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toxicology and vomite

Fanny Pélissier, Isabelle Claudet, Peggy Gandia-Mailly, Amine Benyamina, Nicolas Franchitto
BACKGROUND: Chronic cannabis users may experience cyclical episodes of nausea and vomiting and learned behavior of hot bathing. This clinical condition, known as cannabis hyperemesis syndrome, was first reported in 2004. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to promote early recognition of this syndrome in emergency departments (EDs) and to increase referral to addiction specialists. METHODS: Cannabis abusers were admitted to the ED for vomiting or abdominal pain from June 1, 2014 to January 1, 2015 and diagnosed with cannabis hyperemesis syndrome by a specialized addiction team...
July 30, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Jaime Samour, Janine Perlman, Jörg Kinne, Vijay Baskar, Ulrich Wernery, Gerry Dorrestein
This manuscript reports three independent accidental cases of vitamin (Vit) B6 toxicosis in gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) and peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) and a toxicology study that was conducted to characterize the clinical responses of gyrfalcons and gyrfalcon × peregrine falcons to a range of single intramuscular (IM) and oral (PO) doses of Vit B6. Both lethal and nonlethal doses were determined. Twelve female gyrfalcons died following IM injection of 1 ml of a vitamin B preparation. Within 30 min of injection, the birds passed pistachio green-colored urates and progressed to vomiting, anorexia, cessation of normal activity, ptosis, collapse, and death, occurring 24-36 hr post injections...
June 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Saad Sabbar Dahham, Loiy E Ahmed Hassan, Mohamed B Khadeer Ahamed, Aman Shah Abdul Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid, Nik Noriman Zulkepli
BACKGROUND: Aquilaria crassna has been used in traditional Asian medicine to treat vomiting, rheumatism, asthma, and cough. Furthermore, earlier studies from our laboratory have revealed that the essential oil extract from agarwood inhibited colorectal carcinoma cells. Despite of the wide range of ethno-pharmacological uses of agarwood, its toxicity has not been previously evaluated through systematic toxicological studies. Therefore, the potential safety of essential oil extract and its in vivo anti-tumor activity had been investigated...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Michelle A Hieger, Michael P Emswiler, Kevin F Maskell, John T Sentz, Kristin B Miller, Carl E Wolf, Kirk L Cumpston, Brandon K Wills
BACKGROUND: Adulteration of drugs of abuse may be done to increase profits. Some adulterants are relatively innocuous and others result in significant toxicity. Clenbuterol is a β2-adrenergic agonist with veterinary uses that has not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for human use. It is an infrequently reported heroin adulterant. We describe a cluster of hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed clenbuterol exposure resulting in serious clinical effects. CASE SERIES: Ten patients presented with unexpected symptoms shortly after heroin use...
September 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Sayed Mahdi Marashi, Zeynab Nasri Nasrabadi, Mostafa Jafarzadeh, Sogand Mohammadi
A 40-year-old male patient with suicidal ingestion of one tablet of aluminium phosphide was referred to the department of toxicology emergency of Baharloo Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The garlic odor was smelled from the patient and abdominal pain and continuous vomiting as well as agitation and heartburn were the first signs and symptoms. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures at the arrival time were 95 and 67 mmHg, respectively. Gastric lavage with potassium permanganate (1:10,000), and 2 vials of sodium bicarbonate through a nasogastric tube was started for the patient and the management was continued with free intravenous infusion of 1 liter of NaCl 0...
July 2016: Acta Medica Iranica
Gerhard Kernbach-Wighton, Rainer Amberg, Marijo Parchina, Cornelius Hess, Burkhard Madea
Fusobacteria belong to the normal population of the pharyngeal mucosa as well as the mucosa of the upper airways and the gastrointestinal tract. Infections are comparatively rare. The most common causative organism is Fusobacterium necrophorum. A well-known infection caused by this germ is Lemierre's syndrome. In the presented case, a 19-year-old man (123 kg body weight, 186 cm body length) was found dead in his bed in the morning after having complained of muscular fatigue and vomiting the previous day. Autopsy was carried out only two days after death...
