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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914268/anti-adhesive-antimicrobial-peptide-coating-prevents-catheter-associated-infection-in-a-mouse-urinary-infection-model
#1
Kai Yu, Joey C Y Lo, Mei Yan, Xiaoqiang Yang, Donald E Brooks, Robert E W Hancock, Dirk Lange, Jayachandran N Kizhakkedathu
Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) represent one of the most common hospital acquired infections with significant economic consequences and increased patient morbidity. CAUTIs often start with pathogen adhesion and colonization on the catheter surface followed by biofilm formation. Current strategies to prevent CAUTIs are insufficiently effective and antimicrobial coatings based on antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) hold promise in curbing CAUTIs. Here we report an effective surface tethering strategy to prepare AMP coatings on polyurethane (PU), a common biomedical plastic used for catheter manufacture, by using an anti-adhesive hydrophilic polymer coating...
November 24, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913854/the-role-of-macromolecules-in-the-formation-of-kidney-stones
#2
REVIEW
Jeffrey D Rimer, Ann M Kolbach-Mandel, Michael D Ward, Jeffrey A Wesson
The formation of crystal aggregates, one of the critical processes in kidney stone pathogenesis, involves interactions between crystals (predominantly calcium oxalate monohydrate, COM) and urinary constituents (e.g., proteins), which serve as an adhesive "glue" between crystals in stones. To develop a better understanding of the protein-crystal interactions that lead to crystal aggregation, we have measured the effect of model proteins on bulk COM crystal properties as well as their adsorption on crystal surfaces using three synthetic polyanions: poly(aspartic acid) (polyD), poly(glutamic acid) (polyE), and poly(acrylic acid) (polyAA)...
December 2, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911373/the-mouse-isolated-perfused-kidney-technique
#3
Jan Czogalla, Frank Schweda, Johannes Loffing
The mouse isolated perfused kidney (MIPK) is a technique for keeping a mouse kidney under ex vivo conditions perfused and functional for 1 hr. This is a prerequisite for studying the physiology of the isolated organ and for many innovative applications that may be possible in the future, including perfusion decellularization for kidney bioengineering or the administration of anti-rejection or genome-editing drugs in high doses to prime the kidney for transplantation. During the time of the perfusion, the kidney can be manipulated, renal function can be assessed, and various pharmaceuticals administered...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900943/collagen-type-iii-glomerulopathy-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#4
Xinghua Chen, Huiming Wang, Wanwen Xu, Jili Zhu
To summarize the clinical and pathological features of collagen type III glomerulopathy, the present report describes a case of collagen type III glomerulopathy and reviewed more than 60 cases recorded by other groups in English literature over the last few years. A 24-year-old female patient was admitted because of lower limbs edema, without any other discomforts. The lab examination of the patient reported proteinuria (2.42 g/24 h urine), microscopic hematuria, and the serum creatinine was 71 μmol/L. She received renal biopsy...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894390/-effects-of-different-fluid-resuscitation-program-on-renal-function-in-swine-during-shock-stage-of-severe-burn
#5
G L Su, W X Huang, J Chen, D J Xue, J J Zhou
Objective: To explore the effects of different fluid resuscitation program on renal function in swine during shock stage of severe burn. Methods: Twenty-four Guangxi Bama miniature swine were inflicted with 40% total body surface area on the back, and then they were divided into four groups according to the random number table, with 6 swine in each group. At post injury hour (PIH) 2, swine in succinylated gelatin group (S), hydroxyethyl starch group (H), and allogeneic plasma group (A) were respectively resuscitated with succinylated gelatin, hydroxyethyl starch 130/0...
November 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882738/schistosoma-haematobium-infection-is-associated-with-increased-urine-foam
#6
Johnathan M Sheele, Sarah Baddorf, Jimmy H Kihara
We compared urine microscopy and dipstick results for urine foam from 59 children in a Schistosoma haematobium-endemic area in a blinded manner. The sensitivity and specificity, respectively, for diagnosing S. haematobium compared with microscopy was: 74% and 72% for the shake test; 61% and 97% for microscopic hematuria; and 43% and 83% for proteinuria. When >17 eggs/10 mL urine was detected on microscopy, the sensitivity and specificity, respectively, were: 100% and 72% for the shake test; 90% and 97% for microscopic hematuria; and 80% and 83% for proteinuria...
