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J Thomas Brenna

Dong Hao Wang, Rinat Ran-Ressler, Judy St Leger, Erika Nilson, Lauren Palmer, Richard Collins, J Thomas Brenna
Vernix caseosa, the white waxy coating found on newborn human skin, is thought to be a uniquely human substance. Its signature characteristic is exceptional richness in saturated branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) and squalene. Vernix particles sloughed from the skin suspended in amniotic fluid are swallowed by the human fetus, depositing BCFA/squalene throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, thereby establishing a unique microbial niche that influences development of nascent microbiota. Here we show that late-term California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) fetuses have true vernix caseosa, delivering BCFA and squalene to the fetal GI tract thereby recapitulating the human fetal gut microbial niche...
May 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Peiqin Li, Jing Zhao, Kumar S D Kothapalli, Xiang Li, Hui Li, Yuxuan Han, Shengquan Mi, Wenhua Zhao, Qizhai Li, Hong Zhang, Yiqing Song, J Thomas Brenna, Ying Gao
Background: Arachidonic acid (AA) is the major polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) substrate for potent eicosanoid signaling to modulate inflammation and thrombosis and is controlled in part by tissue abundance. Fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) catalyzes synthesis of omega-6 (n-3) AA and n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). The rs66698963 polymorphism, a 22-base pair (bp) insertion-deletion 137 bp downstream of a sterol regulatory element in FADS2 intron 1, mediates expression of FADS1 in vitro, as well as exerting positive selection in several human populations...
May 9, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Sara C Di Rienzi, Juliet Jacobson, Elizabeth A Kennedy, Mary E Bell, Qiaojuan Shi, Jillian L Waters, Peter Lawrence, J Thomas Brenna, Robert A Britton, Jens Walter, Ruth Emily Ley
Over the past century, soybean oil (SBO) consumption in the United States increased dramatically. The main SBO fatty acid, linoleic acid (18:2), inhibits in vitro the growth of lactobacilli, beneficial members of the small intestinal microbiota. Human-associated lactobacilli have declined in prevalence in Western microbiomes, but how dietary changes may have impacted their ecology is unclear. Here, we compared the in vitro and in vivo effects of 18:2 on Lactobacillus reuteri and L. johnsonii . Directed evolution in vitro in both species led to strong 18:2 resistance with mutations in genes for lipid biosynthesis, acid stress, and the cell membrane or wall...
March 27, 2018: ELife
Brenna Cholerton, Catherine O Johnson, Brian Fish, Joseph F Quinn, Kathryn A Chung, Amie L Peterson-Hiller, Liana S Rosenthal, Ted M Dawson, Marilyn S Albert, Shu-Ching Hu, Ignacio F Mata, James B Leverenz, Kathleen L Poston, Thomas J Montine, Cyrus P Zabetian, Karen L Edwards
INTRODUCTION: Identification of factors associated with progression of cognitive symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) is important for treatment planning, clinical care, and design of future clinical trials. The current study sought to identify whether prediction of cognitive progression is aided by examining baseline cognitive features, and whether this differs according to stage of cognitive disease. METHODS: Participants with PD in the Pacific Udall Center Clinical Consortium who had longitudinal data available and were nondemented at baseline were included in the study (n = 418)...
May 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Swati Rane, Natalie Koh, Peter Boord, Tara Madhyastha, Mary K Askren, Suman Jayadev, Brenna Cholerton, Eric Larson, Thomas J Grabowski
Cerebrovascular disease, especially small vessel pathology, is the leading comorbidity in degenerative disorders. We applied arterial spin labeling and cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) imaging to quantify small vessel disease and study its effect on cognitive symptoms in nondemented older adults from a community-based cohort. We evaluated baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF) using arterial spin labeling and percent signal change as a marker of CVR using blood-oxygen level-dependent imaging following a breath-hold stimulus...
May 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Hui Gyu Park, Matthew G Engel, Kyle Vogt-Lowell, Peter Lawrence, Kumar S Kothapalli, J Thomas Brenna
INTRODUCTION: In mammals, FADS2 catalyzes "front-end" Δ4-, Δ6-, and Δ8-desaturation of fatty acyl chains, whereas FADS1 has Δ5-desaturase activity. Eighteen and 20-carbon precursors to highly unsaturated n-3 and n-6 fatty acids are the usual substrates for FADS1 and FADS2. Our main objective was to characterize the metabolic fate of oleic acid (OA) due to action of FADS gene products. METHODS: MCF-7 cells were stably transformed with either FADS1 or FADS2 or empty vector...
January 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Herbert J Tobias, J Thomas Brenna
Sports doping requires high precision carbon isotope ratio (CIR) analysis of endogenous steroids using gas chromatography-combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GCC-IRMS), however methods are relatively slow and cumbersome. A cryofocusing fast GCC-IRMS (Cryofocus Fast GCC-IRMS) was developed and optimized with minimal peak broadening using a programmable temperature vaporization (PTV) inlet and a low dead volume narrow-bore continuous capillary combustion interface to an IRMS. PTV injection, followed with cryofocusing before steroid analytes were volatilized by a hot jet, was used to initiate chromatography...
