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Betaine AND methylation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905001/guidelines-for-diagnosis-and-management-of-the-cobalamin-related-remethylation-disorders-cblc-cbld-cble-cblf-cblg-cblj-and-mthfr-deficiency
#1
Martina Huemer, Daria Diodato, Bernd Schwahn, Manuel Schiff, Anabela Bandeira, Jean-Francois Benoist, Alberto Burlina, Roberto Cerone, Maria L Couce, Angeles Garcia-Cazorla, Giancarlo la Marca, Elisabetta Pasquini, Laura Vilarinho, James D Weisfeld-Adams, Viktor Kožich, Henk Blom, Matthias R Baumgartner, Carlo Dionisi-Vici
BACKGROUND: Remethylation defects are rare inherited disorders in which impaired remethylation of homocysteine to methionine leads to accumulation of homocysteine and perturbation of numerous methylation reactions. OBJECTIVE: To summarise clinical and biochemical characteristics of these severe disorders and to provide guidelines on diagnosis and management. DATA SOURCES: Review, evaluation and discussion of the medical literature (Medline, Cochrane databases) by a panel of experts on these rare diseases following the GRADE approach...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902449/is-n-n-dimethylglycine-n-oxide-a-choline-and-betaine-metabolite
#2
Michael Lever, Christopher J McEntyre, Peter M George, Stephen T Chambers
Choline metabolism is by oxidation to betaine, which is demethylated to N,N-dimethylglycine; dimethylglycine is oxidatively demethylated to sarcosine. This pathway is important for osmoregulation and as a source of methyl groups. We asked whether another metabolite was involved. We synthesized the N-oxide of dimethylglycine (DMGO) by oxidizing dimethylglycine with peracetic acid, and measured DMGO in human plasma and urine by HPLC-MS/MS with positive ion detection, using two chromatography procedures, based on ion exchange and HILIC separations...
November 30, 2016: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896396/metabolic-profiling-of-ob-ob-mouse-fatty-liver-using-hr-mas-1-h-nmr-combined-with-gene-expression-analysis-reveals-alterations-in-betaine-metabolism-and-the-transsulfuration-pathway
#3
Mikheil Gogiashvili, Karolina Edlund, Kathrin Gianmoena, Rosemarie Marchan, Alexander Brik, Jan T Andersson, Jörg Lambert, Katrin Madjar, Birte Hellwig, Jörg Rahnenführer, Jan G Hengstler, Roland Hergenröder, Cristina Cadenas
Metabolic perturbations resulting from excessive hepatic fat accumulation are poorly understood. Thus, in this study, leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, a mouse model of fatty liver disease, were used to investigate metabolic alterations in more detail. Metabolites were quantified in intact liver tissues of ob/ob (n = 8) and control (n = 8) mice using high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) (1)H-NMR. In addition, after demonstrating that HR-MAS (1)H-NMR does not affect RNA integrity, transcriptional changes were measured by quantitative real-time PCR on RNA extracted from the same specimens after HR-MAS (1)H-NMR measurements...
November 28, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876555/one-carbon-metabolism-and-epigenetics
#4
REVIEW
Simonetta Friso, Silvia Udali, Domenica De Santis, Sang-Woon Choi
The function of one-carbon metabolism is that of regulating the provision of methyl groups for biological methylation reactions including that of DNA and histone proteins. Methylation at specific sites into the DNA sequence and at histone tails are among the major epigenetic feature of mammalian genome for the regulation of gene expression. The enzymes within one-carbon metabolism are dependent from a number of vitamins or nutrients that serve either as co-factors or methyl acceptors or donors among which folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, betaine, choline and methionine have a major role...
November 19, 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856995/choline-protects-against-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease-in-parenteral-nutrition-fed-immature-rats
#5
Jie Zhu, Ting Lu, Fei Chen, Junkai Yan, Fan Chen, Qiaosen Zhang, Jifan Wang, Weihui Yan, Tingxi Yu, Qingya Tang, Wei Cai
BACKGROUND: Deficiency of choline, a required nutrient, is related to intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD). Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of choline supplementation on IFALD and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (4 weeks old) were fed AIN-93G chow and administered intravenous 0.9% saline (control), parenteral nutrition (PN), or PN plus intravenous choline (600 mg/kg) for 7 days. We evaluated body weight, hepatic histology, biochemical indicators, triglycerides, oxidative status, methylation levels of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) gene promoter, expression of PPARα and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), and levels of choline metabolites...
