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Joanne L Slavin

Renee Korczak, Len Marquart, Joanne L Slavin, Keagan Ringling, YiFang Chu, Marianne O'Shea, Cynthia Harriman, Kelly Toups, Jan de Vries, Paul Jacques, David M Klurfeld, Mary Ellen Camire, Laurian Unnevehr
Definitions for whole grain (WG) have been published by governments, the food industry, and grain organizations and generally fall into 2 categories: WG and WG food. WG definitions focus on the principal components of the WGs and their proportions, whereas WG-food definitions describe the quantity of WGs present in food. In the United States, widespread agreement exists on the main parts of a definition for a WG, with a definition for a WG food still in its early stages; a standard definition that has been universally accepted does not exist...
December 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Renee Korczak, Derek Timm, Rylee Ahnen, William Thomas, Joanne L Slavin
This study compared satiety after high protein pasta (16 g protein, 6 g fiber), high fiber pasta (11 g protein, 8 g fiber) or control pasta (11 g protein, 6 g fiber) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial. Participants were 36 healthy and men and women from the University of Minnesota campus. Fasted men and women ate calorie controlled, but macronutrient different pastas at 12:00 pm along with 500 mL of water. The primary outcome was satiety assessed by Visual Analogue Scales at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 180 min daily after consuming the pastas...
September 2016: Journal of Food Science
Angela L Bonnema, Deena K Altschwager, William Thomas, Joanne L Slavin
This study evaluated appetite and glycemic effects of egg-based breakfasts, containing high and moderate protein (30 g protein and 20 g protein +7 g fiber, respectively) compared to a low-protein cereal breakfast (10 g protein) examined in healthy adults (N = 48; age 24 ± 1 yr; BMI 23 ± 1 kg/m(2); mean ± SE). Meals provided 390 kcal/serving and equal fat content. Food intake was measured at an ad libitum lunch meal and blood glucose response was measured. Visual analog scales (VAS) were used to assess hunger, satisfaction, fullness, and prospective food intake...
September 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Julie M Hess, Satya S Jonnalagadda, Joanne L Slavin
Around the world, adults consume energy outside of traditional meals such as breakfast, lunch, and dinner. However, because there is no consistent definition of a "snack," it is unclear whether those extra eating occasions represent additional meals or snacks. The manner in which an eating occasion is labeled (e.g., as a meal or a snack) may influence other food choices an individual makes on the same day and satiety after consumption. Therefore, a clear distinction between "meals" and "snacks" is important...
May 2016: Advances in Nutrition
Holly Reiland, Joanne Slavin
Fruit consumption is universally promoted, yet consumption of fruit remains low in the United States. We conducted a systematic review on pear consumption and health outcomes searching both PubMed and Agricola from 1970 to present. The genus Pyrus L. consists of species of pears cultivated in Europe, parts of Asia, South America, and North America. Like most fruit, pears are concentrated in water and sugar. Pears are high in dietary fiber, containing 6 g per serving. Pears, similar to apples, are concentrated in fructose, and the high fiber and fructose in pears probably explain the laxative properties...
November 2015: Nutrition Today
Victor L Fulgoni, YiFang Chu, Marianne O'Shea, Joanne L Slavin, Maureen A DiRienzo
Data from the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed to assess the relationship between oatmeal consumption and nutrient intake, diet quality, and physiological measures in adults 19 years and older (n = 22,823). We hypothesized that oatmeal consumption is associated with a more favorable nutrient intake profile, better diet quality, and healthier physiological end points. Oatmeal consumers (n = 1429) were defined as those who had consumed any amount of cooked oatmeal cereal during a 24-hour recall period...
December 2015: Nutrition Research
Angela L Bonnema, Deena Altschwager, William Thomas, Joanne L Slavin
Protein and fiber have strong satiety-inducing potential. Beef is a high quality, protein-rich food. Beans contain moderate levels of protein as well as fiber. To determine the effects of a high protein meal (beef) compared to a moderate protein, high fiber meal (beans) on subjective appetite and energy intake at a subsequent meal twenty-eight adults, 14 men (ages 24 ± 5 y, BMI 23 ± 2 kg/m(2) ) and 14 women (ages 25 ± 5 y, BMI 22 ± 2 kg/m(2) ) consumed 2 test lunches containing a "meatloaf" made from either beef or beans...
