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J Thomas Brenna

Mahmoud Hussein, Viju V Pillai, Joshua M Goddard, Hui G Park, Kumar S Kothapalli, Deborah A Ross, Quirine M Ketterings, J Thomas Brenna, Mark B Milstein, Helene Marquis, Patricia A Johnson, Jan P Nyrop, Vimal Selvaraj
The common housefly, Musca domestica, is a considerable component of nutrient recycling in the environment. Use of housefly larvae to biodegrade manure presents an opportunity to reduce waste disposal while the rapidly assimilated insect biomass can also be used as a protein rich animal feed. In this study, we examine the biodegradation of dairy cattle manure using housefly larvae, and the nutritional value of the resulting larva meal as a feed ingredient. Our results demonstrated that dairy cattle manure presents a balanced substrate for larval growth, and the spent manure showed reductions in concentration of total nitrogen (24...
2017: PloS One
Tatyana V Korneenko, Nikolay B Pestov, Alaksiej L Hurski, Artsiom M Fedarkevich, Vadim V Shmanai, J Thomas Brenna, Mikhail S Shchepinov
Effects exerted by heavy isotope substitution in biopolymers on the functioning of whole organisms have not been investigated. We report on the decrease of permissive temperature of nematodes fed with bacteria containing 5,5-D2-lysine. We synthesized 5,5-dideuterolysine and, taking advantage of lysine being an essential amino acid, showed that C. elegans with modified lysine poorly develop from larvae into fertile adult hermaphrodites. This effect occurs only at high temperature within the permissible range for C...
February 4, 2017: Amino Acids
Lei Liu, Zhen Wang, Hui Gyu Park, Chuang Xu, Peter Lawrence, Xueli Su, Vasuki Wijendran, W Allan Walker, Kumar S D Kothapalli, J Thomas Brenna
BACKGROUND: Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are constituents of gastrointestinal (GI) tract in healthy newborn human infants, reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in a neonatal rat model, and are incorporated into small intestine cellular lipids in vivo. We hypothesize that BCFA are taken up, metabolized and incorporated into human fetal cells in vitro. METHODS: Human H4 cells, a fetal non-transformed primary small intestine cell line, were incubated with albumin-bound non-esterified anteiso-17:0, iso-16:0, iso-18:0 and/or iso-20:0, and FA profiles in lipid fractions were analyzed...
January 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Kelly A Dingess, Christina J Valentine, Nicholas J Ollberding, Barbara S Davidson, Jessica G Woo, Suzanne Summer, Yongmei M Peng, M Lourdes Guerrero, Guillermo M Ruiz-Palacios, Rinat R Ran-Ressler, Robert J McMahon, J Thomas Brenna, Ardythe L Morrow
BACKGROUND: An understudied component of the diet, branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) are distinctive saturated fatty acids that may have an important influence on health. Human-milk fatty acid composition is known to differ worldwide, but comparative data are lacking on BCFAs. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypotheses that concentrations of BCFAs in human milk differ between populations and are associated with maternal diet. DESIGN: We surveyed the BCFA composition of samples collected as part of a standardized, prospective study of human-milk composition...
January 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Brenna Cholerton, Laura D Baker, Thomas J Montine, Suzanne Craft
IN BRIEF There has been a concurrent dramatic rise in type 2 diabetes and dementia in the United States, and type 2 diabetes shares common genetic and environmental risk factors and underlying pathology with both vascular and Alzheimer's dementias. Given the ability to identify this at-risk population and a variety of potential targeted treatments, type 2 diabetes represents a promising focus for a precision health approach to reduce the impact of cognitive decline and dementia in older adults.