February 26, 2018: Analyst
Thomas R Cunningham, Rebecca J Guerin, Brenna M Keller, Michael A Flynn, Cathy Salgado, Dennis Hudson
Collaborative efforts between the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE) led to a report focusing on overlapping occupational vulnerabilities, specifically small construction businesses employing young, non-native workers. Following the report, an online survey was conducted by ASSE with construction business representatives focusing on training experiences of non-native workers. Results were grouped by business size (50 or fewer employees or more than 50 employees)...
March 2018: Safety Science
Matthew G Engel, Hua J Kern, J Thomas Brenna, Susan H Mitmesser
Weight-loss diets restrict intakes of energy and macronutrients but overlook micronutrient profiles. Commercial diet plans may provide insufficient micronutrients. We analyzed nutrient profiles of three plans and compared their micronutrient sufficiency to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for male U.S. adults. Hypocaloric vegan (Eat to Live-Vegan, Aggressive Weight Loss; ETL-VAWL), high-animal-protein low-carbohydrate (Fast Metabolism Diet; FMD) and weight maintenance (Eat, Drink and Be Healthy; EDH) diets were evaluated...
January 20, 2018: Nutrients
Margaret E Flanagan, Eric B Larson, Rod L Walker, C Dirk Keene, Nadia Postupna, Brenna Cholerton, Joshua A Sonnen, Sascha Dublin, Paul K Crane, Thomas J Montine
Analgesics are commonly used by older adults, raising the question of whether their use might contribute to dementia risk and neuropathologic changes of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) study is a population-based study of brain aging and incident dementia among people 65 years or older who are community dwelling and not demented at entry. Amyloid-β (Aβ)42 and phospho-tau were quantified using Histelide in regions of cerebral cortex from 420 brain autopsies. Total standard daily doses of prescription opioid and non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) exposure during a defined 10-year exposure window were identified using automated pharmacy dispensing data and used to classify people as having no/low, intermediate, or high exposure...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Cornelia W Twining, Peter Lawrence, David W Winkler, Alexander S Flecker, J Thomas Brenna
Food availability and quality are both critical for growing young animals. In nature, swallows ( Tachycineta bicolor ) and other aerial insectivores feed on both aquatic insects, which are rich in omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), and terrestrial insects, which contain considerably lower amounts of omega-3 HUFAs. Carnivorous mammals and fishes must obtain omega-3 HUFAs from their diet, as they have lost the capacity to convert the precursor omega-3 α-linolenic acid (ALA) into omega-3 HUFAs. Thus, the relative value of aquatic versus terrestrial insects depends not only on the fatty acid composition of the prey but also on the capacity of consumers to convert ALA into omega-3 HUFAs...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Yuanyuan Yan, Zhen Wang, Donghao Wang, Peter Lawrence, Xingguo Wang, Kumar S D Kothapalli, Jacelyn Greenwald, Ruijie Liu, Hui Gyu Park, J Thomas Brenna
BackgroundExcess vernix caseosa produced by the fetal skin appears as particles suspended in the amniotic fluid in late gestation, is swallowed by the fetus, and is found throughout the newborn gastrointestinal tract as the first organisms are arriving to colonize the gut. Lipid-rich vernix contains an unusually high 29% branched chain fatty acids (BCFA). BCFAs reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in an animal model, and were recently found predominantly in the sn-2 position of human milk triacylglycerols...
February 7, 2018: Pediatric Research
Herbert J Tobias, J Thomas Brenna
High precision carbon isotope ratio analysis of urinary steroids by gas chromatography combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GCC-IRMS) is the official test to detect illicit doping of synthetic versions of endogenous steroids such as testosterone. Our group created the first steroid isotopic standards (SIS) specifically for the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) accredited laboratories. The standards contain mixtures of steroids as acetates or free steroids at ~400 μg each per ampoule and have been widely distributed to anti-doping laboratories to facilitate comparability of inter-laboratory results...
September 28, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
Sze Ting Cecilia Kwan, Julia H King, Jian Yan, Zhen Wang, Xinyin Jiang, Jason S Hutzler, Hallie R Klein, J Thomas Brenna, Mark S Roberson, Marie A Caudill
Background: Fetal growth is dependent on placental nutrient supply, which is influenced by placental perfusion and transporter abundance. Previous research indicates that adequate choline nutrition during pregnancy improves placental vascular development, supporting the hypothesis that choline may affect placental nutrient transport. Objective: The present study sought to determine the impact of maternal choline supplementation (MCS) on placental nutrient transporter abundance and nutrient metabolism during late gestation...
