessed and described, which took place on a farm in Rio de Janeiro on Christmas night...
July 2017: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971127/integrated-dataset-of-anatomical-morphological-and-architectural-traits-for-plant-species-in-madagascar
#6
Amira Azizan, Emma Guillon, Yves Caraglio, Patrick Langbour, Sébastien Paradis, Pierre Bonnet, Yannick Brohard, Christine Heinz, Nabila Boutahar, Loïc Brancheriau
In this work, we present a dataset, which provides information on the structural diversity of some endemic tropical species in Madagascar. The data were from CIRAD xylotheque (since 1937), and were also collected during various fieldworks (since 1964). The field notes and photographs were provided by French botanists; particularly by Francis Hallé. The dataset covers 250 plant species with anatomical, morphological, and architectural traits indexed from digitized wood slides and fieldwork documents. The digitized wood slides were constituted by the transverse, tangential, and radial sections with three optical magnifications...
December 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931320/chemical-and-biomolecular-analyses-to-discriminate-three-taxa-of-pistacia-genus-from-sardinia-island-italy-and-their-antifungal-activity
#7
Arianna Marengo, Alessandra Piras, Danilo Falconieri, Silvia Porcedda, Pierluigi Caboni, Pierluigi Cortis, Caterina Foddis, Claudia Loi, Maria José Gonçalves, Lígia Salgueiro, Andrea Maxia
This work reports the results and the comparison concerning the chemical and biomolecular analyses and the antifungal activity of three wild Pistacia species (Anacardiaceae) from Sardinia. Volatile oils from leaves and twigs of Pistacia x saportae, Pistacia lentiscus and Pistacia terebinthus were characterised using GC-FID and GC-MS techniques and tested against some fungal strains. Two DNA nuclear regions (ITS and 5S-rRNA-NTS) were amplified through PCR technique and sequenced. The three **Pistacia have similar chemical profile, although there are some important quantitative differences...
September 20, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898658/phyllotaxis
#8
Cris Kuhlemeier
Leaves and flowers are arranged in regular patterns around the stem of a plant, a phenomenon known as phyllotaxis. Different arrangements occur, such as distichous, decussate or spiral (Figure 1). Most prevalent in nature are spirals in which the average divergence angles between successive organs are close to 137.5°, the so-called 'golden angle'. It is this exact number that has given phyllotaxis its special flavor as a quantitative developmental problem, and over the centuries, it has enjoyed the attention of scientists far beyond botany...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898650/wilhelm-hofmeister-and-the-foundations-of-plant-science
#9
EDITORIAL
Cyrus Martin
On January 12(th) 1877, the Grim Reaper visited Wilhelm Hofmeister (Figure 1) for the last time. Having recently witnessed the death of a wife, two daughters, and two sons (only two of his nine children survived him), the German botanist, perhaps succumbing to the weight of his own grief, suffered a series of strokes and then promptly died at the age of 52 in Lindenau, Germany. He has since faded into the dusty annals of 19(th) century botany, his contributions to our knowledge about plants, how they come into being, develop and interact with their environment, mostly forgotten...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797242/going-deeper-in-the-automated-identification-of-herbarium-specimens
#10
Jose Carranza-Rojas, Herve Goeau, Pierre Bonnet, Erick Mata-Montero, Alexis Joly
BACKGROUND: Hundreds of herbarium collections have accumulated a valuable heritage and knowledge of plants over several centuries. Recent initiatives started ambitious preservation plans to digitize this information and make it available to botanists and the general public through web portals. However, thousands of sheets are still unidentified at the species level while numerous sheets should be reviewed and updated following more recent taxonomic knowledge. These annotations and revisions require an unrealistic amount of work for botanists to carry out in a reasonable time...
August 11, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757863/automatic-image-based-plant-disease-severity-estimation-using-deep-learning
#11
Guan Wang, Yu Sun, Jianxin Wang
Automatic and accurate estimation of disease severity is essential for food security, disease management, and yield loss prediction. Deep learning, the latest breakthrough in computer vision, is promising for fine-grained disease severity classification, as the method avoids the labor-intensive feature engineering and threshold-based segmentation. Using the apple black rot images in the PlantVillage dataset, which are further annotated by botanists with four severity stages as ground truth, a series of deep convolutional neural networks are trained to diagnose the severity of the disease...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694778/north-african-medicinal-plants-traditionally-used-in-cancer-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Jorge M Alves-Silva, Abderrahmane Romane, Thomas Efferth, Lígia Salgueiro
Background: Cancer is a major cause of mortality worldwide with increasing numbers by the years. In North Africa, the number of cancer patients is alarming. Also shocking is that a huge number of cancer patients only have access to traditional medicines due to several factors, e.g., economic difficulties. In fact, medicinal plants are widely used for the treatment of several pathologies, including cancer. Truthfully, herbalists and botanists in North African countries prescribe several plants for cancer treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664395/three-new-species-of-begonia-sect-baryandra-from-panay-island-philippines
#13
Ching-I Peng, Rosario Rivera Rubite, Che-Wei Lin, Mark Hughes, Yoshiko Kono, Kuo-Fang Chung
BACKGROUND: The flora of Panay Island is under-collected compared with the other islands of the Philippines. In a joint expedition to the island, botanists from Taiwan and the Philippines found three unknown Begonia species and compared them with potentially allied species. RESULTS: The three species are clearly assignable to Begonia sect. Baryandra which is largely endemic to the Philippines. Studies of literature, herbarium specimens, and living plants support the recognition of the three new species: Begonia culasiensis, B...