November 2016: Diabetes Spectrum: a Publication of the American Diabetes Association
Brenna C McDonald, Laura A Flashman, David B Arciniegas, Robert J Ferguson, Li Xing, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Gwen C Sprehn, Flora M Hammond, Arthur C Maerlender, Carrie L Kruck, Karen L Gillock, Kim Frey, Rachel N Wall, Andrew J Saykin, Thomas W McAllister
The purpose of this multicenter, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of two cognitive rehabilitation interventions (Memory and Attention Adaptation Training (MAAT) and Attention Builders Training (ABT)), with and without pharmacologic enhancement (ie, with methylphenidate (MPH) or placebo), for treating persistent cognitive problems after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Adults with a history of TBI at least four months prior to study enrollment with either objective cognitive deficits or subjective cognitive complaints were randomized to receive MPH or placebo and MAAT or ABT, yielding four treatment combinations: MAAT/MPH (N=17), ABT/MPH (N=19), MAAT/placebo (N=17), and ABT/placebo (N=18)...
November 22, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Dong Hao Wang, James R Jackson, Cornelia Twining, Lars G Rudstam, Emily Zollweg-Horan, Clifford Kraft, Peter Lawrence, Kumar Kothapalli, Zhen Wang, J Thomas Brenna
The fatty acid profiles of wild freshwater fish are poorly characterized as a human food source for several classes of fatty acids, particularly for branched chain fatty acids (BCFA), a major bioactive dietary component known to enter the US food supply primarily via dairy and beef fat. We evaluated the fatty acid content of 27 freshwater fish species captured in the northeastern US with emphasis on the BCFA and bioactive polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) most associated with fish, specifically n-3 (omega-3) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Cornelia W Twining, J Thomas Brenna, Peter Lawrence, J Ryan Shipley, Troy N Tollefson, David W Winkler
Once-abundant aerial insectivores, such as the Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), have declined steadily in the past several decades, making it imperative to understand all aspects of their ecology. Aerial insectivores forage on a mixture of aquatic and terrestrial insects that differ in fatty acid composition, specifically long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) content. Aquatic insects contain high levels of both LCPUFA and their precursor omega-3 PUFA, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), whereas terrestrial insects contain much lower levels of both...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Marie Y Davis, Catherine O Johnson, James B Leverenz, Daniel Weintraub, John Q Trojanowski, Alice Chen-Plotkin, Vivianna M Van Deerlin, Joseph F Quinn, Kathryn A Chung, Amie L Peterson-Hiller, Liana S Rosenthal, Ted M Dawson, Marilyn S Albert, Jennifer G Goldman, Glenn T Stebbins, Bryan Bernard, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Owen A Ross, Dennis W Dickson, David Eidelberg, Paul J Mattis, Martin Niethammer, Dora Yearout, Shu-Ching Hu, Brenna A Cholerton, Megan Smith, Ignacio F Mata, Thomas J Montine, Karen L Edwards, Cyrus P Zabetian
Importance: Parkinson disease (PD) is heterogeneous in symptom manifestation and rate of progression. Identifying factors that influence disease progression could provide mechanistic insight, improve prognostic accuracy, and elucidate novel therapeutic targets. Objective: To determine whether GBA mutations and the E326K polymorphism modify PD symptom progression. Design, Setting, and Participants: The entire GBA coding region was screened for mutations and E326K in 740 patients with PD enrolled at 7 sites from the PD Cognitive Genetics Consortium...
October 1, 2016: JAMA Neurology
Kevin Shee, Alexandra Lucas, Laura A Flashman, Kwangsik Nho, Gregory J Tsongalis, Brenna C McDonald, Andrew J Saykin, Thomas W McAllister, C Harker Rhodes
Problems with attention and short-term learning and memory are commonly reported after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Due to the known relationships between α-synuclein (SNCA), dopaminergic transmission, and neurologic deficits, we hypothesized that SNCA polymorphisms might be associated with cognitive outcome after mTBI. A cohort of 91 mTBI patients one month after injury and 86 healthy controls completed a series of cognitive tests assessing baseline intellectual function, attentional function, and memory, and was genotyped at 13 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SNCA gene...