November 2017: Journal of Nutrition
Ji Yao Zhang, Xia Qin, Allison Liang, Ellen Kim, Peter Lawrence, Woo Jung Park, Kumar S D Kothapalli, J Thomas Brenna
Fatty acid desaturase 3 (FADS3) is the third member of the FADS gene cluster. FADS1 and FADS2 code for enzymes required for highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) biosynthesis, but FADS3 function remains elusive. We generated the first Fads3 knockout (KO) mouse with an aim to characterize its metabolic phenotype and clues to in vivo function. All mice (wild type (WT) and KO) were fed facility rodent chow devoid of HUFA. No differences in overt phenotypes (survival, fertility, growth rate) were observed. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) levels in the brain of postnatal day 1 (P1) KO mice were lower than the WT (P < 0...
August 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Nicole Licking, Charles Murchison, Brenna Cholerton, Cyrus P Zabetian, Shu-Ching Hu, Thomas J Montine, Amie L Peterson-Hiller, Kathryn A Chung, Karen Edwards, James B Leverenz, Joseph F Quinn
INTRODUCTION: Increased plasma homocysteine (HC) is a risk factor for dementia in the general population. Levodopa therapy causes increased plasma HC, but it remains unclear whether elevated plasma HC is associated with cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: The study population includes all participants in the Pacific Northwest Udall Center (PANUC) Clinical cohort at the time of the study, consisting of 294 individuals with PD who had a standardized neuropsychological assessment and plasma collection for HC measurement...
November 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Pauline Léveillé, Raphaël Chouinard-Watkins, Anthony Windust, Peter Lawrence, Stephen C Cunnane, J Thomas Brenna, Mélanie Plourde
Background: Plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and arachidonic acid (AA) concentrations increase with age. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate EPA and AA metabolism in young and old men by using uniformly labeled carbon-13 (13 C) fatty acids. Design: Six young (∼25 y old) and 6 old (∼75 y old) healthy men were recruited. Each participant consumed a single oral dose of 35 mg 13 C-EPA and its metabolism was followed in the course of 14 d in the plasma and 28 d in the breath. After the washout period of ≥28 d, the same participants consumed a single oral dose of 50 mg 13 C-AA and its metabolism was followed for 28 d in plasma and breath...
August 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Brenna Cholerton, Adam Omidpanah, Tara M Madhyastha, Thomas J Grabowski, Astrid M Suchy-Dicey, Dean K Shibata, Lonnie A Nelson, Steven P Verney, Barbara V Howard, William T Longstreth, Thomas J Montine, Dedra Buchwald
BACKGROUND: Estimates of hippocampal volume by magnetic resonance imaging have clinical and cognitive correlations and can assist in early Alzheimer disease diagnosis. However, little is known about the relationship between global or regional brain volumes and cognitive test performance in American Indians. MATERIALS AND METHODS: American Indian participants (N=698; median age, 72 y) recruited for the Cerebrovascular Disease and its Consequences in American Indians study, an ancillary study of the Strong Heart Study cohort, were enrolled...
April 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Ignacio F Mata, Catherine O Johnson, James B Leverenz, Daniel Weintraub, John Q Trojanowski, Vivianna M Van Deerlin, Beate Ritz, Rebecca Rausch, Stewart A Factor, Cathy Wood-Siverio, Joseph F Quinn, Kathryn A Chung, Amie L Peterson-Hiller, Alberto J Espay, Fredy J Revilla, Johnna Devoto, Dora Yearout, Shu-Ching Hu, Brenna A Cholerton, Thomas J Montine, Karen L Edwards, Cyrus P Zabetian
Cognitive impairment is a common and disabling problem in Parkinson's disease (PD). Identification of genetic variants that influence the presence or severity of cognitive deficits in PD might provide a clearer understanding of the pathophysiology underlying this important nonmotor feature. We genotyped 1105 PD patients from the PD Cognitive Genetics Consortium for 249,336 variants using the NeuroX array. Participants underwent assessments of learning and memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised [HVLT-R]), working memory/executive function (Letter-Number Sequencing and Trail Making Test [TMT] A and B), language processing (semantic and phonemic verbal fluency), visuospatial abilities (Benton Judgment of Line Orientation [JoLO]), and global cognitive function (Montreal Cognitive Assessment)...
August 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
Suzanne Craft, Amy Claxton, Laura D Baker, Angela J Hanson, Brenna Cholerton, Emily H Trittschuh, Deborah Dahl, Erin Caulder, Bryan Neth, Thomas J Montine, Youngkyoo Jung, Joseph Maldjian, Christopher Whitlow, Seth Friedman
BACKGROUND: Long acting insulin detemir administered intranasally for three weeks enhanced memory for adults with Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD) or amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The investigation of longer-term administration is necessary to determine whether benefits persist, whether they are similar to benefits provided by regular insulin, and whether either form of insulin therapy affects AD biomarkers. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to determine whether four months of treatment with intranasal insulin detemir or regular insulin improves cognition, daily functioning, and AD biomarkers for adults with MCI or AD...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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