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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594246/a-review-of-vilazodone-exposures-with-focus-on-serotonin-syndrome-effects
#1
C William Heise, Hannah Malashock, Daniel E Brooks
BACKGROUND: Vilazodone is an antidepressant with selective serotonin reuptake inhibition and partial 5HT1A agonism. Serotonin syndrome is believed to be due to excessive stimulation of 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A receptors, resulting in the clinical triad of altered mentation, autonomic instability and neuromuscular abnormalities. The goal of this study is to define serotonergic effects after vilazodone exposure. METHODS: A retrospective review of two databases: the American Association of Poison Controls Centers' National Poison Data System (NPDS) and the American College of Medical Toxicology's Toxicology Investigators Consortium (ToxIC Registry)...
June 8, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594244/acute-cholinergic-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-mild-alzheimer-s-type-dementia-who-had-applied-a-large-number-of-rivastigmine-transdermal-patches-on-her-body
#2
Yoshiki Suzuki, Yoshito Kamijo, Tomohiro Yoshizawa, Yuji Fujita, Kiyotaka Usui, Tohru Kishino
CASE PRESENTATION: A 91-year-old woman was transferred to our Emergency Medical Center and Poison Center with somnolence, hypertension (186/61 mm Hg), and repeated vomiting. Three hours later, 10 transdermal patches, each containing 18 mg of rivastigmine (9.5 mg/24 h), were found on her lower back and both thighs, when miosis, facial and trunk sweating, enhanced bowel sound, hypertension, and sinus tachycardia were noted. She was diagnosed with acute cholinergic syndrome due to rivastigmine poisoning...
June 8, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492119/paraquat-poisoning-acute-lung-injury-a-missed-diagnosis
#3
Sipho D Ntshalintshali, Thandekile C Manzini
Paraquat is a herbicide of great toxicological importance because it is associated with high mortality rates, mainly due to respiratory failure. We report the case of a 28-year-old man admitted to the casualty department at Ngwelezana Hospital, Empangeni, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, with a history of vomiting and abdominal pain after ingestion of ~100 mL of an unknown substance, later identified as paraquat, together with an unknown amount of alcohol, in a suicide attempt. He developed respiratory distress associated with lung parenchymal infiltrates that required ventilatory support and later a spontaneous pneumothorax, and died in the intensive care unit...
April 25, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414161/metabolism-of-okadaic-acid-by-nadph-dependent-enzymes-present-in-human-or-rat-liver-s9-fractions-results-in-different-toxic-effects
#4
Franziska Kolrep, Kathleen Rein, Alfonso Lampen, Stefanie Hessel-Pras
The lipophilic marine biotoxin okadaic acid (OA) represents a natural contaminant produced by algae accumulating in seafood. Acute intoxications result in diarrhetic shellfish poisoning causing symptoms like nausea, vomiting and abdominal cramps. OA was preincubated with liver enzymes present in S9 fractions from humans, rats and rats pretreated with enzyme inducers in the presence or absence of the cofactor NADPH to investigate hepatic metabolism. Cytotoxicity was examined in HepG2 cells and metabolites of OA were determined by LC-MS/MS...
April 14, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393558/supraventricular-tachycardia-and-acute-confusion-following-ingestion-of-e-cigarette-fluid-containing-ab-fubinaca-and-adb-fubinaca-a-case-report-with-quantitative-analysis-of-serum-drug-concentrations
#5
Rex Pui Kin Lam, Magdalene Huen Yin Tang, Siu Chung Leung, Yeow Kuan Chong, Matthew Sik Hon Tsui, Tony Wing Lai Mak
BACKGROUND: AB-FUBINACA and ADB-FUBINACA are structurally similar synthetic cannabinoids with potent CB1 receptor agonistic effects. Very little is known about their pharmacology and toxicology. OBJECTIVE: To report a case of supraventricular tachycardia and acute confusion after ingestion of e-cigarette fluid containing AB-FUBINACA and ADB-FUBINACA, with quantitative analysis of the serum drug concentrations. CASE REPORT: A healthy 24-year-old man ingested two drops of e-cigarette fluid which were later found to contain AB-FUBINACA and ADB-FUBINACA...
April 10, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318192/-abdominal-pain-as-a-presentation-by-lead-poisoning-case-report
#6
Daniel M Mottiera, Elda Cargnel
Acute lead poisoning is not a common pathology seen in the pediatrician's office. Lead poisoning symptoms can be digestive or neurological, and they can be confused with other pathologies. That is the reason why it should be considered and, in case of doubt, complementary studies to confirm lead poisoning should be requested. This is the case of a nine-year-old child that comes to the office with a strong abdominal pain and vomiting, and after a close physical examination and a detailed anamnesis, a suspicious diagnosis of "acute" lead poisoning is obtained...