May 2016: Archiv Für Kriminologie
Timothy Clive Marrs, John Paul Thompson
INTRODUCTION: Dicobalt edetate is one of a number of cobalt compounds that have been studied in the treatment of cyanide poisoning, their efficacy being based upon the fact that cyanide combines with cobalt to form relatively non-toxic complexes. Inorganic cobalt salts are quite toxic (cyanide and cobalt antagonise one another's toxicity) and complexes such as dicobalt edetate were studied with the aim of identifying compounds that were less acutely toxic, but which retained the antidotal properties of cobalt salts...
September 2016: Clinical Toxicology
Piotr Adamowicz, Joanna Gieroń
CONTEXT: The largest group of new psychoactive substances (NPS) are synthetic cannabinoids (SC). Those that become controlled are immediately replaced by new uncontrolled substances. The recent resurgence of the NPS market in Poland resulted in a further amendment to the Drug Addiction Counteraction Act. This resulted in significant changes in the composition of "legal high" preparations, and consequently a large outbreak of intoxications with SC was reported in Poland at the beginning of July 2015...
September 2016: Clinical Toxicology
Fred Zack, Verena Blaas, Christoph Goos, Daniel Rentsch, Andreas Büttner
We report the case of a 50-year-old obese man (115 kg body mass at 1.77 m height), who started taking 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) for weight reduction 44 days before his death. After 43 days of taking DNP, the man showed signs of intoxication with nausea, vomiting, and attacks of sweating. After admission to a hospital where the man concealed his DNP intake, sinus tachycardia, tachypnea, and general unrest were noted. The patient died 9 h after the onset of those symptoms. Upon autopsy, a yellowing of palms and soles was striking...
September 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
G N Zaraf'aynts
The present study was undertaken with a view to improving forensic medical diagnostics of intoxication with poisonous mushrooms in the cases of patients' death in a hospital. A total of 15 protocols of forensic medical examination of the corpses of the people who had died from acute poisoning were available for the analysis. The deathly toxins were amanitin and muscarine contained in various combinations in the death cap (Amanita phalloides) and the early false morels (Gyromitra esculenta and G. gigas). The main poisoning season in the former case was May and in the latter case August and September (93...
January 2016: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
Yun-Song Wang, Zheng-Qi Wen, Bi-Tao Li, Hong-Bin Zhang, Jing-Hua Yang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The genus Litsea is one of the most diverse genera of evergreen trees or shrubs belong to Lauraceae, and comprises roughly 400 species of tree that are distributed abundantly throughout tropical and subtropical Asia, North and South America. Litsea species have been used globally in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases including influenza, stomach aches, diarrhea, diabetes, vomiting, bone pain, inflammation, illness related to the central nervous system and other ailments...
April 2, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Pascal Froidevaux, François Bochud, Sébastien Baechler, Vincent Castella, Marc Augsburger, Claude Bailat, Katarzyna Michaud, Marietta Straub, Marco Pecchia, Theo M Jenk, Tanya Uldin, Patrice Mangin
The late president of the Palestinian Authority, Yasser Arafat, died in November 2004 in Percy Hospital, one month after having experienced a sudden onset of symptoms that included severe nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain and which were followed by multiple organ failure. In spite of numerous investigations performed in France, the pathophysiological mechanisms at the origin of the symptoms could not be identified. In 2011, we found abnormal levels of polonium-210 ((210)Po) in some of Arafat's belongings that were worn during his final hospital stay and which were stained with biological fluids...
February 2016: Forensic Science International
S Yaylacı, O Ayyıldız, E Aydın, A Osken, F Karahalil, C Varım, M V Demir, A B Genç, S Sahinkus, Y Can, İ Kocayigit, C Bilir
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the demographic, toxicological characteristics of the mad honey intoxication at ages 65 and above, to analyze the electrocardiographic parameters, and to compare with the mad honey intoxication at ages below 65 years. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty-two patients, who had been treated and followed-up between June 2013 and November 2014 in the Emergency Service of the Findikli State Hospital, Turkey, due to diagnosis of mad honey intoxication, were included in our observational study...
