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Betaine AND methylation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532075/can-pei-microgels-become-biocompatible-upon-betainization
#1
Nurettin Sahiner, Sahin Demirci
Polyethylene imine (PEI) microgels prepared via micro emulsion polymerization technique were treated with 1,3-propane sultone to obtained betainized PEI (b-PEI) microgels. The betainization reaction generated zwitterions on PEI microgel that are positive charges from quarternized amine groups of PEI, and the newly formed negative charges from SO3(-) groups from the modifying agent, 1,3-propane sultone offered interesting properties. The smaller size of b-PEI microgels that are obtained by simple filtration were increased with betainization from 512±14 to 1114±86nm...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506357/-research-advances-in-the-association-between-maternal-intake-of-methyl-donor-nutrients-during-pregnancy-and-dna-methylation-in-offspring
#2
Meng-Meng Wu, Fan Yang
Maternal nutrition during pregnancy plays a vital role in the health of the offspring. Methyl donor nutrients, including folate, vitamin B12, choline, betaine, and methionine, directly affect DNA methylation and are closely associated with the health of the offspring. As an important part of epigenetics, DNA methylation plays an important role in the maintenance of normal cellular function, gene expression regulation, and embryonic development. Recent studies have shown that maternal nutrition may have a long-lasting effect on the health of the offspring via the changes in genomic DNA and/or methylation level in the promoter region in specific genes...
May 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499186/effect-of-betaine-on-hepatic-insulin-resistance-through-foxo1-induced-nlrp3-inflammasome
#3
Dae Hyun Kim, Seong Min Kim, Bonggi Lee, Eun Kyeong Lee, Ki Wung Chung, Kyoung Mi Moon, Hye Jin An, Kyung Mok Kim, Byung Pal Yu, Hae Young Chung
In the present study, we attempted to elucidate whether molecular modulation of inflammation by betaine through the forkhead box O1 (FOXO1)-induced NLRP3 inflammasome improves insulin resistance. Betaine is a major water-soluble component of Lycium chinense. It mainly functions as an oxidative metabolite of choline by suppressing superoxide-induced free radicals by donating methyl groups. The FOXO1 transcription factor regulates various genes involved in cellular metabolic processes related to cell death as well as oxidative stress responses through binding to the thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP)...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470931/betaine-catalysis-for-hierarchical-reduction-of-co2-with-amines-and-hydrosilane-to-form-formamides-aminals-and-methylamines
#4
Xiao-Fang Liu, Xiao-Ya Li, Chang Qiao, Hong-Chen Fu, Liang-Nian He
An efficient, sustainable organocatalyst, glycine betaine, was developed for the reductive functionalization of CO2 with amines and diphenylsilane. Methylamines and formamides were obtained in high yield by tuning the CO2 pressure and reaction temperature. Based on identification of the key intermediate, that is, the aminal, an alternative mechanism for methylation involving the C(0) silyl acetal and aminal is proposed. Furthermore, reducing the CO2 amount afforded aminals with high yield and selectivity. Therefore, betaine catalysis affords products with a diversified energy content that is, formamides, aminals and methylamines, by hierarchical two-, four- and six-electron reduction, respectively, of CO2 coupled with C-N bond formation...
May 3, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468239/choline-other-methyl-donors-and-epigenetics
#5
Steven Zeisel
Choline dietary intake varies such that many people do not achieve adequate intakes. Diet intake of choline can modulate methylation because, via betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), this nutrient (and its metabolite, betaine) regulate the concentrations of S-adenosylhomocysteine and S-adenosylmethionine. Some of the epigenetic mechanisms that modify gene expression without modifying the genetic code depend on the methylation of DNA or of histones; and diet availability of choline and other methyl-group donors influences both of these methylations...