September 2015: Journal of Food Science
Stuart M Phillips, Victor L Fulgoni, Robert P Heaney, Theresa A Nicklas, Joanne L Slavin, Connie M Weaver
The amount of dietary protein needed to prevent deficiency in most individuals is defined in the United States and Canada by the Recommended Dietary Allowance and is currently set at 0.8 g protein · kg(-1) · d(-1) for adults. To meet this protein recommendation, the intake of a variety of protein food sources is advised. The goal of this article is to show that commonly consumed food sources of protein are more than just protein but also significant sources of essential nutrients. Commonly consumed sources of dietary protein frequently contribute substantially to intakes of nutrients such as calcium, vitamin D, potassium, dietary fiber, iron, and folate, which have been identified as nutrients of "concern" (i...
April 29, 2015: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Joanne L Slavin
In my over three decades of work in the field of food and nutrition, I have participated in many efforts that seek new policy initiatives in the hopes that these programs can curb rates of obesity and chronic disease and help consumers make healthier dietary choices. Because of the profound effect that many of these policies have on consumers, the food environment, federal nutrition assistance programs and subsequent policy and regulatory recommendations, it is imperative that only the strongest, best available evidence is used to set policy...
2015: Nutrition Journal
Renee Korczak, Kaycie Lindeman, William Thomas, Joanne L Slavin
BACKGROUND: Foods that are high in dietary fiber can promote satiety, but previous studies report conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine differences in satiety response to three conditions (10 g oat bran, 10 g barley bran and a low fiber condition) consumed at dinner and breakfast. In addition, we compared energy intake at an ad libitum lunch after consumption of the breakfast bars. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind crossover study...
September 2014: Appetite
Kristin M Hirahatake, Joanne L Slavin, Kevin C Maki, Sean H Adams
Epidemiological evidence supports an inverse relationship between adequate intake of dairy foods and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2D). The biological mechanisms responsible for this association remain to be established. This review provides a current perspective on proposed mechanisms that may underlie these effects, and highlights how randomized clinical trials can be applied to investigate these relationships. Results from epidemiological studies generally support that consumption of milk and dairy products is associated with a lower incidence of T2D or improvements in glucose homeostasis indices, and studies of animal and cell models support a positive effect of dairy-rich diets or components on metabolic and inflammation factors relevant to T2D and insulin resistance...
May 2014: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Katie J Koecher, Jackie A Noack, Derek A Timm, Abby S Klosterbuer, William Thomas, Joanne L Slavin
Gut bacteria ferment fiber at different rates to primarily short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and gas while proteins are metabolized to SCFA, branched chain fatty acids (BCFA), gas, and undesirable metabolites. Large volumes of gas produced in vivo may contribute to bloating and flatulence in an individual. The objectives of this trial were to (1) compare the in vitro fermentation profiles of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), inulin, gum acacia, and pea fiber alone or blended using a 24 h batch model and (2) relate these findings to a human study that fed enteral formula fortified with fiber blend (FB) or no fiber (FF)...
February 12, 2014: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Kevin C Maki, Joanne L Slavin, Tia M Rains, Penny M Kris-Etherton
Data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) provide the strongest evidence for establishing relations between exposures, including dietary exposures, and health outcomes. However, not all diet and health outcome relations can be practically or ethically evaluated by using RCTs; therefore, many dietary recommendations are supported by evidence primarily from observational data, particularly those from prospective cohort studies. Although such evidence is of critical importance, limitations are often underappreciated by nutrition scientists and policymakers...
January 2014: Advances in Nutrition
Katie J Koecher, William Thomas, Joanne L Slavin
BACKGROUND: Tube-fed patients frequently suffer from abnormal bowel function that affects intestinal bacteria and quality of life. Dietary fiber affects laxation and can be fermented by gut bacteria to metabolites that influence gut health and fecal moisture. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a fiber-blend fortified enteral formula (FB, 15 g/L), a fiber-free formula (FF), and habitual diet on bowel function, fecal bacteria, and quality of life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, 20 healthy subjects consumed both FF and FB for 14 days with a 4-week washout...
