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Betaine AND methylation

Caitlin G Howe, Xinhua Liu, Megan N Hall, Vesna Ilievski, Marie A Caudill, Olga Malysheva, Angela M Lomax-Luu, Faruque Parvez, Abu B Siddique, Hasan Shahriar, Mohammad N Uddin, Tariqul Islam, Joseph H Graziano, Max Costa, Mary V Gamble
BACKGROUND: Posttranslational histone modifications (PTHMs) are altered by arsenic, an environmental carcinogen. PTHMs are also influenced by nutritional methyl donors involved in one-carbon metabolism (OCM), which may protect against epigenetic dysregulation. METHODS: We measured global levels of three PTHMs, which are dysregulated in cancers (H3K36me2, H3K36me3, H3K79me2), in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 324 participants enrolled in the Folic Acid and Creatine Trial, a randomized trial in arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults...
October 20, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Austin T Mudd, Lindsey S Alexander, Stacey K Johnson, Caitlyn M Getty, Olga V Malysheva, Marie A Caudill, Ryan N Dilger
BACKGROUND: Choline is essential for synthesis of phospholipids, neurodevelopment, and DNA methylation. It is unknown whether dietary perinatal choline deficiency affects maternal milk composition. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether perinatal maternal dietary choline deficiency influences porcine-milk composition. METHODS: Yorkshire sows were fed choline-deficient (CD) or choline-sufficient (CS) gestation diets [544 or 1887 mg choline/kg dry matter (DM), respectively] from 65 d before to 48 h after parturition and then fed lactation diets (517 or 1591 mg choline/kg DM, respectively) through day 19 of lactation...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Dahye Yoon, Siwon Kim, Minji Lee, Changshin Yoon, Suhkmann Kim
A (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with multivariate analysis was applied to detect the toxicity of antiacetylcholinesterase insecticides, methomyl (methyl (1E)-N-(methylcarbamoyloxy)ethanimidothioate) and methidathion (3-(dimethoxyphosphinothioyl sulfanylmethyl)-5-methoxy-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-one), using zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Chinese bleak (Aphyocypris chinensis). Generally, methomyl and methidathion have been believed not to highly accumulate in fish tissues. However, these pesticides showed their toxicity by altering patterns of whole-body metabolites in neurotransmitter balance, energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and muscle maintenance in low concentrations...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Cyntia R Flores-Juárez, Eva González-Jasso, Anaid Antaramian, Reynaldo C Pless
GC-rich DNA regions were PCR-amplified with Taq DNA polymerase using either the canonical set of deoxynucleoside triphosphates or mixtures in which the dCTP had been partially or completely replaced by its N4-methylated analog, N4-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine 5'-triphosphate (N4me-dCTP). In the case of a particularly GC-rich region (78.9% GC), the PCR mixtures containing N4me-dCTP produced the expected amplicon in high yield, while mixtures containing the canonical set of nucleotides produced numerous alternative amplicons...
October 1, 2016: BioTechniques
Mengmeng Zhang, Hong Zhang, Huixian Li, Furao Lai, Xiaofeng Li, Yuqian Tang, Tian Min, Hui Wu
Betaine (BET) is a native compound widely studied as an antioxidant in agriculture and human health. However, the antioxidant mechanism of BET remains unclear. In this research, radical scavenging assays showed that BET had little free radical scavenging activity. However, the antioxidant activity of BET was confirmed by cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) and erythrocyte hemolysis assays. The results of quantitative PCR (qPCR) and enzyme activity determination kits showed that the antioxidant activity of BET was not due to the gene expression and activity of antioxidases...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Yuki Kageyama, Takaoki Kasahara, Hiromasa Morishita, Nobuko Mataga, Yasuhiko Deguchi, Munehide Tani, Kenji Kuroda, Kotaro Hattori, Sumiko Yoshida, Koki Inoue, Tadafumi Kato
AIMS: There is an urgent need for diagnostic biomarkers of bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SZ); however, confounding effects of medication on hamper biomarker discovery. In this study, we conducted metabolome analyses to identify novel plasma biomarkers in drug-free patients with BD and SZ. METHODS: We comprehensively analyzed plasma metabolites using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS) in patients with SZ (n = 17), BD (n = 6), and major depressive disorder (n = 9), who had not received psychotropics for at least two weeks, and in matched healthy controls (n = 19)...