April 29, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468078/-effect-of-peripheral-bloodgenomic-dna-methylation-on-the-relationship-between-methyl-donor-status-and-risk-of-breast-cancer
#6
W P Luo, Y F Du, J Huang, W Q Huang, M Xu, B Yan, X F Mo, C X Zhang
Objective: To explore the effect of peripheral blood genomic DNA methylation on the relationship between methyl donor status and risk of breast cancer. Methods: A case-control study was conducted. Each three hundred breast cancer cases and controls were consecutively recruited. Food frequency questionnaire was used to collect dietary information. Amounts on folate, methionine, choline and betaine intake were calculated. Blood samples were collected for DNA extraction. Peripheral blood genomic DNA methylation was measured by using the Methyl Flash(TM) Methylated DNA Quantification Kit...
April 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445388/maternal-methyl-donor-supplementation-during-gestation-counteracts-the-bisphenol-a-induced-impairment-of-intestinal-morphology-disaccharidase-activity-and-nutrient-transporters-gene-expression-in-newborn-and-weaning-pigs
#7
Hong Liu, Jun Wang, Daolin Mou, Lianqiang Che, Zhengfeng Fang, Bin Feng, Yan Lin, Shengyu Xu, Jian Li, De Wu
This study was conducted to explore whether exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) during pregnancy could change intestinal digestion and absorption function in offspring using pigs as a model, and whether methyl donor (MET) could counteract the BPA-induced impacts. Fifty Landrace × Yorkshire sows were divided into four dietary groups throughout gestation: control diet (CON); control diet supplemented with BPA (50 mg/kg); control diet supplemented with MET (3 g/kg betaine, 400 mg/kg choline, 150 μg/kg vitamin B12, and 15 mg/kg folic acid); and control diet with BPA and MET supplementation (BPA + MET)...
April 26, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386093/higher-dietary-intakes-of-choline-and-betaine-are-associated-with-a-lower-risk-of-primary-liver-cancer-a-case-control-study
#8
Rui-Fen Zhou, Xiao-Lin Chen, Zhong-Guo Zhou, Yao-Jun Zhang, Qiu-Ye Lan, Gong-Cheng Liao, Yu-Ming Chen, Hui-Lian Zhu
The dietary intake of methyl donors is favorably associated with many diseases, but the findings regarding primary liver cancer (PLC) risk are limited. This study investigated the association between the intake of choline, betaine and methionine and PLC risk in adults. This 1:1 matched case-control study enrolled 644 hospital-based PLC patients and 644 community-based controls who were matched by sex and age, in Guangzhou, China. An interviewer-administered questionnaire and a food-frequency questionnaire were used to collect general information and dietary intake information...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369960/chronic-alcohol-exposure-differentially-alters-one-carbon-metabolism-in-rat-liver-and-brain
#9
James Auta, Huaibo Zhang, Subhash C Pandey, Alessandro Guidotti
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation play an important role in regulating the pathophysiology of alcoholism. Chronic alcohol exposure leads to behavioral changes as well as decreased expression of genes associated with synaptic plasticity. In the liver, it has been documented that chronic alcohol exposure impairs methionine synthase (Ms) activity leading to a decrease in SAM/SAH ratio which results in DNA hypomethylation; however it is not known whether similar alterations of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) and S-adenosyl homocysteine (SAH) levels are also produced in brain...
March 30, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260562/the-effect-of-paternal-methyl-group-donor-intake-on-offspring-dna-methylation-and-birth-weight
#10
S Pauwels, I Truijen, M Ghosh, R C Duca, S A S Langie, B Bekaert, K Freson, I Huybrechts, G Koppen, R Devlieger, L Godderis
Most nutritional studies on the development of children focus on mother-infant interactions. Maternal nutrition is critically involved in the growth and development of the fetus, but what about the father? The aim is to investigate the effects of paternal methyl-group donor intake (methionine, folate, betaine, choline) on paternal and offspring global DNA (hydroxy)methylation, offspring IGF2 DMR DNA methylation, and birth weight. Questionnaires, 7-day estimated dietary records, whole blood samples, and anthropometric measurements from 74 fathers were obtained...