September 6, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Richard Thomas Griffey, Ryan M Schneider, Lee M Adler, Roberta Capp, Christopher R Carpenter, Brenna M Farmer, Kathyrn Y Groner, Sheridan Hodkins, Craig A McCammon, Jonathan T Powell, Jonathan E Sather, Jeremiah D Schuur, Marc J Shapiro, Brian R Sharp, Arjun K Venkatesh, Marie C Vrablik, Jennifer L Wiler
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop an emergency department (ED) trigger tool to improve the identification of adverse events in the ED and that can be used to direct patient safety and quality improvement. This work describes the first step toward the development of an ED all-cause harm measurement tool by experts in the field. METHODS: We identified a multidisciplinary group of emergency medicine safety experts from whom we solicited candidate triggers. We then conducted a modified Delphi process consisting of 4 stages as follows: (1) a systematic literature search and review, including an independent oversampling of review for inclusion, (2) solicitation of empiric triggers from participants, (3) a Web-based survey ranking triggers on specific performance constructs, and (4) a final in-person meeting to arrive at consensus triggers for testing...
June 16, 2016: Journal of Patient Safety
Ji Yao Zhang, Xia Qin, Hui Gyu Park, Ellen Kim, Guowen Liu, Kumar S D Kothapalli, J Thomas Brenna
Fads3 is the third member of the fatty acid desaturase gene cluster; with at least eight evolutionarily conserved alternative transcripts (AT), having no clearly established function as are known for FADS2 and FADS1. Here we present identification of a novel Fads3 transcript in mice (Fads3AT9), characterize Fads3AT9 expression in mouse tissues and evaluate correlations with metabolite profiles. Total RNA obtained from mouse tissues is reverse-transcribed into cDNA and used as template for PCR reactions. Tissue fatty acids were extracted and quantified by gas chromatography...
August 2016: Molecular Biology Reports
Kumar S D Kothapalli, Kaixiong Ye, Maithili S Gadgil, Susan E Carlson, Kimberly O O'Brien, Ji Yao Zhang, Hui Gyu Park, Kinsley Ojukwu, James Zou, Stephanie S Hyon, Kalpana S Joshi, Zhenglong Gu, Alon Keinan, J Thomas Brenna
Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are bioactive components of membrane phospholipids and serve as substrates for signaling molecules. LCPUFA can be obtained directly from animal foods or synthesized endogenously from 18 carbon precursors via the FADS2 coded enzyme. Vegans rely almost exclusively on endogenous synthesis to generate LCPUFA and we hypothesized that an adaptive genetic polymorphism would confer advantage. The rs66698963 polymorphism, a 22-bp insertion-deletion within FADS2, is associated with basal FADS1 expression, and coordinated induction of FADS1 and FADS2 in vitro...
July 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Barbara E Millen, Steve Abrams, Lucile Adams-Campbell, Cheryl Am Anderson, J Thomas Brenna, Wayne W Campbell, Steven Clinton, Frank Hu, Miriam Nelson, Marian L Neuhouser, Rafael Perez-Escamilla, Anna Maria Siega-Riz, Mary Story, Alice H Lichtenstein
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) is published every 5 y jointly by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the USDA and provides a framework for US-based food and nutrition programs, health promotion and disease prevention initiatives, and research priorities. Summarized in this report are the methods, major conclusions, and recommendations of the Scientific Report of the 2015 US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC). Early in the process, the DGAC developed a conceptual model and formulated questions to examine nutritional risk and determinants and impact of dietary patterns in relation to numerous health outcomes among individuals aged ≥2 y...
May 2016: Advances in Nutrition
Adan Z Becerra, Steve Georas, J Thomas Brenna, Philip K Hopke, Cathleen Kane, David Chalupa, Mark W Frampton, Robert Block, David Q Rich
Increased particulate matter (PM) air pollutant concentrations have been associated with platelet activation. It was postulated that elevated air pollutant concentrations would be associated with increases in measures of platelet function and that responses would be blunted when taking aspirin and/or fish oil. Data from a sequential therapy trial (30 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus), with 4 clinic visits (first: no supplements, second: aspirin, third: omega-3 fatty acid supplements, fourth: aspirin and omega-3 fatty acids) per subject, were utilized...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
J Thomas Brenna
Recently, the European Food Safety Authority asserted that arachidonic acid (ARA) is an optional nutrient for the term infant even when docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is present. The brief rationale is based on an explicit, widespread misapplication of the concept of "essential fatty acids" to linoleic acid that implies it is uniquely required as a nutrient per se. Linoleic acid prevents acute clinical symptoms caused by polyunsaturated fatty acid-deficient diets and is the major precursor for ARA in most human diets...