November 17, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843576/micrornas-interfere-with-dna-methylation-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-synovial-fibroblasts
#6
Niharika Gaur, Emmanuel Karouzakis, Selene Glück, Edvardas Bagdonas, Astrid Jüngel, Beat A Michel, Renate E Gay, Steffen Gay, Mojca Frank-Bertoncelj, Michel Neidhart
BACKGROUND: The DNA of rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASF) is globally hypomethylated; this contributes to an aggressive behaviour. In an attempt to remethylate these cells, we supplemented with methyl donors. We investigated the possible interference of microRNAs (miRs). MATERIAL AND METHODS: RASF were treated with L-methionine or betaine. Transcripts of de novo methyltransferases (DNMTs) and miRs were measured by real-time PCR, and a transcription PCR array was performed...
2016: RMD Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830979/dietary-and-supplemental-maternal-methyl-group-donor-intake-and-cord-blood-dna-methylation
#7
Sara Pauwels, Manosij Ghosh, Radu Corneliu Duca, Bram Bekaert, Kathleen Freson, Inge Huybrechts, Sabine Langie, Gudrun Koppen, Roland Devlieger, Lode Godderis
Maternal nutrition is critically involved in the development and health of the fetus. We evaluated maternal methyl-group donor intake through diet (methionine, betaine, choline, folate) and supplementation (folic acid) before and during pregnancy in relation to global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation and gene specific (IGF2 DMR, DNMT1, LEP, RXRA) cord blood methylation. A total of 115 mother-infant pairs were enrolled in the MAternal Nutrition and Offspring's Epigenome (MANOE) study. The intake of methyl-group donors was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire...
November 10, 2016: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802630/the-small-impact-of-various-partial-charge-distributions-in-ground-and-excited-state-on-the-computational-stokes-shift-of-1-methyl-6-oxyquinolinium-betaine-in-diverse-water-models
#8
Esther Heid, Sophia Harringer, Christian Schröder
The influence of the partial charge distribution obtained from quantum mechanics of the solute 1-methyl-6-oxyquinolinium betaine in the ground- and first excited state on the time-dependent Stokes shift is studied via molecular dynamics computer simulation. Furthermore, the effect of the employed solvent model - here the non-polarizable SPC, TIP4P and TIP4P/2005 and the polarizable SWM4 water model - on the solvation dynamics of the system is investigated. The use of different functionals and calculation methods influences the partial charge distribution and the magnitude of the dipole moment of the solute, but not the orientation of the dipole moment...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802609/computational-solvation-dynamics-of-oxyquinolinium-betaine-linked-to-trehalose
#9
Esther Heid, Christian Schröder
Studying the changed water dynamics in the hydration layers of biomolecules is an important step towards fuller understanding of their function and mechanisms, but has shown to be quite difficult. The measurement of the time-dependent Stokes shift of a chromophore attached to the biomolecule is a promising method to achieve this goal, as published in Sajadi et al. [J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 5, 1845 (2014).] where trehalose was used as biomolecule, 1-methyl-6-oxyquinolinium betaine as chromophore, and water as solvent...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765800/sex-specific-associations-between-one-carbon-metabolism-indices-and-posttranslational-histone-modifications-in-arsenic-exposed-bangladeshi-adults
#10
Caitlin G Howe, Xinhua Liu, Megan N Hall, Vesna Ilievski, Marie A Caudill, Olga Malysheva, Angela M Lomax-Luu, Faruque Parvez, Abu B Siddique, Hasan Shahriar, Mohammad N Uddin, Tariqul Islam, Joseph H Graziano, Max Costa, Mary V Gamble
BACKGROUND: Posttranslational histone modifications (PTHMs) are altered by arsenic, an environmental carcinogen. PTHMs are also influenced by nutritional methyl donors involved in one-carbon metabolism (OCM), which may protect against epigenetic dysregulation. METHODS: We measured global levels of three PTHMs, which are dysregulated in cancers (H3K36me2, H3K36me3, H3K79me2), in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 324 participants enrolled in the Folic Acid and Creatine Trial, a randomized trial in arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults...