April 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286830/mushroom-poisoning-in-the-northeast-of-iran-a-retrospective-6-year-epidemiologic-study
#7
Bita Dadpour, Shahrad Tajoddini, Maliheh Rajabi, Reza Afshari
INTRODUCTION: Toxic mushrooms are distributed across the globe with over 5000 species. Among them, 100 species are responsible for most of the cases of mushroom poisoning. This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiologic pattern of mushroom poisoning among patients referred to the main toxicology center of Mashhad province located in North-east of Iran. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted on patients with final diagnosis of mushroom poisoning referred to the toxicology center of Mashhad, Iran, from February 2005 to 2011...
2017: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212474/-zinc-phosphide-poisoning-in-pediatric-patients-from-a-toxicology-center-at-mexico-city
#8
María Carmen Socorro Sánchez-Villegas, Alejandro Bárcena-Ruiz
BACKGROUND: Zinc phosphide is a chemical compound that is frequently used as a rodenticide; it is a highly toxic product that is widely used, among other spaces, at home. Given that it is a highly commercialized pesticide and that there is no antidote, it is mandatory to establish favorably the clinical manifestations of the intoxication. The aim was to describe the epidemiological and clinical profile of children intoxicated with zinc phosphide attended in a toxicological center of a tertiary referral hospital...
2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128651/the-importance-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-for-the-prevention-of-bacterial-growth-and-their-biogenic-amines-formation-a-review
#9
Fatih Özogul, Imen Hamed
Foodborne pathogens (FBP) represent an important threat to the consumers' health as they are able to cause different foodborne diseases. In order to eliminate the potential risk of those pathogens, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have received a great attention in the food biotechnology sector since they play an essential function to prevent bacterial growth and reduce the biogenic amines (BAs) formation. The foodborne illnesses (diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, etc.) caused by those microbial pathogens is due to various reasons, one of them is related to the decarboxylation of available amino acids that lead to BAs production...
January 27, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485997/cannabis-hyperemesis-syndrome-in-the-emergency-department-how-can-a-specialized-addiction-team-be-useful-a-pilot-study
#10
Fanny Pélissier, Isabelle Claudet, Peggy Gandia-Mailly, Amine Benyamina, Nicolas Franchitto
BACKGROUND: Chronic cannabis users may experience cyclical episodes of nausea and vomiting and learned behavior of hot bathing. This clinical condition, known as cannabis hyperemesis syndrome, was first reported in 2004. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to promote early recognition of this syndrome in emergency departments (EDs) and to increase referral to addiction specialists. METHODS: Cannabis abusers were admitted to the ED for vomiting or abdominal pain from June 1, 2014 to January 1, 2015 and diagnosed with cannabis hyperemesis syndrome by a specialized addiction team...
November 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468034/vitamin-b6-pyridoxine-hydrochloride-toxicosis-in-falcons
#11
Jaime Samour, Janine Perlman, Jörg Kinne, Vijay Baskar, Ulrich Wernery, Gerry Dorrestein
This manuscript reports three independent accidental cases of vitamin (Vit) B6 toxicosis in gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) and peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) and a toxicology study that was conducted to characterize the clinical responses of gyrfalcons and gyrfalcon × peregrine falcons to a range of single intramuscular (IM) and oral (PO) doses of Vit B6. Both lethal and nonlethal doses were determined. Twelve female gyrfalcons died following IM injection of 1 ml of a vitamin B preparation. Within 30 min of injection, the birds passed pistachio green-colored urates and progressed to vomiting, anorexia, cessation of normal activity, ptosis, collapse, and death, occurring 24-36 hr post injections...
June 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450078/in-vivo-toxicity-and-antitumor-activity-of-essential-oils-extract-from-agarwood-aquilaria-crassna
#12
Saad Sabbar Dahham, Loiy E Ahmed Hassan, Mohamed B Khadeer Ahamed, Aman Shah Abdul Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid, Nik Noriman Zulkepli
BACKGROUND: Aquilaria crassna has been used in traditional Asian medicine to treat vomiting, rheumatism, asthma, and cough. Furthermore, earlier studies from our laboratory have revealed that the essential oil extract from agarwood inhibited colorectal carcinoma cells. Despite of the wide range of ethno-pharmacological uses of agarwood, its toxicity has not been previously evaluated through systematic toxicological studies. Therefore, the potential safety of essential oil extract and its in vivo anti-tumor activity had been investigated...
July 22, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431866/a-case-series-of-clenbuterol-toxicity-caused-by-adulterated-heroin
#13
Michelle A Hieger, Michael P Emswiler, Kevin F Maskell, John T Sentz, Kristin B Miller, Carl E Wolf, Kirk L Cumpston, Brandon K Wills
BACKGROUND: Adulteration of drugs of abuse may be done to increase profits. Some adulterants are relatively innocuous and others result in significant toxicity. Clenbuterol is a β2-adrenergic agonist with veterinary uses that has not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for human use. It is an infrequently reported heroin adulterant. We describe a cluster of hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed clenbuterol exposure resulting in serious clinical effects. CASE SERIES: Ten patients presented with unexpected symptoms shortly after heroin use...
