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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155976/description-of-a-mass-poisoning-in-a-rural-district-in-mozambique-the-first-documented-bongkrekic-acid-poisoning-in-africa
#1
Eduardo Samo Gudo, Kyla Cook, Amelia M Kasper, Alfredo Vergara, Cristolde Salomão, Fernanda Oliveira, Hamida Ismael, Cristovão Saeze, Carla Mosse, Quinhas Fernandes, Sofia Omar Viegas, Cynthia S Baltazar, Timothy J Doyle, Ellen Yard, Alaina Steck, Mayda Serret, Travis M Falconer, Sara E Kern, Jennifer L Brzezinski, James A Turner, Brian L Boyd, Ilesh V Jani
Background: On January 9, 2015, in a rural town in Mozambique, over 230 people became sick and 75 died from an illness linked to drinking pombe, a traditional alcoholic beverage. Methods: An investigation was conducted to identify cases and determine the cause of the outbreak. A case was defined as any resident of Chitima who developed any new or unexplained neurologic, gastrointestinal, or cardiovascular symptom from January 9 at 6:00 a.m. through January 12. We conducted medical record reviews; healthcare worker and community surveys; anthropological and toxicological investigations of local medicinal plants and commercial pesticides; and laboratory testing of the suspect and control pombe...
November 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123931/rapid-ascending-sensorimotor-paralysis-hearing-loss-and-fatal-arrhythmia-in-a-multimorbid-patient-due-to-an-accidental-overdose-of-fluoxetine
#2
Matthew Herrmann, Prissilla Xu, Antonio Liu
Background: Common side effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) include tachycardia, drowsiness, tremor, nausea, and vomiting. Although SSRIs have less toxic side effects compared to more traditional antidepressants, serious and life threatening cases of SSRI overdose have been reported. We describe a 24-year-old multimorbid female who presented to the emergency department with rapid onset ascending sensorimotor paralysis, complicated by respiratory and cardiac arrest, found to have fatal levels of fluoxetine by toxicological analysis, not taken in a suicidal act...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987305/unintentional-marijuana-exposure-presenting-as-altered-mental-status-in-the-pediatric-emergency-department-a-case-series
#3
Anita A Thomas, Suzan Mazor
BACKGROUND: Unintentional tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure in pediatric patients can present as altered mental status. Altered mental status in a pediatric patient often leads to invasive diagnostic testing. CASE REPORT: The following cases describe 3 pediatric patients in Washington state who presented to a tertiary care children's hospital emergency department (ED) with altered mental status, later found to have urine toxicology screening positive for inactive THC metabolite (positive THC toxicology screen)...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987302/ricin-poisoning-after-oral-ingestion-of-castor-beans-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature-and-laboratory-testing
#4
Oscar F Lopez Nunez, Anthony F Pizon, Kenichi Tamama
BACKGROUND: Ricin is a protein toxin derived from the castor bean plant Ricinus communis. Several cases secondary to its consumption have been published and, more recently, its use as a potential bioterrorism agent has also been reported. Oral absorption of ricin is highly erratic, leading to a wide spectrum of symptoms. In addition, conventional urine drug screening tests will not be able to detect this compound, posing a diagnostic challenge. CASE REPORT: A male teenager intended to die by ingesting 200 castor beans after mixing and blending them with juice...
November 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980497/the-clinical-effects-of-the-venomous-lessepsian-migrant-fish-plotosus-lineatus-thunberg-1787-in-the-southeastern-mediterranean-sea
#5
Yedidia Bentur, Sergey Altunin, Iris Levdov, Daniel Golani, Ehud Spanier, Dor Edelist, Yael Lurie
CONTEXT: Plotosus lineatus is a venomous fish that has migrated from the Indo-Pacific region to the Mediterranean Sea (Lessepsian migrant). Its presence in the Mediterranean Sea was first recorded in 2002 and was observed in growing schools. Its spines contain toxins with lytic, hemolytic and edematous activities. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the injuries caused by Plotosus lineatus in the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea. METHODS: A prospective observational case series of consultations provided by a national Poison Center pertaining to Plotosus lineatus from 2007 to 2016...
