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Joanne L Slavin

Julie M Hess, Joanne L Slavin
OBJECTIVE: To quantify and compare the nutrient-density of commonly consumed snacks using two nutrient-density measures, Nutrient Rich Foods Indices 9.3 (NRF 9.3) and 15.3 (NRF 15.3). DESIGN: Identify commonly consumed categories of snacks and individual snack foods, calculate NRF 9.3 and 15.3 scores, rank snacks by category and by individual food based on nutrient density, compare and contrast scores generated by the two NRF Indices. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: NRF 9...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Food Science
Kaisa S Poutanen, Pierre Dussort, Alfrun Erkner, Susana Fiszman, Kavita Karnik, Mette Kristensen, Cyril Fm Marsaux, Sophie Miquel-Kergoat, Saara P Pentikäinen, Peter Putz, Joanne L Slavin, Robert E Steinert, David J Mela
Background: Many intervention studies have tested the effect of dietary fibers (DFs) on appetite-related outcomes, with inconsistent results. However, DFs comprise a wide range of compounds with diverse properties, and the specific contribution of these to appetite control is not well characterized.Objective: The influence of specific DF characteristics [i.e., viscosity, gel-forming capacity, fermentability, or molecular weight (MW)] on appetite-related outcomes was assessed in healthy humans.Design: Controlled human intervention trials that tested the effects of well-characterized DFs on appetite ratings or energy intake were identified from a systematic search of literature...
September 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Julie M Hess, Qi Wang, Clarissa Kraft, Joanne L Slavin
Previous studies on mushrooms suggest that they can be more satiating than meat, but this effect has not been studied with protein-matched amounts. The objective of this study was to assess the differences with satiety and ten-day food intake between A. bisporus mushrooms (226 g) and meat (28 g) in a randomized open-label crossover study. Thirty-two healthy participants (17 women, 15 men) consumed two servings of mushrooms or meat for ten days. On the first day, fasted participants consumed protein-matched breakfasts...
October 1, 2017: Appetite
Renee Korczak, Alison Kamil, Lisa Fleige, Sharon M Donovan, Joanne L Slavin
Digestive health is an expanding area in nutrition research due to the interest in how food components such as fiber affect gastrointestinal tolerance, stool form, defecation frequency, transit time, and gut microbial composition and metabolic activity. In children, however, digestive health studies that intervene with dietary fiber are limited due to legal and ethical concerns. To better understand if fiber improves digestive health in children, a literature review was conducted to answer the following research question: What are the effect(s) of fiber-containing foods and/or supplements on digestive health outcomes in children? A search of the PubMed database identified a total of 12 studies that fit the inclusion criteria established for this review...
April 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
Goli Samimi, Marcus Q Bernardini, Lawrence C Brody, Charlisse F Caga-Anan, Ian G Campbell, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Fergus J Couch, Michael Dean, Joanne A de Hullu, Susan M Domchek, Ronny Drapkin, Heather Spencer Feigelson, Michael Friedlander, Mia M Gaudet, Marline G Harmsen, Karen Hurley, Paul A James, Janice S Kwon, Felicitas Lacbawan, Stephanie Lheureux, Phuong L Mai, Leah E Mechanic, Lori M Minasian, Evan R Myers, Mark E Robson, Susan J Ramus, Lisa F Rezende, Patricia A Shaw, Thomas P Slavin, Elizabeth M Swisher, Masataka Takenaka, David D Bowtell, Mark E Sherman
In May 2016, the Division of Cancer Prevention and the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute, convened a workshop to discuss a conceptual framework for identifying and genetically testing previously diagnosed but unreferred patients with ovarian cancer and other unrecognized BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers to improve the detection of families at risk for breast or ovarian cancer. The concept, designated Traceback, was prompted by the recognition that although BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations are frequent in women with ovarian cancer, many such women have not been tested, especially if their diagnosis predated changes in testing guidelines...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Renee Korczak, Len Marquart, Joanne L Slavin, Keagan Ringling, YiFang Chu, Marianne O'Shea, Cynthia Harriman, Kelly Toups, Jan de Vries, Paul Jacques, David M Klurfeld, Mary Ellen Camire, Laurian Unnevehr
Definitions for whole grain (WG) have been published by governments, the food industry, and grain organizations and generally fall into 2 categories: WG and WG food. WG definitions focus on the principal components of the WGs and their proportions, whereas WG-food definitions describe the quantity of WGs present in food. In the United States, widespread agreement exists on the main parts of a definition for a WG, with a definition for a WG food still in its early stages; a standard definition that has been universally accepted does not exist...