May 2016: Nutrition Reviews
Mattia Bonsignori, Tongqing Zhou, Zizhang Sheng, Lei Chen, Feng Gao, M Gordon Joyce, Gabriel Ozorowski, Gwo-Yu Chuang, Chaim A Schramm, Kevin Wiehe, S Munir Alam, Todd Bradley, Morgan A Gladden, Kwan-Ki Hwang, Sheelah Iyengar, Amit Kumar, Xiaozhi Lu, Kan Luo, Michael C Mangiapani, Robert J Parks, Hongshuo Song, Priyamvada Acharya, Robert T Bailer, Allen Cao, Aliaksandr Druz, Ivelin S Georgiev, Young D Kwon, Mark K Louder, Baoshan Zhang, Anqi Zheng, Brenna J Hill, Rui Kong, Cinque Soto, James C Mullikin, Daniel C Douek, David C Montefiori, Michael A Moody, George M Shaw, Beatrice H Hahn, Garnett Kelsoe, Peter T Hraber, Bette T Korber, Scott D Boyd, Andrew Z Fire, Thomas B Kepler, Lawrence Shapiro, Andrew B Ward, John R Mascola, Hua-Xin Liao, Peter D Kwong, Barton F Haynes
Antibodies with ontogenies from VH1-2 or VH1-46-germline genes dominate the broadly neutralizing response against the CD4-binding site (CD4bs) on HIV-1. Here, we define with longitudinal sampling from time-of-infection the development of a VH1-46-derived antibody lineage that matured to neutralize 90% of HIV-1 isolates. Structures of lineage antibodies CH235 (week 41 from time-of-infection, 18% breadth), CH235.9 (week 152, 77%), and CH235.12 (week 323, 90%) demonstrated the maturing epitope to focus on the conformationally invariant portion of the CD4bs...
April 7, 2016: Cell
Ji Yao Zhang, Kumar S D Kothapalli, J Thomas Brenna
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Endogenous synthesis of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) is mediated by the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster (11q12-13.1) and elongation of very long-chain fatty acids 2 (ELOVL2) (6p24.2) and ELOVL5 (6p12.1). Although older biochemical work identified the product of one gene, FADS2, rate limiting for LCPUFA synthesis, recent studies suggest that polymorphisms in any of these genes can limit accumulation of product LCPUFA. RECENT FINDINGS: Genome-wide association study (GWAS) of Greenland Inuit shows strong adaptation signals within FADS gene cluster, attributed to high omega-3 fatty acid intake, while GWAS found ELOVL2 associated with sleep duration, age and DNA methylation...
March 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Xia Qin, Hui Gyu Park, Ji Yao Zhang, Peter Lawrence, Guowen Liu, Nivetha Subramanian, Kumar S D Kothapalli, J Thomas Brenna
Adipose tissue is a complex endocrine organ which coordinates several crucial biological functions including fatty acid metabolism, glucose metabolism, energy homeostasis, and immune function. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is most abundant in young infants during the brain growth spurt when demands for omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) is greatest for brain structure. Our aim was to characterize relative biosynthesis of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from precursors in cultured white (WAT) and brown (BAT) cells and study relevant gene expression...
January 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
J Thomas Brenna
The vast majority of infant formulas in the United States contain the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), which were first permitted by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2001. As a scientific case study, preclinical animal studies of these nutrients definitively influenced the design and interpretation of human clinical studies. Early studies were tied to the availability of test substances, and in hindsight suggest re-evaluation of the essential fatty acid concept in light of the totality of available evidence...
February 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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