September 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27424021/hydroxyethyl-starch-could-save-a-patient-with-acute-aluminum-phosphide-poisoning
#14
Sayed Mahdi Marashi, Zeynab Nasri Nasrabadi, Mostafa Jafarzadeh, Sogand Mohammadi
A 40-year-old male patient with suicidal ingestion of one tablet of aluminium phosphide was referred to the department of toxicology emergency of Baharloo Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The garlic odor was smelled from the patient and abdominal pain and continuous vomiting as well as agitation and heartburn were the first signs and symptoms. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures at the arrival time were 95 and 67 mmHg, respectively. Gastric lavage with potassium permanganate (1:10,000), and 2 vials of sodium bicarbonate through a nasogastric tube was started for the patient and the management was continued with free intravenous infusion of 1 liter of NaCl 0...
July 2016: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27386622/-sepsis-due-to-fusobacteria-in-a-young-adult
#15
Gerhard Kernbach-Wighton, Rainer Amberg, Marijo Parchina, Cornelius Hess, Burkhard Madea
Fusobacteria belong to the normal population of the pharyngeal mucosa as well as the mucosa of the upper airways and the gastrointestinal tract. Infections are comparatively rare. The most common causative organism is Fusobacterium necrophorum. A well-known infection caused by this germ is Lemierre's syndrome. In the presented case, a 19-year-old man (123 kg body weight, 186 cm body length) was found dead in his bed in the morning after having complained of muscular fatigue and vomiting the previous day. Autopsy was carried out only two days after death...
May 2016: Archiv Für Kriminologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27352227/the-efficacy-and-adverse-effects-of-dicobalt-edetate-in-cyanide-poisoning
#16
REVIEW
Timothy Clive Marrs, John Paul Thompson
INTRODUCTION: Dicobalt edetate is one of a number of cobalt compounds that have been studied in the treatment of cyanide poisoning, their efficacy being based upon the fact that cyanide combines with cobalt to form relatively non-toxic complexes. Inorganic cobalt salts are quite toxic (cyanide and cobalt antagonise one another's toxicity) and complexes such as dicobalt edetate were studied with the aim of identifying compounds that were less acutely toxic, but which retained the antidotal properties of cobalt salts...
September 2016: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27227269/acute-intoxication-of-four-individuals-following-use-of-the-synthetic-cannabinoid-mab-chminaca
#17
Piotr Adamowicz, Joanna Gieroń
CONTEXT: The largest group of new psychoactive substances (NPS) are synthetic cannabinoids (SC). Those that become controlled are immediately replaced by new uncontrolled substances. The recent resurgence of the NPS market in Poland resulted in a further amendment to the Drug Addiction Counteraction Act. This resulted in significant changes in the composition of "legal high" preparations, and consequently a large outbreak of intoxications with SC was reported in Poland at the beginning of July 2015...
September 2016: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27166706/death-within-44%C3%A2-days-of-2-4-dinitrophenol-intake
#18
Fred Zack, Verena Blaas, Christoph Goos, Daniel Rentsch, Andreas Büttner
We report the case of a 50-year-old obese man (115 kg body mass at 1.77 m height), who started taking 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) for weight reduction 44 days before his death. After 43 days of taking DNP, the man showed signs of intoxication with nausea, vomiting, and attacks of sweating. After admission to a hospital where the man concealed his DNP intake, sinus tachycardia, tachypnea, and general unrest were noted. The patient died 9 h after the onset of those symptoms. Upon autopsy, a yellowing of palms and soles was striking...
September 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27030094/-forensic-medical-diagnostics-of-intoxication-with-certain-poisonous-mushrooms-in-the-case-of-the-lethal-outcome-in-a-hospital
#19
G N Zaraf'iants
The present study was undertaken with a view to improving forensic medical diagnostics of intoxication with poisonous mushrooms in the cases of patients' death in a hospital. A total of 15 protocols of forensic medical examination of the corpses of the people who had died from acute poisoning were available for the analysis. The deathly toxins were amanitin and muscarine contained in various combinations in the death cap (Amanita phalloides) and the early false morels (Gyromitra esculenta and G. gigas). The main poisoning season in the former case was May and in the latter case August and September (93...
January 2016: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26812679/ethnobotany-phytochemistry-and-pharmacology-of-the-genus-litsea-an-update
#20
REVIEW
Yun-Song Wang, Zheng-Qi Wen, Bi-Tao Li, Hong-Bin Zhang, Jing-Hua Yang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The genus Litsea is one of the most diverse genera of evergreen trees or shrubs belong to Lauraceae, and comprises roughly 400 species of tree that are distributed abundantly throughout tropical and subtropical Asia, North and South America. Litsea species have been used globally in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases including influenza, stomach aches, diarrhea, diabetes, vomiting, bone pain, inflammation, illness related to the central nervous system and other ailments...
April 2, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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