December 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Renee Korczak, Derek Timm, Rylee Ahnen, William Thomas, Joanne L Slavin
This study compared satiety after high protein pasta (16 g protein, 6 g fiber), high fiber pasta (11 g protein, 8 g fiber) or control pasta (11 g protein, 6 g fiber) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial. Participants were 36 healthy and men and women from the University of Minnesota campus. Fasted men and women ate calorie controlled, but macronutrient different pastas at 12:00 pm along with 500 mL of water. The primary outcome was satiety assessed by Visual Analogue Scales at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 180 min daily after consuming the pastas...
September 2016: Journal of Food Science
Angela L Bonnema, Deena K Altschwager, William Thomas, Joanne L Slavin
This study evaluated appetite and glycemic effects of egg-based breakfasts, containing high and moderate protein (30 g protein and 20 g protein +7 g fiber, respectively) compared to a low-protein cereal breakfast (10 g protein) examined in healthy adults (N = 48; age 24 ± 1 yr; BMI 23 ± 1 kg/m(2); mean ± SE). Meals provided 390 kcal/serving and equal fat content. Food intake was measured at an ad libitum lunch meal and blood glucose response was measured. Visual analog scales (VAS) were used to assess hunger, satisfaction, fullness, and prospective food intake...
September 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Julie M Hess, Satya S Jonnalagadda, Joanne L Slavin
Around the world, adults consume energy outside of traditional meals such as breakfast, lunch, and dinner. However, because there is no consistent definition of a "snack," it is unclear whether those extra eating occasions represent additional meals or snacks. The manner in which an eating occasion is labeled (e.g., as a meal or a snack) may influence other food choices an individual makes on the same day and satiety after consumption. Therefore, a clear distinction between "meals" and "snacks" is important...
May 2016: Advances in Nutrition
Holly Reiland, Joanne Slavin
Fruit consumption is universally promoted, yet consumption of fruit remains low in the United States. We conducted a systematic review on pear consumption and health outcomes searching both PubMed and Agricola from 1970 to present. The genus Pyrus L. consists of species of pears cultivated in Europe, parts of Asia, South America, and North America. Like most fruit, pears are concentrated in water and sugar. Pears are high in dietary fiber, containing 6 g per serving. Pears, similar to apples, are concentrated in fructose, and the high fiber and fructose in pears probably explain the laxative properties...
November 2015: Nutrition Today
Victor L Fulgoni, YiFang Chu, Marianne O'Shea, Joanne L Slavin, Maureen A DiRienzo
Data from the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed to assess the relationship between oatmeal consumption and nutrient intake, diet quality, and physiological measures in adults 19 years and older (n = 22,823). We hypothesized that oatmeal consumption is associated with a more favorable nutrient intake profile, better diet quality, and healthier physiological end points. Oatmeal consumers (n = 1429) were defined as those who had consumed any amount of cooked oatmeal cereal during a 24-hour recall period...
December 2015: Nutrition Research
Angela L Bonnema, Deena Altschwager, William Thomas, Joanne L Slavin
Protein and fiber have strong satiety-inducing potential. Beef is a high quality, protein-rich food. Beans contain moderate levels of protein as well as fiber. To determine the effects of a high protein meal (beef) compared to a moderate protein, high fiber meal (beans) on subjective appetite and energy intake at a subsequent meal twenty-eight adults, 14 men (ages 24 ± 5 y, BMI 23 ± 2 kg/m(2) ) and 14 women (ages 25 ± 5 y, BMI 22 ± 2 kg/m(2) ) consumed 2 test lunches containing a "meatloaf" made from either beef or beans...
September 2015: Journal of Food Science
Stuart M Phillips, Victor L Fulgoni, Robert P Heaney, Theresa A Nicklas, Joanne L Slavin, Connie M Weaver
The amount of dietary protein needed to prevent deficiency in most individuals is defined in the United States and Canada by the Recommended Dietary Allowance and is currently set at 0.8 g protein · kg(-1) · d(-1) for adults. To meet this protein recommendation, the intake of a variety of protein food sources is advised. The goal of this article is to show that commonly consumed food sources of protein are more than just protein but also significant sources of essential nutrients. Commonly consumed sources of dietary protein frequently contribute substantially to intakes of nutrients such as calcium, vitamin D, potassium, dietary fiber, iron, and folate, which have been identified as nutrients of "concern" (i...
