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Betaine AND methylation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147712/a-biocompatible-betaine-functionalized-polycation-for-coacervation
#1
Mintai P Hwang, Xiaochu Ding, Jin Gao, Abhinav P Acharya, Steven R Little, Yadong Wang
The aqueous nature of complex coacervates provides a biologically-relevant context for various therapeutic applications. In this sense, biological applications demand a corresponding level of biocompatibility from the polyelectrolytes that participate in complex coacervation. Continued development with naturally-occurring polyelectrolytes such as heparin and chitosan underscore such aims. Herein, we design a synthetic polycation, in which betaine is conjugated to a biodegradable polyester backbone. Betaine is a naturally-occurring methylated amino acid that is ubiquitously present in human plasma...
November 17, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092879/eggs-early-in-complementary-feeding-increase-choline-pathway-biomarkers-and-dha-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-ecuador
#2
Lora L Iannotti, Chessa K Lutter, William F Waters, Carlos Andres Gallegos Riofrío, Carla Malo, Gregory Reinhart, Ana Palacios, Celia Karp, Melissa Chapnick, Katherine Cox, Santiago Aguirre, Luis Narvaez, Fernando López, Rohini Sidhu, Pamela Kell, Xuntian Jiang, Hideji Fujiwara, Daniel S Ory, Rebecca Young, Christine P Stewart
Background: Choline status has been associated with stunting among young children. Findings from this study showed that an egg intervention improved linear growth by a length-for-age z score of 0.63.Objective: We aimed to test the efficacy of eggs introduced early in complementary feeding on plasma concentrations of biomarkers in choline pathways, vitamins B-12 and A, and essential fatty acids.Design: A randomized controlled trial, the Lulun ("egg" in Kichwa) Project, was conducted in a rural indigenous population of Ecuador...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068997/atypical-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-induced-by-cblc-subtype-of-methylmalonic-academia-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#3
REVIEW
Minguang Chen, Jieqiu Zhuang, JianHuan Yang, Dexuan Wang, Qing Yang
RATIONALE: Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is a common organic acidemia, mainly due to methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM) or its coenzyme cobalamin (VitB12) metabolic disorders. Cobalamin C (CblC) type is the most frequent inborn error of cobalamin metabolism; it can develop symptoms in childhood and often combine multisystem damage, which leads to methylmalonic acid, propionic acid, methyl citrate, and other metabolites abnormal accumulation, causing nerve, liver, kidney, bone marrow, and other organ damage...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053854/dietary-betaine-supplementation-increases-adrenal-expression-of-steroidogenic-acute-regulatory-protein-and-yolk-deposition-of-corticosterone-in-laying-hens
#4
Halima Abobaker, Yun Hu, Zhen Hou, Qinwei Sun, Abdulrahman A Idriss, Nagmeldin A Omer, Yibo Zong, Ruqian Zhao
Betaine, an important methyl donor, is known to execute epigenetic regulation of gene expression via nutritional reprogramming. Herein, we explore whether feeding a betaine-supplemented diet to laying hens would affect corticosteroid biosynthesis in the adrenal gland and corticosterone deposition in eggs, in correlation with the expression of methyl transfer enzymes and the promoter DNA methylation status of affected genes. Rugao yellow-feathered laying hens at 38 weeks of age were assigned to Control and Betaine groups, fed basal and betaine-supplemented diets, respectively, for four weeks...