December 2015: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Kaluvu Balaraman, Nashira Campos Vieira, Fathi Moussa, Joël Vacus, Sandrine Cojean, Sébastien Pomel, Christian Bories, Bruno Figadère, Ventikasamy Kesavan, Philippe M Loiseau
2-n-propylquinoline (2-n-PQ) had shown interesting in vivo antileishmanial activities after administration by oral route on leishmaniasis animal models. However, the lipophilic properties of this compound avoid its use by intravenous route, this route being indicated in cases of severe visceral leishmaniasis with vomiting. Thus, a 2-n-propylquinoline hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin (2-n-PQ-HPC) formulation was set up in this aim. The formulation was active in vitro both on Leishmania donovani axenic and intramacrophage amastigotes with IC50 values at 6...
December 2015: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Lin Zhang, Jinghong Ma, Shangxun Li, Rui Xue, Ming Jin, Yiwu Zhou
Diphenidol hydrochloride (DPN), a nonphenothiazinic antiemetic agent used primarily in patients with Meniere disease and labyrinthopathies to treat vomiting and vertigo, is considered to be a relatively safe drug. Since it was first approved in the United States in 1967, this drug has been widely used in Latin America and Asia and has contributed to sporadic suicidal and accidental poisonings in mainland China and Taiwan. However, its toxic or lethal concentration ranges have not yet been determined. We report a case of a 23-year-old female who suffered from DPN poisoning that resulted in death...
December 2015: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Shuli Man, Jing Li, Jing Liu, Hongyan Chai, Zhen Liu, Jiaming Wang, Wenyuan Gao
Rhizoma Paridis saponins (RPS), as steroid saponins, are the main components in Paris polyphylla. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is the most important component in the spice turmeric. In our previous research, RPS exhibited side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and so forth. Combination with curcumin not only alleviated the toxicity and gastric stimulus induced by RPS, but also improved the quality life of mice bearing tumor cells and enhanced their anticancer effect. This study evaluated subchronic toxicity of 45(th) dietary of RPS and curcumin on histopathology, biochemistry, and antioxidant index...
September 22, 2015: Environmental Toxicology
Lyndsey M Lowe, Brianna L Peterson, Fiona J Couper
This case was submitted to the Washington State Patrol Toxicology Laboratory in September 2014. A 15-year-old male went to a party where he ingested 25I-NBOMe and mushrooms. A short time later, he started to vomit and began seizing until he eventually passed out. Resuscitation efforts were made, but were unsuccessful. He was transported to a local hospital, where he died three days later of multi-system organ failure following cardiopulmonary arrest. The hospital admission samples were negative for ethanol and basic drugs and their metabolites...
October 2015: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Jongsook Rhee, Byungsuk Cho, Juseon Lee, Sungmin Moon, Hyesun Yum
A liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method with solid phase extraction for the detection and the quantitation of flufenoxuron in an aliquot of blood was developed and validated. Flufenoxuron belongs to a benzoylurea insecticide and is the active ingredient of Cascade™. The analyte in postmortem specimens was extracted by solid-phase extraction with Bond Elut Certify cartridge. After the elution layer was evaporated, the residue was reconstituted with 70% methanol for LC/MS/MS analysis. Separations were carried out on a Synergi(®) 2...
December 2015: Forensic Science International
Bastiaan V C Kraaijenbrink, Hester L van den Hoek, Ralph J M Nowitzky, Erik B Wilms
BACKGROUND: Dexaprine is an illegal slimming product with known serious adverse cardiac effects. Despite warnings from the Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, Dexaprine is still readily available online. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 29-year-old woman was brought into the emergency room after a suicide attempt with 29 Dexaprine tablets. The symptoms on admission were agitation, nausea and vomiting, hypotension, atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia and hypothermia...
2015: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Ahmad Al-Saffar, André Nogueira da Costa, Annie Delaunois, Derek J Leishman, Louise Marks, Marie-Luce Rosseels, J-P Valentin
Although the basic structure of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is similar across species, there are significant differences in the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry between humans and laboratory animals, which should be taken into account when conducting a gastrointestinal (GI) assessment. Historically, the percentage of cases of drug attrition associated with GI-related adverse effects is small; however, this incidence has increased over the last few years. Drug-related GI effects are very diverse, usually functional in nature, and not limited to a single pharmacological class...
2015: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
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