April 29, 2015: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Joanne L Slavin
In my over three decades of work in the field of food and nutrition, I have participated in many efforts that seek new policy initiatives in the hopes that these programs can curb rates of obesity and chronic disease and help consumers make healthier dietary choices. Because of the profound effect that many of these policies have on consumers, the food environment, federal nutrition assistance programs and subsequent policy and regulatory recommendations, it is imperative that only the strongest, best available evidence is used to set policy...
2015: Nutrition Journal
Renee Korczak, Kaycie Lindeman, William Thomas, Joanne L Slavin
BACKGROUND: Foods that are high in dietary fiber can promote satiety, but previous studies report conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine differences in satiety response to three conditions (10 g oat bran, 10 g barley bran and a low fiber condition) consumed at dinner and breakfast. In addition, we compared energy intake at an ad libitum lunch after consumption of the breakfast bars. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind crossover study...
September 2014: Appetite
Kristin M Hirahatake, Joanne L Slavin, Kevin C Maki, Sean H Adams
Epidemiological evidence supports an inverse relationship between adequate intake of dairy foods and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2D). The biological mechanisms responsible for this association remain to be established. This review provides a current perspective on proposed mechanisms that may underlie these effects, and highlights how randomized clinical trials can be applied to investigate these relationships. Results from epidemiological studies generally support that consumption of milk and dairy products is associated with a lower incidence of T2D or improvements in glucose homeostasis indices, and studies of animal and cell models support a positive effect of dairy-rich diets or components on metabolic and inflammation factors relevant to T2D and insulin resistance...
May 2014: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Katie J Koecher, Jackie A Noack, Derek A Timm, Abby S Klosterbuer, William Thomas, Joanne L Slavin
Gut bacteria ferment fiber at different rates to primarily short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and gas while proteins are metabolized to SCFA, branched chain fatty acids (BCFA), gas, and undesirable metabolites. Large volumes of gas produced in vivo may contribute to bloating and flatulence in an individual. The objectives of this trial were to (1) compare the in vitro fermentation profiles of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), inulin, gum acacia, and pea fiber alone or blended using a 24 h batch model and (2) relate these findings to a human study that fed enteral formula fortified with fiber blend (FB) or no fiber (FF)...
February 12, 2014: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Kevin C Maki, Joanne L Slavin, Tia M Rains, Penny M Kris-Etherton
Data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) provide the strongest evidence for establishing relations between exposures, including dietary exposures, and health outcomes. However, not all diet and health outcome relations can be practically or ethically evaluated by using RCTs; therefore, many dietary recommendations are supported by evidence primarily from observational data, particularly those from prospective cohort studies. Although such evidence is of critical importance, limitations are often underappreciated by nutrition scientists and policymakers...
January 2014: Advances in Nutrition
Katie J Koecher, William Thomas, Joanne L Slavin
BACKGROUND: Tube-fed patients frequently suffer from abnormal bowel function that affects intestinal bacteria and quality of life. Dietary fiber affects laxation and can be fermented by gut bacteria to metabolites that influence gut health and fecal moisture. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a fiber-blend fortified enteral formula (FB, 15 g/L), a fiber-free formula (FF), and habitual diet on bowel function, fecal bacteria, and quality of life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, 20 healthy subjects consumed both FF and FB for 14 days with a 4-week washout...
March 2015: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Michelle J Clark, Joanne L Slavin
Epidemiologic studies have shown that fiber intake is associated with a lower body weight. Satiety and energy intake are possible explanations for this effect. The purpose of this study was to recommend fiber types and doses that are effective in reducing appetite and energy intake. A systematic review was conducted using the American Dietetic Association's evidence analysis process as a guide. Studies were identified from PubMed and bibliographies of review articles. Studies measuring appetite, food and/or energy intake with a treatment period of ≤24 hours, a reported fiber type and amount, a low- or no-fiber control, and healthy human participants were included...
2013: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
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