September 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984387/gene-expression-differences-in-the-methionine-remethylation-and-transsulphuration-pathways-under-methionine-restriction-and-recovery-with-d-l-methionine-or-d-l-hmtba-in-meat-type-chickens
#5
S E Aggrey, F González-Cerón, R Rekaya, Y Mercier
This study examined the molecular mechanisms of methionine pathways in meat-type chickens where birds were provided with a diet deficient in methionine from 3 to 5 weeks of age. The birds on the deficient diet were then provided with a diet supplemented with either D,L-methionine or D,L-HMTBA from 5 to 7 weeks. The diet of the control birds was supplemented with L-methionine from hatch till 7 weeks of age. We studied the mRNA expression of methionine adenosyltransferase 1, alpha, methionine adenosyltransferase 1, beta, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase, betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase, glycine N-methyltransferase, S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase and cystathionine beta synthase genes in the liver, duodenum, Pectoralis (P...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945383/effect-of-a-tertiary-butyl-group-on-polar-solvation-dynamics-in-aqueous-solution-femtosecond-fluorescence-spectroscopy
#6
Mario Gerecke, Celin Richter, Martin Quick, Ilya N Ioffe, Rainer Mahrwald, Sergey A Kovalenko, Nikolaus P Ernsting
We monitor the time-dependent Stokes shift (TDSS) of fluorescence from the zwitterionic probe N-methyl-6-oxyquinolinium betaine in water. A spectral relaxation time τsolv = 0.57 ps (at 20.5 °C) is attributed to a solvation process involving water in the hydration layer. In this article we show that a tertiary butyl group, when attached to the chromophore, slows the dynamics to τsolv = 0.76 ps and increases the corresponding activation energy by 5 kJ/mol. In a companion paper (10.1021/acs.jpcb.7b05039), simulations suggest that the observed slow-down indicates coupling of solute vibrations to hydration water...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945379/effect-of-a-tertiary-butyl-group-on-polar-solvation-dynamics-in-aqueous-solution-a-computational-approach
#7
Esther Heid, Christian Schröder
The current computational study investigates the changes in solvation dynamics of water when introducing hydrophobic side chains to the molecular probe N-methyl-6-oxyquinolinium betaine. High-precision transient fluorescence and absorption measurements published in the companion article (10.1021/acs.jpcb.7b05031) revealed an influence of hydrophobic side chain alterations on the observed solvation dynamics of a chromophore in water. As the influence of shape, size, and structure of chromophores on the time-dependent Stokes shift was so far thought to play a role only in slowly rotating solvents compared to the solute or if the hydrogen bonding ability of the solute changes, this finding is quite unexpected...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930592/choline-the-brain-and-neurodegeneration-insights-from-epigenetics
#8
Rola A Bekdash
  Neurodegenerative disorders are a major public health problem worldwide with huge socioeconomic effect. Recent evidence suggests that neurodegeneration is not only caused by genetic factors but also affected by environmental factors including nutrients. Environmental influences have been shown to cause epigenetic modifications in the brain with long-lasting effects on behavior if they occur in early life. It has been suggested that early nutritional intervention that includes choline, betaine, VitB6, VitB12 and/or folic acid could attenuate decline in cognitive functions...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898977/from-the-cover-metabolomics-reveals-a-role-of-betaine-in-prenatal-dbp-exposure-induced-epigenetic-transgenerational-failure-of-spermatogenesis-in-rats
#9
Beilei Yuan, Wei Wu, Minjian Chen, Hao Gu, Qiuqin Tang, Dan Guo, Ting Chen, Yiqiu Chen, Chuncheng Lu, Ling Song, Yankai Xia, Daozhen Chen, Virender K Rehan, Jiahao Sha, Xinru Wang
There is increasing concern that early-life exposure to endocrine disruptors affects male offspring reproduction. However, whether di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), a widely used endocrine disruptor, has transgenerational effects and, if so, the exact underlying molecular mechanisms involved remain unknown. In our study, 5 of time-mated pregnant SD rats were exposed to 0 and 500 mg/kg DBP with corn oil as the vehicle via oral gavage from embryonic days (E8-E14). Epigenetic and metabolomic of testis were analyzed after post-natal 60 days...
August 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895788/association-between-serum-unmetabolized-folic-acid-concentrations-and-folic-acid-from-fortified-foods
#10
Cecília Zanin Palchetti, Clóvis Paniz, Eduardo de Carli, Dirce M Marchioni, Célia Colli, Josiane Steluti, Christine M Pfeiffer, Zia Fazili, Elvira Maria Guerra-Shinohara
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between serum unmetabolized folic acid (UMFA) concentrations and folic acid from fortified foods and nutrients known as dietary methyl-group donors (folate, methionine, choline, betaine and vitamins B2, B6 and B12) in participants exposed to mandatory fortification of wheat and maize flours with folic acid. METHODS: Cross-sectional study carried out with 144 healthy Brazilian participants, both sexes, supplement nonusers...