September 27, 2016: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Rola Aldana Bekdash
Choline is an essential nutrient that is required for normal development of the brain. Via its metabolite betaine, it participates in the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine, a major methyl donor for histone and DNA methylation, two epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression and may alter brain function. Besides its role in methyl group metabolism, choline also has pivotal functions, including the maintenance of structural integrity of membranes and modulation of cholinergic neurotransmission, functions that are often dysregulated in some neurodegenerative disorders...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
Murali Ganesan, Dan Feng, Ryan W Barton, Paul G Thomes, Benita L McVicker, Dean J Tuma, Natalia A Osna, Kusum K Kharbanda
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-induced reduction in the hepatocellular S-adenosylmethionine (SAM):S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) ratio impairs the activities of many SAM-dependent methyltransferases. These impairments ultimately lead to the generation of several hallmark features of alcoholic liver injury including steatosis. Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) is an important enzyme that catalyzes the final reaction in the creatine biosynthetic process. The liver is a major site for creatine synthesis which places a substantial methylation burden on this organ as GAMT-mediated reactions consume as much as 40% of all the SAM-derived methyl groups...
September 1, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Jason L Robinson, Scott V Harding, Janet A Brunton, Robert F Bertolo
BACKGROUND: The neonatal methionine requirement must consider not only the high demand for rapid tissue protein expansion but also the demands as the precursor for a suite of critical transmethylation reactions. However, methionine metabolism is inherently complex because upon transferring its methyl group during transmethylation, methionine can be reformed by the dietary methyl donors choline (via betaine) and folate. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether dietary methyl donors contribute to methionine availability for protein synthesis in neonatal piglets...
October 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Wu-Ping Sun, Ming-Zhu Zhai, Da Li, Yiming Zhou, Na-Na Chen, Ming Guo, Shi-Sheng Zhou
AIM: The present study was to compare the effects of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide on the plasma methyl donors, choline and betaine. METHODS: Thirty adult subjects were randomly divided into three groups of equal size, and orally received purified water (C group), nicotinic acid (300 mg, NA group) or nicotinamide (300 mg, NM group). Plasma nicotinamide, N(1)-methylnicotinamide, homocysteine, betaine and choline levels before and 1.5-h and 3-h post-dosing, plasma normetanephrine and metanephrine concentrations at 3-h post-dosing, and the urinary excretion of N(1)-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide during the test period were examined...
August 10, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Jason L Robinson, Renee K Bartlett, Scott V Harding, Edward W Randell, Janet A Brunton, Robert F Bertolo
Methionine metabolism is critical during development with significant requirements for protein synthesis and transmethylation reactions. However, separate requirements of methionine for protein synthesis and transmethylation are difficult to define because after transmethylation, demethylated methionine is either irreversibly oxidized to cysteine during transsulfuration, or methionine is regenerated by the dietary methyl donors, choline (via betaine) or folate during remethylation. We hypothesized that remethylation contributes significantly to methionine availability and affects partitioning between protein and transmethylation...
August 25, 2016: Amino Acids
Jéssica Fernandes Dos Santos, Laís R Mota, Pedro Henrique Silva Andrade Rocha, Renata Lúcia L Ferreira de Lima
Prader-Willi (PWS) and Angelman (AS) syndromes are clinically distinct neurodevelopmental genetic diseases with multiple phenotypic manifestations. They are one of the most common genetic syndromes caused by non-Mendelian inheritance in the form of genomic imprinting, and can be attributable to the loss of gene expression due to imprinting within the chromosomal region 15q11-q13. Clinical diagnosis of PWS and AS is challenging, and the use of molecular and cytomolecular studies is recommended to help in determining the diagnosis of these conditions...
November 2016: Molecular Biology Reports
Sara Pauwels, Radu Corneliu Duca, Roland Devlieger, Kathleen Freson, Dany Straetmans, Erik Van Herck, Inge Huybrechts, Gurdun Koppen, Lode Godderis
It is still unclear to which extent methyl-group intake during pregnancy can affect maternal global DNA (hydroxyl)methylation. Pregnancy methylation profiling and its link with methyl-group intake in a healthy population could enhance our understanding of the development of pregnancy related disorders. One hundred forty-eight women were enrolled in the MANOE (MAternal Nutrition and Offspring's Epigenome) study. Thiry-four women were enrolled before pregnancy and 116 during the first trimester of pregnancy. Global DNA (hydroxy)methylation in blood using LC-MS/MS and dietary methyl-group intake (methionine, folate, betaine, and choline) using a food-frequency questionnaire were estimated pre-pregnancy, during each trimester, and at delivery...