October 20, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733523/perinatal-dietary-choline-deficiency-in-sows-influences-concentrations-of-choline-metabolites-fatty-acids-and-amino-acids-in-milk-throughout-lactation
#11
Austin T Mudd, Lindsey S Alexander, Stacey K Johnson, Caitlyn M Getty, Olga V Malysheva, Marie A Caudill, Ryan N Dilger
BACKGROUND: Choline is essential for synthesis of phospholipids, neurodevelopment, and DNA methylation. It is unknown whether dietary perinatal choline deficiency affects maternal milk composition. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether perinatal maternal dietary choline deficiency influences porcine-milk composition. METHODS: Yorkshire sows were fed choline-deficient (CD) or choline-sufficient (CS) gestation diets [544 or 1887 mg choline/kg dry matter (DM), respectively] from 65 d before to 48 h after parturition and then fed lactation diets (517 or 1591 mg choline/kg DM, respectively) through day 19 of lactation...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715651/1h-nmr-based-metabolomic-study-on-toxicity-of-methomyl-and-methidathion-in-fish
#12
Dahye Yoon, Siwon Kim, Minji Lee, Changshin Yoon, Suhkmann Kim
A (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with multivariate analysis was applied to detect the toxicity of antiacetylcholinesterase insecticides, methomyl (methyl (1E)-N-(methylcarbamoyloxy)ethanimidothioate) and methidathion (3-(dimethoxyphosphinothioyl sulfanylmethyl)-5-methoxy-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-one), using zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Chinese bleak (Aphyocypris chinensis). Generally, methomyl and methidathion have been believed not to highly accumulate in fish tissues. However, these pesticides showed their toxicity by altering patterns of whole-body metabolites in neurotransmitter balance, energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and muscle maintenance in low concentrations...
December 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712580/pcr-amplification-of-gc-rich-dna-regions-using-the-nucleotide-analog-n4-methyl-2-deoxycytidine-5-triphosphate
#13
Cyntia R Flores-Juárez, Eva González-Jasso, Anaid Antaramian, Reynaldo C Pless
GC-rich DNA regions were PCR-amplified with Taq DNA polymerase using either the canonical set of deoxynucleoside triphosphates or mixtures in which the dCTP had been partially or completely replaced by its N4-methylated analog, N4-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine 5'-triphosphate (N4me-dCTP). In the case of a particularly GC-rich region (78.9% GC), the PCR mixtures containing N4me-dCTP produced the expected amplicon in high yield, while mixtures containing the canonical set of nucleotides produced numerous alternative amplicons...
October 1, 2016: BioTechniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677203/antioxidant-mechanism-of-betaine-without-free-radical-scavenging-ability
#14
Mengmeng Zhang, Hong Zhang, Huixian Li, Furao Lai, Xiaofeng Li, Yuqian Tang, Tian Min, Hui Wu
Betaine (BET) is a native compound widely studied as an antioxidant in agriculture and human health. However, the antioxidant mechanism of BET remains unclear. In this research, radical scavenging assays showed that BET had little free radical scavenging activity. However, the antioxidant activity of BET was confirmed by cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) and erythrocyte hemolysis assays. The results of quantitative PCR (qPCR) and enzyme activity determination kits showed that the antioxidant activity of BET was not due to the gene expression and activity of antioxidases...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676126/search-for-plasma-biomarkers-in-drug-free-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-and-schizophrenia-using-metabolome-analysis
#15
Yuki Kageyama, Takaoki Kasahara, Hiromasa Morishita, Nobuko Mataga, Yasuhiko Deguchi, Munehide Tani, Kenji Kuroda, Kotaro Hattori, Sumiko Yoshida, Koki Inoue, Tadafumi Kato
AIM: There is an urgent need for diagnostic biomarkers of bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SZ); however, confounding effects of medication hamper biomarker discovery. In this study, we conducted metabolome analyses to identify novel plasma biomarkers in drug-free patients with BD and SZ. METHODS: We comprehensively analyzed plasma metabolites using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry in patients with SZ (n = 17), BD (n = 6), and major depressive disorder (n = 9) who had not received psychotropics for at least 2 weeks, and in matched healthy controls (n = 19)...