October 5, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858213/recreational-exposure-during-algal-bloom-in-carrasco-beach-uruguay-a-liver-failure-case-report
#6
Flavia Vidal, Daniela Sedan, Daniel D'Agostino, María Lorena Cavalieri, Eduardo Mullen, María Macarena Parot Varela, Cintia Flores, Josep Caixach, Dario Andrinolo
In January 2015, a 20-month-old child and her family took part in recreational activities at Carrasco and Malvín beaches (Montevideo, Uruguay). An intense harmful algae bloom (HAB) was developing along the coast at that time. A few hours after the last recreational exposure episode, the family suffered gastrointestinal symptoms which were self-limited except in the child's case, who was admitted to hospital in Uruguay with diarrhea, vomiting, fatigue, and jaundice. The patient had increased serum levels of liver enzymes and bilirubin and five days later presented acute liver failure...
August 31, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594246/a-review-of-vilazodone-exposures-with-focus-on-serotonin-syndrome-effects
#7
C William Heise, Hannah Malashock, Daniel E Brooks
BACKGROUND: Vilazodone is an antidepressant with selective serotonin reuptake inhibition and partial 5HT1A agonism. Serotonin syndrome is believed to be due to excessive stimulation of 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A receptors, resulting in the clinical triad of altered mentation, autonomic instability and neuromuscular abnormalities. The goal of this study is to define serotonergic effects after vilazodone exposure. METHODS: A retrospective review of two databases: the American Association of Poison Controls Centers' National Poison Data System (NPDS) and the American College of Medical Toxicology's Toxicology Investigators Consortium (ToxIC Registry)...
November 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594244/acute-cholinergic-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-mild-alzheimer-s-type-dementia-who-had-applied-a-large-number-of-rivastigmine-transdermal-patches-on-her-body
#8
Yoshiki Suzuki, Yoshito Kamijo, Tomohiro Yoshizawa, Yuji Fujita, Kiyotaka Usui, Tohru Kishino
CASE PRESENTATION: A 91-year-old woman was transferred to our Emergency Medical Center and Poison Center with somnolence, hypertension (186/61 mm Hg), and repeated vomiting. Three hours later, 10 transdermal patches, each containing 18 mg of rivastigmine (9.5 mg/24 h), were found on her lower back and both thighs, when miosis, facial and trunk sweating, enhanced bowel sound, hypertension, and sinus tachycardia were noted. She was diagnosed with acute cholinergic syndrome due to rivastigmine poisoning...
November 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492119/paraquat-poisoning-acute-lung-injury-a-missed-diagnosis
#9
Sipho D Ntshalintshali, Thandekile C Manzini
Paraquat is a herbicide of great toxicological importance because it is associated with high mortality rates, mainly due to respiratory failure. We report the case of a 28-year-old man admitted to the casualty department at Ngwelezana Hospital, Empangeni, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, with a history of vomiting and abdominal pain after ingestion of ~100 mL of an unknown substance, later identified as paraquat, together with an unknown amount of alcohol, in a suicide attempt. He developed respiratory distress associated with lung parenchymal infiltrates that required ventilatory support and later a spontaneous pneumothorax, and died in the intensive care unit...
April 25, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414161/metabolism-of-okadaic-acid-by-nadph-dependent-enzymes-present-in-human-or-rat-liver-s9-fractions-results-in-different-toxic-effects
#10
Franziska Kolrep, Kathleen Rein, Alfonso Lampen, Stefanie Hessel-Pras
The lipophilic marine biotoxin okadaic acid (OA) represents a natural contaminant produced by algae accumulating in seafood. Acute intoxications result in diarrhetic shellfish poisoning causing symptoms like nausea, vomiting and abdominal cramps. OA was preincubated with liver enzymes present in S9 fractions from humans, rats and rats pretreated with enzyme inducers in the presence or absence of the cofactor NADPH to investigate hepatic metabolism. Cytotoxicity was examined in HepG2 cells and metabolites of OA were determined by LC-MS/MS...