June 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239993/maternal-betaine-supplementation-in-rats-induces-intergenerational-changes-in-hepatic-igf-1-expression-and-dna-methylation
#11
Nannan Zhao, Shu Yang, Yun Hu, Haibo Dong, Ruqian Zhao
SCOPE: Betaine is widely used in animal nutrition to promote growth. Here, we aimed to investigate whether maternal betaine supplementation during pregnancy can exert multigenerational effects on growth across two generations and the possible epigenetic modifications associated to such effects. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diet supplemented with 1% betaine throughout the pregnancy and lactation. Betaine-supplemented dams produced bigger litter but smaller F1 pups at birth and weaning...
February 26, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191262/maternal-intake-of-methyl-group-donors-affects-dna-methylation-of-metabolic-genes-in-infants
#12
Sara Pauwels, Manosij Ghosh, Radu Corneliu Duca, Bram Bekaert, Kathleen Freson, Inge Huybrechts, Sabine A S Langie, Gudrun Koppen, Roland Devlieger, Lode Godderis
BACKGROUND: Maternal nutrition during pregnancy and infant nutrition in the early postnatal period (lactation) are critically involved in the development and health of the newborn infant. The Maternal Nutrition and Offspring's Epigenome (MANOE) study was set up to assess the effect of maternal methyl-group donor intake (choline, betaine, folate, methionine) on infant DNA methylation. Maternal intake of dietary methyl-group donors was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ)...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179424/altered-methylation-of-specific-dna-loci-in-the-liver-of-bhmt-null-mice-results-in-repression-of-iqgap2-and-f2rl2-and-is-associated-with-development-of-preneoplastic-foci
#13
Daniel S Lupu, Luz D Orozco, Ying Wang, John M Cullen, Matteo Pellegrini, Steven H Zeisel
Folate B12-dependent remethylation of homocysteine is important, but less is understood about the importance of the alternative betaine-dependent methylation pathway-catalyzed by betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT)-for establishing and maintaining adequate DNA methylation across the genome. We studied C57Bl/6J Bhmt (betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase)-null mice at age 4, 12, 24, and 52 wk (N = 8) and observed elevation of S-adenosylhomocysteine concentrations and development of preneoplastic foci in the liver (increased placental glutathione S-transferase and cytokeratin 8-18 activity; starting at 12 wk)...
February 8, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161170/maternal-supplementation-with-rumen-protected-methionine-increases-prepartal-plasma-methionine-concentration-and-alters-hepatic-mrna-abundance-of-1-carbon-methionine-and-transsulfuration-pathways-in-neonatal-holstein-calves
#14
C B Jacometo, Z Zhou, D Luchini, M N Corrêa, J J Loor
An important mechanism of nutritional "programming" induced by supplementation with methyl donors during pregnancy is the alteration of mRNA abundance in the offspring. We investigated the effects of rumen-protected Met (RPM) on abundance of 17 genes in the 1-carbon, Met, and transsulfuration pathways in calf liver from cows fed the same basal diet without (control, CON) or with RPM at 0.08% of diet dry matter/d (MET) from -21 through +30 d around calving. Biopsies (n = 8 calves per diet) were harvested on d 4, 14, 28, and 50 of age...