November 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876913/circulating-cathodic-antigen-cassette-test-versus-haematuria-strip-test-in-diagnosis-of-urinary-schistosomiasis
#7
Azza S El-Ghareeb, Ghada S Abd El Motaleb, Nevien Maher Waked, Nancy Osman Hany Kamel, Nagwa Shaban Aly
Urinary schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma haematobium constitutes a major public health problem in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. This study was conducted to evaluate circulating cathodic antigen cassette test and haematuria strip test for detection of S. haematobium in urine samples and to evaluate their screening performance among the study population. Microscopy was used as a gold standard. A total of 600 urine samples were examined by microscopy for detection of S. haematobium eggs, screened for microhaematuria using Self-Stik reagent strips and screened for circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) using the urine-CCA cassette test...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847373/a-multicenter-pivotal-clinical-trial-of-a-urine-malaria-test-umt-for-the-rapid-diagnosis-of-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria
#8
Wellington A Oyibo, Nnenna Ezeigwe, Godwin Ntadom, Oladipo O Oladosu, Kaitlin Rainwater, Wendy O'Meara, Evaezi Okpokoro, William Brieger
BACKGROUND: The need to expand malaria diagnosis alongside policy requirements for mandatory testing before treatment motivates exploration of non-invasive rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). We report the outcome of the first cross-sectional, single-blind clinical performance evaluation of a Urine Malaria Test (UMT) for Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria diagnosis in febrile patients. METHODS: Matched urine and fingerprick blood from participants ≥2 years with fever (axillary temperature ≥37...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843267/bacteriology-of-urine-specimens-obtained-from-men-with-symptomatic-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia
#9
Jude Orumuah Agbugui, E O Obarisiagbon, I I Osaigbovo
BACKGROUND: Bacteriuria and urinary tract infections are common sequelae of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Thus, the knowledge of urine bacteriology in men with symptomatic BPH in our environment may play a complementary role in management. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of bacteriuria and the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of bacterial isolates in cultured urine samples of men with symptomatic BPH. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a 1 year prospective study...
July 2016: Nigerian Journal of Surgery: Official Publication of the Nigerian Surgical Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836623/successful-protocol-for-eliminating-excessive-urine-microscopies-quality-improvement-and-cost-savings-with-physician-support
#10
Michael Chen, Shaun Eintracht, Elizabeth MacNamara
BACKGROUND: Clinical laboratories are under growing pressure to provide faster turn-around-time and maintain high quality while decreasing costs. In a setting of rising test volumes, implementation of evidence-based protocols with physician cooperation and feedback may provide frameworks and support for laboratory utilization optimization. The purpose of this study was to eliminate wasteful urine microscopy by targeting physician ordering behavior, and to ensure quality of care with physician satisfaction surveys...
November 9, 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812305/comparison-of-cobas-6500-and-iris-iq200-fully-automated-urine-analyzers-to-manual-urine-microscopy
#11
Ebubekir Bakan, Nurinnisa Ozturk, Nurcan Kilic Baygutalp, Elif Polat, Kadriye Akpinar, Emrullah Dorman, Harun Polat, Nuri Bakan
INTRODUCTION: Urine screening is achieved by either automated or manual microscopic analysis. The aim of the study was to compare Cobas 6500 and Iris IQ200 urine analyzers, and manual urine microscopic analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 540 urine samples sent to the laboratory for chemical and sediment analysis were analyzed on Cobas 6500 and Iris IQ200 within 1 hour from sampling. One hundred and fifty three samples were found to have pathological sediment results and were subjected to manual microscopic analysis performed by laboratory staff blinded to the study...
October 15, 2016: Biochemia Medica: časopis Hrvatskoga Društva Medicinskih Biokemičara
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802413/validation-and-verification-of-automated-urine-particle-analysers
#12
REVIEW
Giuseppe Enrico Bignardi
There is often uncertainty on how validation and verification of newly introduced tests should be conducted, and there is a real risk of verification becoming a meaningless ritual, rather than a useful exercise. This article reviews the literature and makes recommendations regarding the validation and verification of automated urine particles analysers. A generic practical approach to verification is also recommended. For many analysers, the accuracy of white blood cells, epithelial cells and bacterial counts is corroborated by a number of independent evaluations; thus, any verification laboratory work could be significantly scaled down...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800137/urine-based-nested-pcr-for-the-diagnosis-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-a-comparative-study-between-hiv-positive-and-hiv-negative-patients
#13
Mahin Jamshidi Makiani, Parivash Davoodian, Mahnaz Baghershiroodi, Abdol Azim Nejatizadeh, Farideh Fakkhar, Mehrangiz Zangeneh, Nadia Jahangiri
BACKGROUND: While tuberculosis (TB) can be diagnosed by microscopy and culture, the sensitivity of Ziehl-Neelsen staining is variable and culture results require 4 - 8 weeks to be determined. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its modifications, including nested PCR, might be promising methods for the rapid diagnosis of TB. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the performance of nested PCR on urine samples of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and -negative patients with different manifestations of clinical TB...
August 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798774/detection-of-transrenal-dna-for-the-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-treatment-monitoring
#14
Ines Labugger, Jan Heyckendorf, Stefan Dees, Emilia Häussinger, Christian Herzmann, Thomas A Kohl, Elvira Richter, Eric Rivera-Milla, Christoph Lange
PURPOSE: Molecular diagnostics of patients with MTB tuberculosis from urine samples. METHODS: We developed a new molecular assay based on the detection of M. tuberculosis-specific transrenal DNA (trDNA) and tested it for the diagnosis of active tuberculosis at the initiation of anti-tuberculosis therapy and during treatment follow-up. RESULTS: The overall sensitivity of trDNA was 96 and 100% when smear-microscopy and trDNA was combined. In a subset of TB treatment naïve patients (n = 11) sensitivity and specificity of trDNA was 64 and 100%, respectively...