April 14, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393558/supraventricular-tachycardia-and-acute-confusion-following-ingestion-of-e-cigarette-fluid-containing-ab-fubinaca-and-adb-fubinaca-a-case-report-with-quantitative-analysis-of-serum-drug-concentrations
#11
Rex Pui Kin Lam, Magdalene Huen Yin Tang, Siu Chung Leung, Yeow Kuan Chong, Matthew Sik Hon Tsui, Tony Wing Lai Mak
BACKGROUND: AB-FUBINACA and ADB-FUBINACA are structurally similar synthetic cannabinoids with potent CB1 receptor agonistic effects. Very little is known about their pharmacology and toxicology. OBJECTIVE: To report a case of supraventricular tachycardia and acute confusion after ingestion of e-cigarette fluid containing AB-FUBINACA and ADB-FUBINACA, with quantitative analysis of the serum drug concentrations. CASE REPORT: A healthy 24-year-old man ingested two drops of e-cigarette fluid which were later found to contain AB-FUBINACA and ADB-FUBINACA...
August 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318192/-abdominal-pain-as-a-presentation-by-lead-poisoning-case-report
#12
Daniel M Mottiera, Elda Cargnel
Acute lead poisoning is not a common pathology seen in the pediatrician's office. Lead poisoning symptoms can be digestive or neurological, and they can be confused with other pathologies. That is the reason why it should be considered and, in case of doubt, complementary studies to confirm lead poisoning should be requested. This is the case of a nine-year-old child that comes to the office with a strong abdominal pain and vomiting, and after a close physical examination and a detailed anamnesis, a suspicious diagnosis of "acute" lead poisoning is obtained...
April 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286830/mushroom-poisoning-in-the-northeast-of-iran-a-retrospective-6-year-epidemiologic-study
#13
Bita Dadpour, Shahrad Tajoddini, Maliheh Rajabi, Reza Afshari
INTRODUCTION: Toxic mushrooms are distributed across the globe with over 5000 species. Among them, 100 species are responsible for most of the cases of mushroom poisoning. This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiologic pattern of mushroom poisoning among patients referred to the main toxicology center of Mashhad province located in North-east of Iran. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted on patients with final diagnosis of mushroom poisoning referred to the toxicology center of Mashhad, Iran, from February 2005 to 2011...
2017: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212474/-zinc-phosphide-poisoning-in-pediatric-patients-from-a-toxicology-center-at-mexico-city
#14
María Carmen Socorro Sánchez-Villegas, Alejandro Bárcena-Ruiz
BACKGROUND: Zinc phosphide is a chemical compound that is frequently used as a rodenticide; it is a highly toxic product that is widely used, among other spaces, at home. Given that it is a highly commercialized pesticide and that there is no antidote, it is mandatory to establish favorably the clinical manifestations of the intoxication. The aim was to describe the epidemiological and clinical profile of children intoxicated with zinc phosphide attended in a toxicological center of a tertiary referral hospital...
2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128651/the-importance-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-for-the-prevention-of-bacterial-growth-and-their-biogenic-amines-formation-a-review
#15
Fatih Özogul, Imen Hamed
Foodborne pathogens (FBP) represent an important threat to the consumers' health as they are able to cause different foodborne diseases. In order to eliminate the potential risk of those pathogens, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have received a great attention in the food biotechnology sector since they play an essential function to prevent bacterial growth and reduce the biogenic amines (BAs) formation. The foodborne illnesses (diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, etc.) caused by those microbial pathogens is due to various reasons, one of them is related to the decarboxylation of available amino acids that lead to BAs production...
