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Johanna Dwyer

Johanna T Dwyer
I came of age as a nutrition scientist during the best of times-years that spanned a rapidly changing world of food and nutrition science, politics, and policy that greatly broadened the specialty and its influence on public affairs. I followed the conventional route in academe, working my way up the academic ladder in Boston from a base first in a school of public health and later in a teaching hospital and medical school, interspersed with stints in Washington, DC. Thus I tell a tale of two cities. Those were the best of times because nutrition science and policy converged and led to important policies and programs that shaped the field for the next 50 years...
June 2, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
Leila G Saldanha, Johanna T Dwyer, Karen W Andrews, LaVerne L Brown, Rebecca B Costello, Abby G Ershow, Pavel A Gusev, Constance J Hardy, Pamela R Pehrsson
BACKGROUND: Prenatal supplements are often recommended to pregnant women to help meet their nutrient needs. Many products are available, making it difficult to choose a suitable supplement because little is known about their labeling and contents to evaluate their appropriateness. OBJECTIVE: To determine differences between prescription and nonprescription prenatal supplements available in the United States regarding declared nutrient and nonnutrient ingredients and the presence of dosing and safety-related information...
May 29, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Karen W Andrews, Janet M Roseland, Pavel A Gusev, Joel Palachuvattil, Phuong T Dang, Sushma Savarala, Fei Han, Pamela R Pehrsson, Larry W Douglass, Johanna T Dwyer, Joseph M Betz, Leila G Saldanha, Regan L Bailey
BACKGROUND: Multivitamin/mineral products (MVMs) are the dietary supplements most commonly used by US adults. During manufacturing, some ingredients are added in amounts exceeding the label claims to compensate for expected losses during the shelf life. Establishing the health benefits and harms of MVMs requires accurate estimates of nutrient intake from MVMs based on measures of actual rather than labeled ingredient amounts. OBJECTIVES: Our goals were to determine relations between analytically measured and labeled ingredient content and to compare adult MVM composition with Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) and Tolerable Upper Intake Levels...
February 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
James R Brooks, Hellen Oketch-Rabah, Tieraona Low Dog, Dennis K J Gorecki, Marilyn L Barrett, Louis Cantilena, Mei Chung, Rebecca B Costello, Johanna Dwyer, Mary L Hardy, Scott A Jordan, Ronald J Maughan, Robin J Marles, Robert E Osterberg, Bruce E Rodda, Robert R Wolfe, Jorge M Zuniga, Luis G Valerio, Donnamaria Jones, Patricia Deuster, Gabriel I Giancaspro, Nandakumara D Sarma
CONTEXT: Dietary supplements are widely used by military personnel and civilians for promotion of health. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this evidence-based review was to examine whether supplementation with l-arginine, in combination with caffeine and/or creatine, is safe and whether it enhances athletic performance or improves recovery from exhaustion for military personnel. DATA SOURCES: Information from clinical trials and adverse event reports were collected from 17 databases and 5 adverse event report portals...
November 2016: Nutrition Reviews
Alison Kretser, Delia Murphy, Johanna Dwyer
Scientific integrity is at the forefront of the scientific research enterprise. This paper provides an overview of key existing efforts on scientific integrity by federal agencies, foundations, nonprofit organizations, professional societies, and academia from 1989 to April 2016. It serves as a resource for the scientific community on scientific integrity work and helps to identify areas in which more action is needed. Overall, there is tremendous activity in this area and there are clear linkages among the efforts of the five sectors...
January 2, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Rebecca B Costello, Johanna T Dwyer, Leila Saldanha, Regan L Bailey, Joyce Merkel, Edwina Wambogo
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum sp) has been suggested to help patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) achieve better glycemic control, although conclusions from meta-analyses are mixed. To evaluate whether the use of cinnamon dietary supplements by adults with T2DM had clinically meaningful effects on glycemic control, as measured by changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), a comprehensive PubMed literature search was performed. Eleven randomized controlled trials were identified that met our inclusion criteria that enrolled 694 adults with T2DM receiving hypoglycemic medications or not...
November 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Alicia L Carriquiry, Judith H Spungen, Suzanne P Murphy, Pamela R Pehrsson, Johanna T Dwyer, WenYen Juan, Mark S Wirtz
BACKGROUND: Food-composition tables typically give measured nutrient concentrations in foods as a single summary value, often the mean, without providing information as to the shape of the distribution. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to explore how the statistical approach chosen to describe the iodine concentrations of foods affects the proportion of the population identified as having either insufficient or excessive iodine intakes. DESIGN: We used food intake data reported by the 2009-2010 NHANES and measured iodine concentrations of Total Diet Study (TDS) foods from 4 US regions sampled in 2004-2011...
September 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
WenYen Juan, Paula R Trumbo, Judith H Spungen, Johanna T Dwyer, Alicia L Carriquiry, Thea P Zimmerman, Christine A Swanson, Suzanne P Murphy
BACKGROUND: Prevalences of iodine inadequacy and excess are usually evaluated by comparing the population distribution of urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in spot samples with established UIC cutoffs. To our knowledge, until now, dietary intake data have not been assessed for this purpose. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to compare 2 methods for evaluating the prevalence of iodine inadequacy and excess in sex- and life stage-specific subgroups of the US population: one that uses UIC cutoffs, and one that uses iodine intake cutoffs...
September 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Pamela R Pehrsson, Kristine Y Patterson, Judith H Spungen, Mark S Wirtz, Karen W Andrews, Johanna T Dwyer, Christine A Swanson
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) of the USDA Agricultural Research Service have worked independently on determining the iodine content of foods and dietary supplements and are now harmonizing their efforts. The objective of the current article is to describe the harmonization plan and the results of initial iodine analyses accomplished under that plan. For many years, the FDA's Total Diet Study (TDS) has measured iodine concentrations in selected foods collected in 4 regions of the country each year...