December 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634256/molecular-systematics-and-historical-biogeography-of-maianthemum-s-s
#14
Changkyun Kim, Kenneth M Cameron, Joo-Hwan Kim
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Understanding the underlying mechanisms for the evolution of intercontinental disjunct patterns has long fascinated botanists. We present a molecular phylogenetic reconstruction of Maianthemum s.l. (including Smilacina) with a focus on Maianthemum s.s. species, which have a disjunct distribution between Eurasia and North America. Within this evolutionary framework, we clarify the systematic classification and biogeographical history of Maianthemum s.s. METHOD: Data from two nuclear and five chloroplast DNA regions were analyzed using the programs PAUP*, RAxML, MrBayes, BEAST, and RASP...
June 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545387/impact-of-e-publication-changes-in-the-international-code-of-nomenclature-for-algae-fungi-and-plants-melbourne-code-2012-did-we-need-to-run-for-our-lives
#15
Nicky Nicolson, Katherine Challis, Allan Tucker, Sandra Knapp
BACKGROUND: At the Nomenclature Section of the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne, Australia (IBC), the botanical community voted to allow electronic publication of nomenclatural acts for algae, fungi and plants, and to abolish the rule requiring Latin descriptions or diagnoses for new taxa. Since the 1st January 2012, botanists have been able to publish new names in electronic journals and may use Latin or English as the language of description or diagnosis. RESULTS: Using data on vascular plants from the International Plant Names Index (IPNI) spanning the time period in which these changes occurred, we analysed trajectories in publication trends and assessed the impact of these new rules for descriptions of new species and nomenclatural acts...
May 25, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463019/fatal-cardiac-glycoside-poisoning-due-to-mistaking-foxglove-for-comfrey
#16
I-Lin Wu, Jiun-Hao Yu, Chih-Chuan Lin, Chen-June Seak, Kent R Olson, Hsien-Yi Chen
CONTEXT: Accidental ingestion of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) can cause significant cardiac toxicity. We report a patient who ingested foxglove mistaking it for comfrey and developed refractory ventricular arrhythmias. The patient died despite treatment with digoxin-specific antibody fragments (DSFab) and veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO). CASE DETAILS: A 55-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with nausea, vomiting and generalized weakness eight hours after drinking "comfrey" tea...
August 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457574/botanists-in-lithuania-during-the-michurinist-campaign
#17
Aurika Ričkienė
The meeting of the Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences (VASKhNIL) that occurred from July 31 to August 7, 1948, declared Michurinism to be the only "correct theory" of biology in the Soviet Union. As of that moment, Michurinist biology officially took center stage in Soviet scientific institutions, and it was further developed over the next fifteen years. Scientists from all of the former Soviet Republics participated in the Michurinist campaign. In Lithuania, this campaign started in the autumn of 1948...
June 2017: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314174/key-developmental-transitions-during-flower-morphogenesis-and-their-regulation
#18
REVIEW
Doris Wagner
The arrangement of flowers on flowering stems called inflorescences contributes to the beauty of the natural world and enhances seed yield, impacting species survival and human sustenance. During the reproductive phase, annual/monocarpic plants like Arabidopsis and most crops form two types of lateral structures: indeterminate lateral inflorescences and determinate flowers. Their stereotypical arrangement on the primary inflorescence stem determines the species-specific inflorescence architecture. This architecture can be modulated in response to environmental cues to enhance reproductive success...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224292/dejun-yu-a-patriotic-botanist-and-his-contributions
#19
Hong Jiang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168124/geography-shapes-the-phylogeny-of-frailejones-espeletiinae-cuatrec-asteraceae-a-remarkable-example-of-recent-rapid-radiation-in-sky-islands
#20
Mauricio Diazgranados, Janet C Barber
BACKGROUND: The páramo ecosystem, located above the timberline in the tropical Andes, has been the setting for some of the most dramatic plant radiations, and it is one of the world's fastest evolving and most diverse high-altitude ecosystems. Today 144+ species of frailejones (subtribe Espeletiinae Cuatrec., Asteraceae) dominate the páramo. Frailejones have intrigued naturalists and botanists, not just for their appealing beauty and impressive morphological diversity, but also for their remarkable adaptations to the extremely harsh environmental conditions of the páramo...
2017: PeerJ
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