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Urine microscopy

Gennifer T Smith, Linkai Li, Yue Zhu, Audrey K Bowden
We introduce a coupled dipstick and microscopy device for analyzing urine samples. The device is capable of accurately assessing urine dipstick results while simultaneously imaging the microscopic contents within the sample. We introduce a long working distance, cellphone-based microscope in combination with an oblique illumination scheme to accurately visualize and quantify particles within the urine sample. To facilitate accurate quantification, we couple the imaging set-up with a power-free filtration system...
June 21, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Bing Yang, Shanshan Lan, Mélanie Dieudé, Jean-Paul Sabo-Vatasescu, Annie Karakeussian-Rimbaud, Julie Turgeon, Shijie Qi, Lakshman Gunaratnam, Natalie Patey, Marie-Josée Hébert
Background Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major risk factor for chronic renal failure. Here, we characterize the different modes of programmed cell death in the tubular and microvascular compartments during the various stages of IRI-induced AKI, and their relative importance to renal fibrogenesis. Methods We performed unilateral renal artery clamping for 30 minutes and contralateral nephrectomy in wild-type mice (C57BL/6) or caspase-3-/- mice. Results Compared with their wild-type counterparts, caspase-3-/- mice in the early stage of AKI had high urine cystatin C levels, tubular injury scores, and serum creatinine levels...
June 20, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Ali Shahvar, Roozbeh Soltani, Mohammad Saraji, Mohammad Dinari, Shekoufe Alijani
Herein, nano-sized covalent triazine-based framework grafted magnetic particles were synthesized by a facile Friedel-Crafts reaction between cyanuric chloride as node and biphenyl as linker. The formation of the material has been confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, field emission-scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and N2 adsorption-desorption measurement. With respect to the material structure, the large number of aromatic rings in the molecular framework provided a bed for extracting aromatic ring-containing compounds through π-π stacking interactions...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Javier Gandasegui, Pedro Fernández-Soto, Elena Dacal, Esperanza Rodríguez, José María Saugar, Edward Yepes, María Luisa Aznar-Ruiz-de-Alegría, Mateu Espasa, Arlette Ninda, Cristina Bocanegra, Fernando Salvador, Elena Sulleiro, Milagros Moreno, Belén Vicente, Julio López-Abán, Antonio Muro
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of Rapid-Heat LAMPellet assay in field conditions for diagnosis of urogenital schistosomiasis in an endemic area in Cubal, Angola and to assess the reproducibility in a reference laboratory. METHODS: A total of 172 urine samples from school age children were tested for microhaematuria, microscopic detection of S. haematobium eggs and LAMP for DNA detection. Urine samples were stored in a basic equipped laboratory. Field-LAMP tests were performed with and without prior DNA extraction from urine samples and the results were read by turbidity and by color change...
June 19, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Laurie Jansky, Pallavi Mukkamala, Deborah Jebakumar, Arundhati Rao, Tove M Goldson, Samuel N Forjuoh
Dabigatran, a new oral anticoagulant, is a direct thrombin inhibitor used as an alternative to warfarin to reduce the risk of stroke and systemic embolism with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. We report a case of a man who resumed dabigatran after 6 weeks of prior therapy and began experiencing hematuria with worsening kidney function. Renal biopsy with immunofluorescence and electron microscopy showed mesangial deposits consistent with immunoglobulin A nephropathy. With discontinuation of dabigatran and addition of methylprednisolone, the gross hematuria cleared and urine output improved...
July 2018: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
Hussam Mahmoud Sheta, Issam Al-Najami, Heidi Dahl Christensen, Jonna Skov Madsen
BACKGROUND Ethylene glycol poisoning remains an important presentation to Emergency Departments. Quick diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent renal failure and life-threating complications. CASE REPORT In this case report, we present a patient who was admitted unconscious to the hospital. Ethylene glycol poisoning was immediately suspected, because the patient had previously been hospitalized with similar symptoms after intake of antifreeze coolant. A urine sample was sent for microscopy and showed multiple calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals, which supported the clinical suspicion of ethylene glycol poisoning...
June 14, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Francois Kiemde, Marc Christian Tahita, Palpouguini Lompo, Toussaint Rouamba, Athanase M Some, Halidou Tinto, Petra F Mens, Henk D F H Schallig, Michael Boele van Hensbroek
BACKGROUND: Fever remains a major public health problem. In Burkina Faso, more than half of febrile children are considered not to be infected by malaria. This study prospectively assessed probable (treatable) causes of fever in Burkinabe children. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted among febrile children (≥37.5 °C) under 5 years of age presenting at four health facilities and one referral hospital in rural Burkina Faso. From each participant, blood was collected for malaria microscopy and culture, urine for dipstick testing and culturing if tested positive for leucocytes and nitrite, stool for rotavirus/adenovirus testing, culture and parasitology, and a nasopharyngeal swab for culture...
