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Dopamine Cannabinoids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108358/neurochemical-and-metabolic-effects-of-acute-and-chronic-alcohol-in-the-human-brain-studies-with-positron-emission-tomography
#1
REVIEW
Nora D Volkow, Corinde E Wiers, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Dardo Tomasi, Gene-Jack Wang, Ruben Baler
The use of Positron emission tomography (PET) to study the effects of acute and chronic alcohol on the human brain has enhanced our understanding of the mechanisms underlying alcohol's rewarding effects, the neuroadaptations from chronic exposure that contribute to tolerance and withdrawal, and the changes in fronto-striatal circuits that lead to loss of control and enhanced motivation to drink that characterize alcohol use disorders (AUD). These include studies showing that alcohol's reinforcing effects may result not only from its enhancement of dopaminergic, GABAergic and opioid signaling but also from its caloric properties...
January 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092019/urb597-and-the-cannabinoid-win55-212-2-reduce-behavioral-and-neurochemical-deficits-induced-by-mptp-in-mice-possible-role-of-redox-modulation-and-nmda-receptors
#2
Angel Escamilla-Ramírez, Esperanza García, Guadalupe Palencia-Hernández, Ana Laura Colín-González, Sonia Galván-Arzate, Isaac Túnez, Julio Sotelo, Abel Santamaría
Several physiological events in the brain are regulated by the endocannabinoid system (ECS). While synthetic cannabinoid receptor (CBr) agonists such as WIN55,212-2 act directly on CBr, agents like URB597, a fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor, induce a more "physiological" activation of CBr by increasing the endogenous levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA). Herein, we compared the pre- and post-treatment efficacy of URB597 and WIN55,212-2 on different endpoints evaluated in the toxic model produced by the mitochondrial toxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in mice...
January 14, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065934/brain-cannabinoid-receptor-2-expression-function-and-modulation
#3
REVIEW
De-Jie Chen, Ming Gao, Fen-Fei Gao, Quan-Xi Su, Jie Wu
Cannabis sativa (marijuana) is a fibrous flowering plant that produces an abundant variety of molecules, some with psychoactive effects. At least 4% of the world's adult population uses cannabis annually, making it one of the most frequently used illicit drugs in the world. The psychoactive effects of cannabis are mediated primarily through cannabinoid receptor (CBR) subtypes. The prevailing view is that CB1Rs are mainly expressed in the central neurons, whereas CB2Rs are predominantly expressed in peripheral immune cells...
January 9, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065797/characterising-the-developmental-profile-of-hesc-derived-medium-spiny-neuron-progenitors-and-assessing-mature-neuron-function-using-a-crispr-generated-human-darpp-32-wt-egfp-amp-reporter-line
#4
C P J Hunt, C W Pouton, J M Haynes
In the developing ventral telencephalon, cells of the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) give rise to all medium spiny neurons (MSNs). This development occurs in response to a highly orchestrated series of morphogenetic stimuli that pattern the resultant neurons as they develop. Striatal MSNs are characterised by expression of dopamine receptors, dopamine-and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP32) and the neurotransmitter GABA. In this study, we demonstrate that fine tuning WNT and SHH signaling early in human embryonic stem cell differentiation can induce a subpallial progenitor molecular profile...
January 5, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017790/the-cb1-receptor-is-required-for-the-establishment-of-the-hyperlocomotor-phenotype-in-developmentally-induced-hypothyroidism-in-mice
#5
Elena Giné, Victor Echeverry-Alzate, Jose Antonio Lopez-Moreno, Fernando Rodriguez de Fonseca, Ana Perez-Castillo, Angel Santos
Alterations in motor functions are well-characterized features observed in humans and experimental animals with thyroid hormone dysfunctions during development. We have previously suggested the implication of the endocannabinoid system in the hyperlocomotor phenotype observed in developmentally induced hypothyroidism in rats. In this work we have further analyzed the implication of endocannabinoids in the effect of hypothyroidism on locomotor activity. To this end, we evaluated the locomotor activity in adult mice lacking the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R(-/-)) and in their wild type littermates (CB1R(+/+)), whose hypothyroidism was induced in day 12 of gestation and maintained during the experimental period...