September 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888041/supplementation-with-the-methyl-donor-betaine-prevents-congenital-defects-induced-by-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#11
Ganga Karunamuni, Megan M Sheehan, Yong Qiu Doughman, Shi Gu, Jiayang Sun, Youjun Li, James P Strainic, Andrew M Rollins, Michael W Jenkins, Michiko Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Despite decades of public education about dire consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), drinking alcohol during pregnancy remains prevalent. As high as 40% of live-born infants exposed to alcohol during gestation and diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome have congenital heart defects that can be life-threatening. In animal models, the methyl donor betaine, found in foods such as wheat bran, quinoa, beets, and spinach, ameliorated neurobehavioral deficits associated with PAE, but effects on heart development are unknown...
November 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733762/reconsidering-betaine-as-a-natural-anti-heat-stress-agent-in-poultry-industry-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Muhammad Saeed, Daryoush Babazadeh, Muhammad Naveed, Muhammad Asif Arain, Faiz Ul Hassan, Sun Chao
Betaine is found ubiquitously in plants, animals, microorganisms, and rich dietary sources including seafood, spinach, and wheat bran. The chief physiological role of betaine is to function as a methyl donor and an osmolyte. Betaine also acts as an osmolyte, to maintain the avian's cellular water and ion balance to improve the avian's capacity against heat stress via preventing dehydration and osmotic inactivation. It helps in maintaining the protective osmolytic activity, especially in heat-stressed birds...
October 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686202/coinage-metal-complexes-of-the-carbenic-tautomer-of-a-conjugated-mesomeric-betaine-akin-to-nitron
#13
Charlotte Thie, Clemens Bruhn, Michael Leibold, Ulrich Siemeling
This study was motivated by our recent observation that the analytical reagent Nitron (2) is an "instant carbene", whose reaction with coinage metal salts MX afforded complexes of its carbenic tautomer 1,4-diphenyl-3-phenylamino-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylidene (2'). Our aim was to establish an alkyl homologue of 2 in order to achieve a carbenic tautomer of higher donicity. For this purpose 1-tert-butyl-4-methyl-1,2,4-triazol-4-ium-3-tert-butylaminide (6) was synthesized. Its reactions with MX afforded complexes of the carbenic tautomer 1-tert-butyl-3-tert-butylamino-4-methyl-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylidene (6')...
July 7, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663368/betaine-is-accumulated-via-transient-choline-dehydrogenase-activation-during-mouse-oocyte-meiotic-maturation
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Taylor McClatchie, Megan Meredith, Mariame O Ouédraogo, Sandy Slow, Michael Lever, Mellissa R W Mann, Steven H Zeisel, Jacquetta M Trasler, Jay M Baltz
Betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) plays key roles in mouse eggs and preimplantation embryos first in a novel mechanism of cell volume regulation and second as a major methyl donor in blastocysts, but its origin is unknown. Here, we determined that endogenous betaine was present at low levels in germinal vesicle (GV) stage mouse oocytes before ovulation and reached high levels in the mature, ovulated egg. However, no betaine transport into oocytes was detected during meiotic maturation. Because betaine can be synthesized in mammalian cells via choline dehydrogenase (CHDH; EC 1...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660927/synthesis-and-complexation-of-superbulky-imidazolium-2-dithiocarboxylate-ligands
#15
Tomás F Beltrán, Guillermo Zaragoza, Lionel Delaude
The superbulky N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) 2,6-bis(diphenylmethyl)-4-methylimidazol-2-ylidene (IDip*Me) and its 4-methoxy analogue (IDip*OMe) reacted instantaneously with carbon disulfide to afford the corresponding imidazolium-2-dithiocarboxylate zwitterions in high yields. These new dithiolate ligands were fully characterized and their coordination chemistry toward common Re(i) and Ru(ii) metal sources was thoroughly investigated. Neutral [ReBr(CO)3(S2C·NHC)] chelates featured three facially-arranged carbonyl groups on a distorted octahedron, whereas cationic [RuCl(p-cymene)(S2C·NHC)]PF6 complexes displayed a piano-stool geometry...