May 31, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Arif J Siddiqui, Adebayo J Molehin, Weidong Zhang, Pramodh K Ganapathy, Eunjee Kim, Juan U Rojo, Whitni K Redman, Souad R Sennoune, Justin Sudduth, Jasmin Freeborn, Derick Hunter, Kameswara R Kottapalli, Pratibha Kottapalli, Ruwanthi Wettashinghe, Govert J van Dam, Paul L A M Corstjens, James F Papin, David Carey, Workineh Torben, Gul Ahmad, Afzal A Siddiqui
Sm-p80-based vaccine efficacy for Schistosoma mansoni was evaluated in a baboon model of infection and disease. The study was designed to replicate a human vaccine implementation scenario for endemic regions in which vaccine would be administered following drug treatment of infected individuals. In our study, the Sm-p80-based vaccine reduced principal pathology producing hepatic egg burdens by 38.0% and egg load in small and large intestines by 72.2% and 49.4%, respectively, in baboons. Notably, hatching rates of eggs recovered from liver and small and large intestine of vaccinated animals were significantly reduced, by 60...
June 11, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Lanlan Wei, Yuan Song, Ping Liu, Xuejun Kang
Polystyrene nanofibers were coated with copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) by a combination of electrospinning and in-situ reduction of Cu(II) using sodium borohydride as the reductant. The CuNPs on the nanofibers were characterized by energy dispersive spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. A cartridge was packed with the nanofibers which then were activated with methanol and water. Glutathione (GSH) is found to quantitatively adsorbed by the packed cartridge at pH 3.0, and then can be desorbed with aqueous 2-mercaptoethanol and detected, after derivatization with ortho-phthalaldehyde, via high performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection...
June 8, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Shukurat O Bakare, Adewale S Adebayo, Henrietta O Awobode, Olugbenga S Onile, Atinuke M Agunloye, Raphael D Isokpehi, Chiaka I Anumudu
Background: Chronic schistosomiasis and arsenic exposure through drinking water are some of the risk factors for bladder cancer. To determine the association of schistosomiasis and arsenicosis with bladder pathologies, 122 individuals from Eggua in southwest Nigeria were recruited for this study. Methods: Prevalence of schistosomiasis was determined by urine microscopy and PCR. Total urinary arsenic concentration and arsenic levels in three different water sources in the community were assessed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry...
June 2, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Arthur Lau, Hyunjae Chung, Takanori Komada, Jaye M Platnich, Christina F Sandall, Saurav Roy Choudhury, Justin Chun, Victor Naumenko, Bas Gj Surewaard, Michelle C Nelson, Annegret Ulke-Lemée, Paul L Beck, Hallgrimur Benediktsson, Anthony M Jevnikar, Sarah L Snelgrove, Michael J Hickey, Donna L Senger, Matthew T James, Justin A Macdonald, Paul Kubes, Craig N Jenne, Daniel A Muruve
Radiographic contrast agents cause acute kidney injury (AKI), yet the underlying pathogenesis is poorly understood. Nod-like receptor pyrin containing 3-deficient (Nlrp3-deficient) mice displayed reduced epithelial cell injury and inflammation in the kidney in a model of contrast-induced AKI (CI-AKI). Unexpectedly, contrast agents directly induced tubular epithelial cell death in vitro that was not dependent on Nlrp3. Rather, contrast agents activated the canonical Nlrp3 inflammasome in macrophages. Intravital microscopy revealed diatrizoate (DTA) uptake within minutes in perivascular CX3CR1+ resident phagocytes in the kidney...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Yonghua Wu, Xu Yang, Haining Wang, Tiancheng Wang
The number of white blood cell (WBC) in semen is an important indicator of genital tract inflammation in male infertility. The peroxidase assay is the recommended reference method for seminal WBC counting. However, it is time-consuming and may cause relatively heavy workload in daily routine. Meanwhile, the main component in the reagent of peroxidase test is harmful to human and the environment. In this study, we evaluated the analytical performance of the Sysmex UF-1000i that is a urine flow cytometer as a screening tool for genital tract infection in male infertility patients through the counting of seminal WBC...
May 28, 2018: Andrologia
Soham Samanta, Senjuti Halder, Gopal Das
Two, cyanine based fluorescent probes L [(E)-2-(4-(diethylamino)-2-hydroxystyryl)-3-ethyl-1,1-dimethyl-1H-benzo[e]indol-3-ium iodide] and L1 [(E)-3-ethyl-1,1-dimethyl-2-(4-nitrostyryl)-1H-benzo[e]indol-3-ium iodide] have been designed and synthesized. Among these two probes; TICT (twisted intramolecular charge transfer) based probe L can preferentially self-assemble to form nanoaggregates. L displayed a selective TURN-ON fluorescence response towards HSA and BSA in ~100% aqueous PBS buffer medium which is noticeable through naked eye whereas L1 failed to sense these albumin proteins...