December 23, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000146/cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-diagnosis-pathophysiology-and-treatment-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Cecilia J Sorensen, Kristen DeSanto, Laura Borgelt, Kristina T Phillips, Andrew A Monte
Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is a syndrome of cyclic vomiting associated with cannabis use. Our objective is to summarize the available evidence on CHS diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment. We performed a systematic review using MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library from January 2000 through September 24, 2015. Articles eligible for inclusion were evaluated using the Grading and Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Data were abstracted from the articles and case reports and were combined in a cumulative synthesis...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988368/conditioned-flavor-preferences-in-animals-merging-pharmacology-brain-sites-and-genetic-variance
#7
Richard J Bodnar
The elucidation of the behavioral, neurochemical, neuroanatomical and genetic substrates mediating the development of conditioned flavor preferences (CFP) is one of the multi-faceted scientific contributions that Dr. Anthony Sclafani has made to the study of food intake. This review summarizes the results of thirty-five publications over nearly twenty years of collaborations between the Sclafani and Bodnar laboratories. This includes the different approaches employed to study the orosensory (flavor-flavor) and post-ingestive (flavor-nutrient) processes underlying CFP including its acquisition (learning) and expression...
December 14, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853201/the-effects-of-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-on-the-dopamine-system
#8
REVIEW
Michael A P Bloomfield, Abhishekh H Ashok, Nora D Volkow, Oliver D Howes
The effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, are a pressing concern for global mental health. Patterns of cannabis use are changing drastically owing to legalization, the availability of synthetic analogues (commonly termed spice), cannavaping and an emphasis on the purported therapeutic effects of cannabis. Many of the reinforcing effects of THC are mediated by the dopamine system. Owing to the complexity of the cannabinoid-dopamine interactions that take place, there is conflicting evidence from human and animal studies concerning the effects of THC on the dopamine system...
17, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810775/chemogenomics-knowledgebase-and-systems-pharmacology-for-hallucinogen-target-identification-salvinorin-a-as-a-case-study
#9
Xiaomeng Xu, Shifan Ma, Zhiwei Feng, Guanxing Hu, Lirong Wang, Xiang-Qun Xie
Drug abuse is a serious problem worldwide. Recently, hallucinogens have been reported as a potential preventative and auxiliary therapy for substance abuse. However, the use of hallucinogens as a drug abuse treatment has potential risks, as the fundamental mechanisms of hallucinogens are not clear. So far, no scientific database is available for the mechanism research of hallucinogens. We constructed a hallucinogen-specific chemogenomics database by collecting chemicals, protein targets and pathways closely related to hallucinogens...
November 2016: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760835/n-arachidonoyl-dopamine-inhibits-nras-neoplastic-transformation-by-suppressing-its-plasma-membrane-translocation
#10
Min Wu, Jinyan Huang, Jianming Zhang, Cyril Benes, Bo Jiao, Ruibao Ren
RAS oncogenic mutations are common in human cancers, but RAS proteins have been difficult to target. We sought to identify pharmacological agents to block RAS oncogenic signaling by a distinct mechanism. Because the biological activity of RAS proteins relies upon lipid modifications and RAS regulates lipid metabolisms in cancer cells, we screened a bioactive lipid library using a RAS-specific cell viability assay. We report the discovery of a new class of inhibitors for RAS transformation. Compounds in the class represented by endocannabinoid N-arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA) can induce cell oncosis, independent of its ability to engage cannabinoid receptors...
January 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746343/revealing-the-role-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-modulators-sr141716a-urb597-and-vdm-11-in-sleep-homeostasis
#11
Eric Murillo-Rodríguez, Sergio Machado, Nuno Barbosa Rocha, Henning Budde, Ti-Fei Yuan, Oscar Arias-Carrión
The endocannabinoid system comprises receptors (CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors), enzymes (Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase [FAAH], which synthesizes the endocannabinoid anandamide), as well as the anandamide membrane transporter (AMT). Importantly, previous experiments have demonstrated that the endocannabinoid system modulates multiple neurobiological functions, including sleep. For instance, SR141716A (the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist) as well as URB597 (the FAAH inhibitor) increase waking in rats whereas VDM-11 (the blocker of the AMT) enhances sleep in rodents...