2016: Nutrients
Mauro Forteschi, Angelo Zinellu, Stefano Assaretti, Arduino A Mangoni, Gianfranco Pintus, Ciriaco Carru, Salvatore Sotgia
Plasma concentrations of choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine provide valuable information on the flow of methyl groups in key biological processes, particularly during folate deficiency states. We developed a new method to simultaneously measure these analytes in human plasma. Following sample deproteinization using acetonitrile, an aliquot was evaporated to dryness under vacuum to be then taken up by water. Finally, analytes were separated by capillary electrophoresis and detected by electrospray ionization triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry, in multiple reaction monitoring mode, using two stable isotope-labeled internal standards...
October 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Qian Zhang, Sandra J Bertics, N Daniel Luchini, Heather M White
Metabolizable methionine (Met) concentrations can be increased by feeding rumen-protected dl-Met or the isopropyl ester of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMBi). Hepatic responses to increasing concentrations of metabolizable Met as a result of supplementation of different Met sources have not been comparatively examined. The objective of this experiment was to examine the regulation of key genes for Met metabolism, gluconeogenesis, and fatty acid oxidation in response to increasing concentrations of dl-Met or 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMB) in bovine primary hepatocytes...
October 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Jason L Robinson, Laura E McBreairty, Edward W Randell, Janet A Brunton, Robert F Bertolo
Methionine is required for protein synthesis and provides a methyl group for >50 critical transmethylation reactions including creatine and phosphatidylcholine synthesis as well as DNA and protein methylation. However, the availability of methionine depends on dietary sources as well as remethylation of demethylated methionine (i.e., homocysteine) by the dietary methyl donors folate and choline (via betaine). By restricting dietary methyl supply, we aimed to determine the extent that dietary methyl donors contribute to methionine availability for protein synthesis and transmethylation reactions in neonatal piglets...
September 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Jen-Cheng Lin, Mei-Yi Lee, Ming-Huan Chan, Yi-Chyan Chen, Hwei-Hsien Chen
Ketamine is emerging as a new hope against depression, but ketamine-associated psychotomimetic effects limit its clinical use. An adjunct therapy along with ketamine to alleviate its adverse effects and even potentiate the antidepressant effects might be an alternative strategy. Betaine, a methyl derivative of glycine and a dietary supplement, has been shown to have antidepressant-like effects and to act like a partial agonist at the glycine site of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). Accordingly, betaine might have potential to be an adjunct to ketamine treatment for depression...
September 2016: Psychopharmacology
Ariel B Ganz, Kelsey Shields, Vlad G Fomin, Yusnier S Lopez, Sanjay Mohan, Jessica Lovesky, Jasmine C Chuang, Anita Ganti, Bradley Carrier, Jian Yan, Siraphat Taeswuan, Vanessa V Cohen, Camille C Swersky, Julie A Stover, Gerardo A Vitiello, Olga V Malysheva, Erika Mudrak, Marie A Caudill
Although single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in folate-mediated pathways predict susceptibility to choline deficiency during severe choline deprivation, it is unknown if effects persist at recommended intakes. Thus, we used stable isotope liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methodology to examine the impact of candidate SNPs on choline metabolism in a long-term, randomized, controlled feeding trial among pregnant, lactating, and nonpregnant (NP) women consuming 480 or 930 mg/d choline (22% as choline-d9, with d9 indicating a deuterated trimethyl amine group) and meeting folate-intake recommendations...
June 24, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Richard D Semba, Pingbo Zhang, Marta Gonzalez-Freire, Ruin Moaddel, Indi Trehan, Kenneth M Maleta, M Isabel Ordiz, Luigi Ferrucci, Mark J Manary
BACKGROUND: Choline is an essential nutrient for cell structure, cell signaling, neurotransmission, lipid transport, and bone formation. Choline can be irreversibly converted to betaine, a major source of methyl groups. Trimethylene N-oxide (TMAO), a proatherogenic molecule, is produced from the metabolism of dietary choline by the gut microbiome. The relation between serum choline and its closely related metabolites with linear growth in children is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to characterize the relation between serum choline and its closely related metabolites, betaine and TMAO, with linear growth and stunting in young children...
July 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Ryohta Nishiyama, Fumiaki Nagashima, Beniko Iwao, Yuiko Kawai, Kana Inoue, Arisa Midori, Tsuyoshi Yamanaka, Hiroyuki Uchino, Masato Inazu
We examined the functional characteristics of choline uptake in human tongue carcinoma using the cell line HSC-3. Furthermore, we explored the possible correlation between the inhibition of choline uptake and apoptotic cell death. Both choline transporter-like protein 1 (CTL1) and CTL2 mRNAs and proteins were expressed, and were located in plasma membrane and mitochondria, respectively. Choline uptake was saturable and mediated by a single transport system, which is pH-dependent. Several cationic drugs inhibited cell viability and [(3)H]choline uptake...
June 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
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