May 24, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Saeedeh Ansari, Saeed Masoum
A modified multiwalled carbon nanotube-based magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (MWCNT-MMIP) was synthesized and applied for selective extraction and preconcentration of sotalol (SOT) in biological fluid samples by using ultrasonic-assisted dispersive solid-phase microextraction (UA-DSPME). The synthetic particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)...
May 23, 2018: Analyst
Yuanling Sun, Chaofan Ding, Yanna Lin, Weiyan Sun, Hao Liu, Xiaodong Zhu, Yuxue Dai, Chuannan Luo
In this work, a highly selective and sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) biosensor was prepared for adenosine (AD) detection based on carbon quantum dots (CQDs) catalyzing the CL system of luminol-H2 O2 under alkaline environment and CQDs was released from the surface of AD aptamers functionalized graphene @ magnetic β-cyclodextrin polymers (GO@Fe3 O4 @β-CD@A-Apt). Firstly, GO@Fe3 O4 @β-CD and CQDs were prepared and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV-Vis absorption spectra (UV), fluorescence spectra (FL), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD)...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
Seyed Alireza Shahamirifard, Mehrorang Ghaedi, Zahra Razmi, Shaaker Hajati
The determination of gallic acid (GA) and uric acid (UA) is essential due to their biological properties. Numerous methods have been reported for the analysis of GA and UA in various real samples. However, the development of a simple, rapid and practical sensor still remains a great challenge. Here, a carbon paste electrode (CPE) was modified by nanocomposite containing zirconia nanoparticles (ZrO2 NPs), Choline chloride (ChCl) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to construct ZrO2 -ChCl-AuNPs/CPE as electrochemical sensor for the simultaneous electro-oxidation of GA and UA...
May 8, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Shabnam Asfaram, Saeed Hosseini Teshnizi, Mahdi Fakhar, Elham Sadat Banimostafavi, Masoud Soosaraei
Visualization of amastigotes in lymph nodes, bone marrow, and other tissues samples remains the gold standard method for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in humans. This gold standard diagnostic method uses a technically challenging microscopy procedure that is often not accessible in many places in the world where VL is endemic. Here, we report the current systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate whether urine is a reliable clinical sample for diagnosis of human VL. Data were extracted from ten available databases during the period from 2002 to 2017...
May 15, 2018: Parasitology International
Vidar Skaug, Einar Eilertsen, Asbjørn Skogstad, Finn E S Levy, Balázs Berlinger, Yngvar Thomassen, Dag G Ellingsen
INTRODUCTION: Shotgun pellets containing bismuth (Bi) as substitute for lead (Pb) are increasingly being used due to environmental concerns. Information on toxicokinetics of Bi is lacking for the assessment of humans accidentally shot by Bi-containing shotgun alloy pellets. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were exposed to miniature alloy pellets containing Bi, tin (Sn) and minor amounts of Pb by implantation in muscle tissues of the hind legs. RESULTS: The concentrations of Bi in whole blood and urine increased up to 53 weeks after implantation...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
N V Chevtchik, M Mihajlovic, M Fedecostante, L Bolhuis-Versteeg, J Sastre Toraño, R Masereeuw, D Stamatialis
The accumulation of protein-bound toxins in dialyzed patients is strongly associated with their high morbidity and mortality. The bioartificial kidney device (BAK), containing proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTEC) seeded on functionalized synthetic hollow fiber membranes (HFM), may be a powerful solution for the active removal of those metabolites. In an earlier study, we developed an upscaled BAK containing conditionally immortalized human PTEC (ciPTEC) with functional organic cationic transporter 2 (OCT2)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Turibius Simon, Muthaiah Shellaiah, Perpectual Steffi, Kien Wen Sun, Fu-Hsiang Ko
New glutamic acid (Glu) and polyethylenimine (PE) functionalized ultra-stable gold nanoparticles (PE-Glu-AuNPs) were developed via a simple NaBH4 reduction method. The low toxicity and biocompatibility of PE-Glu-AuNPs were confirmed via an MTT assay in Raw 264.7 cells. Excitingly, PE-Glu-AuNPs were found to be extremely stable at room temperature up to six months and were utilized in an effective colorimetric naked eye assay of clenbuterol (CLB) and ractopamine (RCT) at pH 5. It was found that the selective assay of CLB and RCT is not affected by any other interferences (such as alanine, phenylalanine, NaCl, CaCl2 , threonine, cysteine, glycine, glucose, urea and salbutamol)...
September 6, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
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