March 2015: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Michelle J Clark, Joanne L Slavin
Epidemiologic studies have shown that fiber intake is associated with a lower body weight. Satiety and energy intake are possible explanations for this effect. The purpose of this study was to recommend fiber types and doses that are effective in reducing appetite and energy intake. A systematic review was conducted using the American Dietetic Association's evidence analysis process as a guide. Studies were identified from PubMed and bibliographies of review articles. Studies measuring appetite, food and/or energy intake with a treatment period of ≤24 hours, a reported fiber type and amount, a low- or no-fiber control, and healthy human participants were included...
2013: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Amy R Mobley, Joanne L Slavin, Betsy A Hornick
Grain foods serve as an important source of energy, essential nutrients, and sometimes fiber. Recognizing that fiber continues to be identified as a nutrient of public health priority, there is an urgent need to address the ongoing fiber intake deficit. The focus in dietary guidance on whole grains as a source of fiber from the grains food group has not improved levels of fiber consumption. Consumer confusion around whole grains and fiber, combined with the wide range of fiber amounts found in whole-grain-labeled products, suggests that the current recommendation to "make half your grains whole" may be oversimplified in its intent to support increased fiber intakes...
September 2013: Journal of Nutrition
Janet C King, Joanne L Slavin
The white potato is a concentrated source of carbohydrate, dietary fiber, and resistant starch and continues to be the staple food of choice for many cultures. The white potato is also a concentrated source of vitamin C and potassium. Two of the nutrients in white potatoes, dietary fiber and potassium, have been designated as nutrients of concern in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Potatoes are often maligned in nutrition circles because of their suspected link to obesity, and popular potato foods often contain more fat calories than carbohydrate calories...
May 2013: Advances in Nutrition
Joanne L Slavin
Vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend that you make half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Vegetables are diverse plants that vary greatly in energy content and nutrients. Vegetables supply carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and resistant starch in the diet, all of which have been linked to positive health outcomes. Fiber lowers the incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. In this paper, the important role of white vegetables in the human diet is described, with a focus on the dietary fiber and resistant starch content of white vegetables...
May 2013: Advances in Nutrition
Derek A Timm, William Thomas, Thomas W Boileau, Patricia S Williamson-Hughes, Joanne L Slavin
Dietary fiber has well-established beneficial effects on laxation. Many fibers have been developed with positive sensory properties and 2 such fibers are polydextrose (PDX) and soluble corn fiber (SCF), which can be added to many commercially produced products. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study comparing the laxative effects of PDX and SCF at a dose of 20 g/d with a low fiber control (LFC) eaten daily as a muffin and cereal in 36 healthy men and women. Each treatment period was 10 d with a 2-wk washout period between...
April 2013: Journal of Nutrition
Marie E Latulippe, Agnès Meheust, Livia Augustin, David Benton, Přemysl Berčík, Anne Birkett, Alison L Eldridge, Joel Faintuch, Christian Hoffmann, Julie Miller Jones, Cyril Kendall, Franco Lajolo, Gabriela Perdigon, Pedro Antonio Prieto, Robert A Rastall, John L Sievenpiper, Joanne Slavin, Elizabete Wenzel de Menezes
To stimulate discussion around the topic of 'carbohydrates' and health, the Brazilian branch of the International Life Sciences Institute held the 11th International Functional Foods Workshop (1-2 December 2011) in which consolidated knowledge and recent scientific advances specific to the relationship between carbohydrates and health were presented. As part of this meeting, several key points related to dietary fiber, glycemic response, fructose, and impacts on satiety, cognition, mood, and gut microbiota were realized: 1) there is a need for global harmonization of a science-based fiber definition; 2) low-glycemic index foods can be used to modulate the postprandial glycemic response and may affect diabetes and cardiovascular outcomes; 3) carbohydrate type may influence satiety and satiation; glycemic load and glycemic index show links to memory, mood, and concentration; 4) validated biomarkers are needed to demonstrate the known prebiotic effect of carbohydrates; 5) negative effects of fructose are not evident when human data are systematically reviewed; 6) new research indicates that diet strongly influences the microbiome; and 7) there is mounting evidence that the intestinal microbiota has the ability to impact the gut-brain axis...
2013: Food & Nutrition Research
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