December 17, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734824/-cannabinoid-and-cathinone-designer-drugs-the-workings-and-selected-methods-of-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Jadwiga Nędza, Renata Polaniak, Rafał J Bułdak, Milena Majchrzak, Joanna Margasiń-Ska, Marcin Rojkiewicz, Rafał Celiński, Elżbieta Grochowska-Niedworok
Recently, there has been an increase in the consumption of designer drugs, substances aimed at producing psychoactive, energizing, euphoric or anesthetic effects. Designer drugs are substitutes of actual narcotics, whose possession is banned under Polish law according to the Act of 29 July 2005. The latest reports suggest that the number of synthetic psychoactive substances is increasing. In the span of 2012, a total of 28 new synthetic cannabinoids were discovered in member states of the European Union. Synthetic psychoactive substances appear in different forms on the market: tablets (often very colourful and interestingly-shaped), seeds, dried product (sprayed with synthetic substance and redried), crystals or powder...
July 29, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639448/seeing-through-the-smoke-human-and-animal-studies-of-cannabis-use-and-endocannabinoid-signalling-in-corticolimbic-networks
#13
REVIEW
Mason M Silveira, Jonathon C Arnold, Steven R Laviolette, Cecilia J Hillard, Marta Celorrio, María S Aymerich, Wendy K Adams
Public opinion surrounding the recreational use and therapeutic potential of cannabis is shifting. This review describes new work examining the behavioural and neural effects of cannabis and the endocannabinoid system, highlighting key regions within corticolimbic brain circuits. First, we consider the role of human genetic factors and cannabis strain chemotypic differences in contributing to interindividual variation in the response to cannabinoids, such as THC, and review studies demonstrating that THC-induced impairments in decision-making processes are mediated by actions at prefrontal CB1 receptors...
September 14, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618677/antipsychotic-like-effects-of-m4-positive-allosteric-modulators-are-mediated-by-cb2-receptor-dependent-inhibition-of-dopamine-release
#14
Daniel J Foster, Jermaine M Wilson, Daniel H Remke, M Suhaib Mahmood, M Jashim Uddin, Jürgen Wess, Sachin Patel, Lawrence J Marnett, Colleen M Niswender, Carrie K Jones, Zixiu Xiang, Craig W Lindsley, Jerri M Rook, P Jeffrey Conn
Muscarinic receptors represent a promising therapeutic target for schizophrenia, but the mechanisms underlying the antipsychotic efficacy of muscarinic modulators are not well understood. Here, we report that activation of M4 receptors on striatal spiny projection neurons results in a novel form of dopaminergic regulation resulting in a sustained depression of striatal dopamine release that is observed more than 30 min after removal of the muscarinic receptor agonist. Furthermore, both the M4-mediated sustained inhibition of dopamine release and the antipsychotic-like efficacy of M4 activators were found to require intact signaling through CB2 cannabinoid receptors...
September 21, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589957/interaction-between-interleukin-1%C3%AE-and-type-1-cannabinoid-receptor-is-involved-in-anxiety-like-behavior-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#15
Antonietta Gentile, Diego Fresegna, Alessandra Musella, Helena Sepman, Silvia Bullitta, Francesca De Vito, Roberta Fantozzi, Alessandro Usiello, Mauro Maccarrone, Nicola B Mercuri, Beat Lutz, Georgia Mandolesi, Diego Centonze
BACKGROUND: Mood disorders, including anxiety and depression, are frequently diagnosed in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, even independently of the disabling symptoms associated with the disease. Anatomical, biochemical, and pharmacological evidence indicates that type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) is implicated in the control of emotional behavior and is modulated during inflammatory neurodegenerative diseases such as MS and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). METHODS: We investigated whether CB1R could exert a role in anxiety-like behavior in mice with EAE...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549374/brain-imaging-studies-on-the-cognitive-pharmacological-and-neurobiological-effects-of-cannabis-in-humans-evidence-from-studies-of-adult-users
#16
A Weinstein, A Livny-Ezer, A Weizman
Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug worldwide. Regular cannabis use has been associated with a range of acute and chronic mental health problems, such as anxiety, depression, psychotic symptoms and neurocognitive impairments and their neural mechanisms need to be examined. This review summarizes and critically evaluates brain-imaging studies of cannabis in recreational and regular cannabis users between January 2000 and January 2016. The search has yielded eligible 103 structural and functional studies...