September 27, 2016: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651265/choline-and-the-brain-an-epigenetic-perspective
#16
Rola Aldana Bekdash
Choline is an essential nutrient that is required for normal development of the brain. Via its metabolite betaine, it participates in the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine, a major methyl donor for histone and DNA methylation, two epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression and may alter brain function. Besides its role in methyl group metabolism, choline also has pivotal functions, including the maintenance of structural integrity of membranes and modulation of cholinergic neurotransmission, functions that are often dysregulated in some neurodegenerative disorders...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581622/creatine-supplementation-does-not-prevent-the-development-of-alcoholic-steatosis
#17
Murali Ganesan, Dan Feng, Ryan W Barton, Paul G Thomes, Benita L McVicker, Dean J Tuma, Natalia A Osna, Kusum K Kharbanda
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-induced reduction in the hepatocellular S-adenosylmethionine (SAM):S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) ratio impairs the activities of many SAM-dependent methyltransferases. These impairments ultimately lead to the generation of several hallmark features of alcoholic liver injury including steatosis. Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) is an important enzyme that catalyzes the final reaction in the creatine biosynthetic process. The liver is a major site for creatine synthesis which places a substantial methylation burden on this organ as GAMT-mediated reactions consume as much as 40% of all the SAM-derived methyl groups...
September 1, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581577/dietary-methyl-donors-contribute-to-whole-body-protein-turnover-and-protein-synthesis-in-skeletal-muscle-and-the-jejunum-in-neonatal-piglets
#18
Jason L Robinson, Scott V Harding, Janet A Brunton, Robert F Bertolo
BACKGROUND: The neonatal methionine requirement must consider not only the high demand for rapid tissue protein expansion but also the demands as the precursor for a suite of critical transmethylation reactions. However, methionine metabolism is inherently complex because upon transferring its methyl group during transmethylation, methionine can be reformed by the dietary methyl donors choline (via betaine) and folate. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether dietary methyl donors contribute to methionine availability for protein synthesis in neonatal piglets...
October 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567458/comparison-of-the-effects-of-nicotinic-acid-and-nicotinamide-degradation-on-plasma-betaine-and-choline-levels
#19
Wu-Ping Sun, Ming-Zhu Zhai, Da Li, Yiming Zhou, Na-Na Chen, Ming Guo, Shi-Sheng Zhou
AIM: The present study was to compare the effects of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide on the plasma methyl donors, choline and betaine. METHODS: Thirty adult subjects were randomly divided into three groups of equal size, and orally received purified water (C group), nicotinic acid (300 mg, NA group) or nicotinamide (300 mg, NM group). Plasma nicotinamide, N(1)-methylnicotinamide, homocysteine, betaine and choline levels before and 1.5-h and 3-h post-dosing, plasma normetanephrine and metanephrine concentrations at 3-h post-dosing, and the urinary excretion of N(1)-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide during the test period were examined...
August 10, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562792/dietary-methyl-donors-affect-in-vivo-methionine-partitioning-between-transmethylation-and-protein-synthesis-in-the-neonatal-piglet
#20
Jason L Robinson, Renee K Bartlett, Scott V Harding, Edward W Randell, Janet A Brunton, Robert F Bertolo
Methionine metabolism is critical during development with significant requirements for protein synthesis and transmethylation reactions. However, separate requirements of methionine for protein synthesis and transmethylation are difficult to define because after transmethylation, demethylated methionine is either irreversibly oxidized to cysteine during transsulfuration, or methionine is regenerated by the dietary methyl donors, choline (via betaine) or folate during remethylation. We hypothesized that remethylation contributes significantly to methionine availability and affects partitioning between protein and transmethylation...
August 25, 2016: Amino Acids
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