October 31, 2016: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798124/cross-talk-between-amp-activated-protein-kinase-and-renin-angiotensin-system-in-uninephrectomised-rats
#15
Ke-Ke Yang, Yi Sui, Hui-Rong Zhou, Jian Shen, Ning Tan, Yan-Mei Huang, Sha-Sha Li, Yan-Hong Pan, Xiao-Xi Zhang, Hai-Lu Zhao
INTRODUCTION: The renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the ultrasensitive energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) have been implicated in normal and aberrant states of the kidney, but interaction between the RAS and AMPK remains unknown. METHODS: Ninety-six rats were stratified into four groups: sham, uninephrectomised, uninephrectomised rats treated with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril or the angiotensin receptor blocker losartan...
October 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796180/evaluation-of-a-new-automated-microscopy-urine-sediment-analyser-sedimax-contrust%C3%A2
#16
Laura Bogaert, Bart Peeters, Jaak Billen
This study evaluated the performance of the stand-alone sediMAX conTRUST (77Elektronika, Budapest, Hungary) analyser as an alternative to microscopic analysis of urine. The validation included a precision, carry-over, categorical correlation and diagnostic performance study with manual phase-contrast microscopy as reference method. A total of 260 routine urine samples were assessed. The within-run precision was much better at higher concentrations than at very low concentrations. The precision met our predefined limits for all the elements at the different concentrations, with the exception of the lowest RBC, the WBC, pathological casts and crystals count...
October 31, 2016: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795343/chlamydia-gonorrhea-and-trichomonas-combined-testing-using-the-bd-max%C3%A2-ct-gc-tv-assay-using-genitourinary-specimen-types
#17
Barbara Van Der Pol, James A Williams, DeAnna Fuller, Stephanie N Taylor, Edward W Hook
The BD MAX™ CT/GC/TV (MAX) assay is a true multiplex assay for simultaneous detection of chlamydia (CT), gonorrhea (GC) and trichomonas (TV). We evaluated the assay performance for women using endocervical and vaginal swabs as well as urine specimens. 1143 women were tested for CT/GC and TV and, subsequently another 847 (1990 total women) for CT/GC only with positivity rates for CT, GC and TV of 7.1, 2.3 and 13.5% respectively. In men the performance for CT and GC was determined using only urine specimens...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794473/strongyloidiasis-in-ontario-performance-of-diagnostic-tests-over-a-14-month-period
#18
Michelle Dao Dong, Nessika Karsenti, Rachel Lau, Filip Ralevski, Karamjit Cheema, Laura Burton, Michael Klowak, Andrea K Boggild
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the performance of stool microscopy, serology, and real time PCR (qPCR) for the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis at our reference laboratory. METHODS: Using a convenience sample of specimens submitted between April 1, 2014 and May 31, 2015, positivity rates and performance characteristics were calculated. RESULTS: During the enrolment period, 17,933 stool specimens were examined for O&P, 14 of which were positive for Strongyloides larvae...
October 26, 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784642/use-of-flow-cytometry-for-rapid-and-accurate-enumeration-of-live-pathogenic-leptospira-strains
#19
Célia Fontana, Steve Crussard, Nathalie Simon-Dufay, Daniel Pialot, Natalia Bomchil, Jean Reyes
Enumeration of Leptospira, the causative agent of leptospirosis, is arduous mainly because of its slow growth rate. Rapid and reliable tools for numbering leptospires are still lacking. The current standard for Leptospira cultures is the count on Petroff-Hausser chamber under dark-field microscopy, but this method remains time-consuming, requires well-trained operators and lacks reproducibility. Here we present the development of a flow-cytometry technique for counting leptospires. We showed that upon addition of fluorescent dyes, necessary to discriminate the bacterial population from debris, several live Leptospira strains could be enumerated at different physiologic states...
October 23, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774886/the-clinico-hematological-features-and-management-outcome-in-neonatal-malaria-a-nine-years-analysis-from-north-india
#20
Kriti Mohan
BACKGROUND: Malaria is an important cause of death and illness in children worldwide. Most cases of neonatal malaria are misdiagnosed because of the lack of specific symptoms and a general lack of awareness. Nothing much is known in literature about the haematological changes during malaria infection and outcome of disease in neonates. Neonatal malaria is an underdiagnosed entity. So this hospital based observational study aims to assess diagnostic features of neonatal malaria. METHODS: From August 2004 to August 2013, information of all slide positive for malaria cases aged 0 to 28 days admitted to our pediatric hospital was collected and analysed...
October 20, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
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