September 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Rachel Wilkinson, Mary E Arensberg, Mary Hickson, Johanna T Dwyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 11, 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Johanna T Dwyer, Kristin H Rubin, Kevin L Fritsche, Tricia L Psota, DeAnn J Liska, William S Harris, Scott J Montain, Barbara J Lyle
Strategic translational research is designed to address research gaps that answer specific guidance questions. It provides translational value with respect to nutrition guidance and regulatory and public policy. The relevance and the quality of evidence both matter in translational research. For example, design decisions regarding population, intervention, comparator, and outcome criteria affect whether or not high-quality studies are considered relevant to specific guidance questions and are therefore included as evidence within the context of systematic review frameworks used by authoritative food and health organizations...
July 2016: Advances in Nutrition
Rebecca B Costello, Johanna T Dwyer, Regan L Bailey
Some adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) believe that chromium-containing supplements will help control their disease, but the evidence is mixed. This narrative review examines the efficacy of chromium supplements for improving glycemic control as measured by decreases in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Using systematic search criteria, 20 randomized controlled trials of chromium supplementation in T2DM patients were identified. Clinically meaningful treatment goals were defined as an FPG of ≤7...
July 2016: Nutrition Reviews
Suzanne P Murphy, Allison A Yates, Stephanie A Atkinson, Susan I Barr, Johanna Dwyer
The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are reference values to guide the planning and assessing of nutrient intakes in the United States and Canada. The DRI framework was conceptualized in 1994, and the first reports were issued from 1997–2004, based on work by expert panels and subcommittees under the guidance of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. Numerous conventions, challenges, and controversies were encountered during the process of defining and setting the DRIs, including the definition of the framework, the use of chronic disease endpoints, lack of data on requirements for children and youth, and methods for addressing nonessential bioactive substances with potential health benefits...
January 2016: Advances in Nutrition
Leila G Saldanha, Johanna T Dwyer, Joseph M Betz
Dried plant parts used as culinary spices (CSs) in food are permitted as dietary ingredients in dietary supplements (DSs) within certain constraints in the United States. We reviewed the amounts, forms, and nutritional support (structure/function) claims of DSs that contain CS plants listed in the Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) and compared this label information with trial doses and health endpoints for CS plants that were the subject of clinical trials listed in According to the DSLD, the CS plants occurring most frequently in DSs were cayenne, cinnamon, garlic, ginger, pepper, rosemary, and turmeric...
March 2016: Advances in Nutrition
Rebecca B Costello, Johanna T Dwyer, Regan L Bailey, Leila Saldanha, Steven French
It is complicated to ascertain the composition and prevalence of the use of highly fortified food and supplement products (HFPs) because HFP foods and HFP supplements have different labeling requirements. However, HFPs (energy bars, energy drinks, sports drinks, protein bars, energy shots, and fortified foods/beverages) are popular in the United States. A web-based survey balanced to reflect US census data was used to describe their use in a sample of 2,355 US adults >18 yr in 2011 and trends in their use from 2005...
November 2015: Nutrition Today
Jennifer O Fisher, Johanna T Dwyer
Vegetables are an important part of a healthy diet for infants and young children, but they are poorly accepted and underconsumed. This paper highlights major themes and research needs for understanding how to raise children to consume and enjoy vegetables as part of a healthful diet. A range of factors impedes US infants and young children from eating as many vegetables as experts consider optimal for child nutrition, health, and development. Barriers include biological and behavioral issues relating to infant and child development, household- and family-related barriers, obstacles in the larger community, economic limitations, and some government policies and programs...
January 2016: Advances in Nutrition
Namanjeet Ahluwalia, Johanna Dwyer, Ana Terry, Alanna Moshfegh, Clifford Johnson
NHANES is the cornerstone for national nutrition monitoring to inform nutrition and health policy. Nutritional assessment in NHANES is described with a focus on dietary data collection, analysis, and uses in nutrition monitoring. NHANES has been collecting thorough data on diet, nutritional status, and chronic disease in cross-sectional surveys with nationally representative samples since the early 1970s. Continuous data collection began in 1999 with public data release in 2-y cycles on ∼10,000 participants...
January 2016: Advances in Nutrition
Johanna T Dwyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Chung-Mei Ouyang, Johanna T Dwyer, Paul F Jacques, Lee-Ming Chuang, Catherine F Haas, Katie Weinger
We examined the influences of patients' background characteristics on the frequency of performing five diabetes self-care behaviours that 185 Taiwanese outpatients reported. All patients had type 2 diabetes diagnosed for more than a year and attended an outpatient clinic at a large university hospital where they had received at least one dietitian-led individual nutrition education session and one nurse-led diabetes education session during the course of their care. Seventy nine percent of the patients regularly (defined as responses often or always on the questionnaire) took their medications and over half followed recommended meal plans and exercised, but fewer performed foot care (38%) or checked their blood glucose levels (20%) regularly...
2015: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Chung-Mei Ouyang, Johanna T Dwyer, Paul F Jacques, Lee-Ming Chuang, Catherine F Haas, Katie Weinger
The effects of patient characteristics on reported adherence to dietary self-care behaviours in 184 Taiwanese outpatients 40 years or older with type 2 diabetes was assessed. Patient characteristics included the presence of predisposing factors affecting diabetes adherence (knowledge and attitudes about the disease, self-efficacy, and the absence of psychological problems), enabling factors (understanding of diabetes and environmental factors affecting it), and reinforcing factors (presence of medical and social support) which were evaluated using a 72 item self-administered questionnaire with 8 subscales...
2015: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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