January 27, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27485997/cannabis-hyperemesis-syndrome-in-the-emergency-department-how-can-a-specialized-addiction-team-be-useful-a-pilot-study
#16
Fanny Pélissier, Isabelle Claudet, Peggy Gandia-Mailly, Amine Benyamina, Nicolas Franchitto
BACKGROUND: Chronic cannabis users may experience cyclical episodes of nausea and vomiting and learned behavior of hot bathing. This clinical condition, known as cannabis hyperemesis syndrome, was first reported in 2004. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to promote early recognition of this syndrome in emergency departments (EDs) and to increase referral to addiction specialists. METHODS: Cannabis abusers were admitted to the ED for vomiting or abdominal pain from June 1, 2014 to January 1, 2015 and diagnosed with cannabis hyperemesis syndrome by a specialized addiction team...
November 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468034/vitamin-b6-pyridoxine-hydrochloride-toxicosis-in-falcons
#17
Jaime Samour, Janine Perlman, Jörg Kinne, Vijay Baskar, Ulrich Wernery, Gerry Dorrestein
This manuscript reports three independent accidental cases of vitamin (Vit) B6 toxicosis in gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) and peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) and a toxicology study that was conducted to characterize the clinical responses of gyrfalcons and gyrfalcon × peregrine falcons to a range of single intramuscular (IM) and oral (PO) doses of Vit B6. Both lethal and nonlethal doses were determined. Twelve female gyrfalcons died following IM injection of 1 ml of a vitamin B preparation. Within 30 min of injection, the birds passed pistachio green-colored urates and progressed to vomiting, anorexia, cessation of normal activity, ptosis, collapse, and death, occurring 24-36 hr post injections...
June 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450078/in-vivo-toxicity-and-antitumor-activity-of-essential-oils-extract-from-agarwood-aquilaria-crassna
#18
Saad Sabbar Dahham, Loiy E Ahmed Hassan, Mohamed B Khadeer Ahamed, Aman Shah Abdul Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid, Nik Noriman Zulkepli
BACKGROUND: Aquilaria crassna has been used in traditional Asian medicine to treat vomiting, rheumatism, asthma, and cough. Furthermore, earlier studies from our laboratory have revealed that the essential oil extract from agarwood inhibited colorectal carcinoma cells. Despite of the wide range of ethno-pharmacological uses of agarwood, its toxicity has not been previously evaluated through systematic toxicological studies. Therefore, the potential safety of essential oil extract and its in vivo anti-tumor activity had been investigated...
July 22, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431866/a-case-series-of-clenbuterol-toxicity-caused-by-adulterated-heroin
#19
Michelle A Hieger, Michael P Emswiler, Kevin F Maskell, John T Sentz, Kristin B Miller, Carl E Wolf, Kirk L Cumpston, Brandon K Wills
BACKGROUND: Adulteration of drugs of abuse may be done to increase profits. Some adulterants are relatively innocuous and others result in significant toxicity. Clenbuterol is a β2-adrenergic agonist with veterinary uses that has not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for human use. It is an infrequently reported heroin adulterant. We describe a cluster of hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed clenbuterol exposure resulting in serious clinical effects. CASE SERIES: Ten patients presented with unexpected symptoms shortly after heroin use...
September 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27424021/hydroxyethyl-starch-could-save-a-patient-with-acute-aluminum-phosphide-poisoning
#20
Sayed Mahdi Marashi, Zeynab Nasri Nasrabadi, Mostafa Jafarzadeh, Sogand Mohammadi
A 40-year-old male patient with suicidal ingestion of one tablet of aluminium phosphide was referred to the department of toxicology emergency of Baharloo Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The garlic odor was smelled from the patient and abdominal pain and continuous vomiting as well as agitation and heartburn were the first signs and symptoms. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures at the arrival time were 95 and 67 mmHg, respectively. Gastric lavage with potassium permanganate (1:10,000), and 2 vials of sodium bicarbonate through a nasogastric tube was started for the patient and the management was continued with free intravenous infusion of 1 liter of NaCl 0...
July 2016: Acta Medica Iranica
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