July 18, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592272/betaine-promotes-cell-differentiation-of-human-osteoblasts-in-primary-culture
#16
Isabella Villa, Pamela Senesi, Anna Montesano, Anita Ferraretto, Fernanda Vacante, Alice Spinello, Michela Bottani, Simona Bolamperti, Alessandro Rubinacci, Livio Luzi, Ileana Terruzzi
BACKGROUND: Betaine (BET), a component of many foods, is an essential osmolyte and a source of methyl groups; it also shows an antioxidant activity. Moreover, BET stimulates muscle differentiation via insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I). The processes of myogenesis and osteogenesis involve common mechanisms with skeletal muscle cells and osteoblasts sharing the same precursor. Therefore, we have hypothesized that BET might be effective on osteoblast cell differentiation. METHODS: The effect of BET was tested in human osteoblasts (hObs) derived from trabecular bone samples obtained from waste material of orthopedic surgery...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582843/acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-and-genetic-variations-in-bhmt-gene-case-control-study-and-computational-characterization
#17
Ravishankara Bellampalli, Manik Vohra, Kashish Sharma, Nalini Bhaskaranand, Kamalakshi G Bhat, Krishna Prasad, Anu R Sharma, Kapaettu Satyamoorthy, Padmalatha S Rai
BACKGROUND: Remethylation of homocysteine is catalyzed by B12 dependent methionine synthase (MTR) in all types of cells and by B12 non-dependent betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) in liver and kidney cells. Of many etiologies of cancer, an unexplored area is the variations of genes implicated in methylation reaction. OBJECTIVE: The study evaluated the association of BHMT (rs3733890) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), followed by in-silico characterization of variations in BHMT gene...
July 4, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532075/can-pei-microgels-become-biocompatible-upon-betainization
#18
Nurettin Sahiner, Sahin Demirci
Polyethylene imine (PEI) microgels prepared via micro emulsion polymerization technique were treated with 1,3-propane sultone to obtained betainized PEI (b-PEI) microgels. The betainization reaction generated zwitterions on PEI microgel that are positive charges from quarternized amine groups of PEI, and the newly formed negative charges from SO3(-) groups from the modifying agent, 1,3-propane sultone offered interesting properties. The smaller size of b-PEI microgels that are obtained by simple filtration were increased with betainization from 512±14 to 1114±86nm...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506357/-research-advances-in-the-association-between-maternal-intake-of-methyl-donor-nutrients-during-pregnancy-and-dna-methylation-in-offspring
#19
REVIEW
Meng-Meng Wu, Fan Yang
Maternal nutrition during pregnancy plays a vital role in the health of the offspring. Methyl donor nutrients, including folate, vitamin B12, choline, betaine, and methionine, directly affect DNA methylation and are closely associated with the health of the offspring. As an important part of epigenetics, DNA methylation plays an important role in the maintenance of normal cellular function, gene expression regulation, and embryonic development. Recent studies have shown that maternal nutrition may have a long-lasting effect on the health of the offspring via the changes in genomic DNA and/or methylation level in the promoter region in specific genes...
May 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499186/effect-of-betaine-on-hepatic-insulin-resistance-through-foxo1-induced-nlrp3-inflammasome
#20
Dae Hyun Kim, Seong Min Kim, Bonggi Lee, Eun Kyeong Lee, Ki Wung Chung, Kyoung Mi Moon, Hye Jin An, Kyung Mok Kim, Byung Pal Yu, Hae Young Chung
In the present study, we attempted to elucidate whether molecular modulation of inflammation by betaine through the forkhead box O1 (FOXO1)-induced NLRP3 inflammasome improves insulin resistance. Betaine is a major water-soluble component of Lycium chinense. It mainly functions as an oxidative metabolite of choline by suppressing superoxide-induced free radicals by donating methyl groups. The FOXO1 transcription factor regulates various genes involved in cellular metabolic processes related to cell death as well as oxidative stress responses through binding to the thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP)...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
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