August 22, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27534533/cb2-receptor-activation-prevents-glial-derived-neurotoxic-mediator-production-bbb-leakage-and-peripheral-immune-cell-infiltration-and-rescues-dopamine-neurons-in-the-mptp-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Young C Chung, Won-Ho Shin, Jeong Y Baek, Eun J Cho, Hyung H Baik, Sang R Kim, So-Yoon Won, Byung K Jin
The cannabinoid (CB2) receptor type 2 has been proposed to prevent the degeneration of dopamine neurons in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mice. However, the mechanisms underlying CB2 receptor-mediated neuroprotection in MPTP mice have not been elucidated. The mechanisms underlying CB2 receptor-mediated neuroprotection of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) were evaluated in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD) by immunohistochemical staining (tyrosine hydroxylase, macrophage Ag complex-1, glial fibrillary acidic protein, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and CD3 and CD68), real-time PCR and a fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled albumin assay...
2016: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528659/peripheral-and-central-cb1-cannabinoid-receptors-control-stress-induced-impairment-of-memory-consolidation
#18
Arnau Busquets-Garcia, Maria Gomis-González, Raj Kamal Srivastava, Laura Cutando, Antonio Ortega-Alvaro, Sabine Ruehle, Floortje Remmers, Laura Bindila, Luigi Bellocchio, Giovanni Marsicano, Beat Lutz, Rafael Maldonado, Andrés Ozaita
Stressful events can generate emotional memories linked to the traumatic incident, but they also can impair the formation of nonemotional memories. Although the impact of stress on emotional memories is well studied, much less is known about the influence of the emotional state on the formation of nonemotional memories. We used the novel object-recognition task as a model of nonemotional memory in mice to investigate the underlying mechanism of the deleterious effect of stress on memory consolidation. Systemic, hippocampal, and peripheral blockade of cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptors abolished the stress-induced memory impairment...
August 30, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527584/effect-of-the-novel-synthetic-cannabinoids-akb48-and-5f-akb48-on-tetrad-sensorimotor-neurological-and-neurochemical-responses-in-mice-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-pharmacological-studies
#19
Isabella Canazza, Andrea Ossato, Claudio Trapella, Anna Fantinati, Maria Antonietta De Luca, Giulia Margiani, Fabrizio Vincenzi, Claudia Rimondo, Fabiana Di Rosa, Adolfo Gregori, Katia Varani, Pier Andrea Borea, Giovanni Serpelloni, Matteo Marti
RATIONALE: AKB48 and its fluorinate derivate 5F-AKB48 are two novel synthetic cannabinoids belonging to a structural class with an indazole core structure. They are marketed as incense, herbal preparations or chemical supply for their psychoactive Cannabis-like effects. OBJECTIVES: The present study was aimed at investigating the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activity of AKB48 and 5F-AKB48 in male CD-1 mice and comparing their in vivo effects with those caused by the administration of Δ(9)-THC and JWH-018...
October 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521837/the-novel-cannabinoid-antagonist-sm-11-reduces-hedonic-aspect-of-food-intake-through-a-dopamine-dependent-mechanism
#20
G R Fois, L Fattore, G Murineddu, A Salis, G Pintore, B Asproni, G A Pinna, M Diana
Cannabinoids, endogenous and exogenously administered, are known to positively regulate food intake and energy balance. Since CB1 receptor antagonists reduce food intake and antagonize overweight, we developed a new CB1 receptor antagonist in an attempt to identify a compound with potential application in overeating disorders. The newly developed SM-11 compound dose-dependently decreases food intake in rats by 15-20%. Moreover, SM-11 reduces self-administration of palatable food in both food restricted and ad libitum fed rats, suggesting an action on the hedonic component of food intake...
August 10, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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