April 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158941/high-throughput-quantitation-of-proline-betaine-in-foods-and-suitability-as-a-valid-biomarker-for-citrus-consumption
#15
Roman Lang, Tatjana Lang, Matthias Bader, Anja Beusch, Verena Schlagbauer, Thomas Hofmann
Proline betaine has been proposed as a candidate dietary biomarker for citrus intake. To validate its suitability as a dietary biomarker and to gain insight into the range of this per-methylated amino acid in foods and beverages, a quick and accurate stable isotope dilution assay was developed for quantitative high-throughput HILIC-MS/MS screening of proline betaine in foods and urine after solvent-mediated matrix precipitation. Quantitative analysis of a variety of foods confirmed substantial amounts of proline betaine in citrus juices (140-1100 mg/L) and revealed high abundance in tubers of the vegetable Stachys affinis, also known as Chinese artichocke (∼700 mg/kg)...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152052/choline-and-methionine-differentially-alter-methyl-carbon-metabolism-in-bovine-neonatal-hepatocytes
#16
Tawny L Chandler, Heather M White
Intersections in hepatic methyl group metabolism pathways highlights potential competition or compensation of methyl donors. The objective of this experiment was to examine the expression of genes related to methyl group transfer and lipid metabolism in response to increasing concentrations of choline chloride (CC) and DL-methionine (DLM) in primary neonatal hepatocytes that were or were not exposed to fatty acids (FA). Primary hepatocytes isolated from 4 neonatal Holstein calves were maintained as monolayer cultures for 24 h before treatment with CC (61, 128, 2028, and 4528 μmol/L) and DLM (16, 30, 100, 300 μmol/L), with or without a 1 mmol/L FA cocktail in a factorial arrangement...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134761/genetic-variation-in-choline-metabolizing-enzymes-alters-choline-metabolism-in-young-women-consuming-choline-intakes-meeting-current-recommendations
#17
Ariel B Ganz, Vanessa V Cohen, Camille C Swersky, Julie Stover, Gerardo A Vitiello, Jessica Lovesky, Jasmine C Chuang, Kelsey Shields, Vladislav G Fomin, Yusnier S Lopez, Sanjay Mohan, Anita Ganti, Bradley Carrier, Olga V Malysheva, Marie A Caudill
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in choline metabolizing genes are associated with disease risk and greater susceptibility to organ dysfunction under conditions of dietary choline restriction. However, the underlying metabolic signatures of these variants are not well characterized and it is unknown whether genotypic differences persist at recommended choline intakes. Thus, we sought to determine if common genetic risk factors alter choline dynamics in pregnant, lactating, and non-pregnant women consuming choline intakes meeting and exceeding current recommendations...
January 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069796/high-dietary-folate-in-pregnant-mice-leads-to-pseudo-mthfr-deficiency-and-altered-methyl-metabolism-with-embryonic-growth-delay-and-short-term-memory-impairment-in-offspring
#18
Renata H Bahous, Nafisa M Jadavji, Liyuan Deng, Marta Cosín-Tomás, Jessica Lu, Olga Malysheva, Kit-Yi Leung, Ming-Kai Ho, Mercè Pallàs, Perla Kaliman, Nicholas D E Greene, Barry J Bedell, Marie A Caudill, Rima Rozen
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) generates methyltetrahydrofolate for methylation reactions. Severe MTHFR deficiency results in homocystinuria and neurologic impairment. Mild MTHFR deficiency (677C > T polymorphism) increases risk for complex traits, including neuropsychiatric disorders. Although low dietary folate impacts brain development, recent concerns have focused on high folate intake following food fortification and increased vitamin use. Our goal was to determine whether high dietary folate during pregnancy affects brain development in murine offspring...
March 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059170/in-ovo-injection-of-betaine-alleviates-corticosterone-induced-fatty-liver-in-chickens-through-epigenetic-modifications
#19
Yun Hu, Qinwei Sun, Jie Liu, Yimin Jia, Demin Cai, Abdulrahman A Idriss, Nagmeldin A Omer, Ruqian Zhao
Betaine alleviates high-fat diet-induced fatty liver and prenatal betaine programs offspring hepatic lipid metabolism. Excessive corticosterone (CORT) exposure causes fatty liver in chickens, yet it remains unknown whether and how prenatal betaine modulates the susceptibility of CORT-induced fatty liver later in life. In this study, fertilized eggs were injected with saline or betaine before incubation, and the hatchlings were raised at 8 weeks of age followed by 7 days of subcutaneous CORT injection. CORT-induced fatty liver was less severe in betaine-treated chickens, with significantly reduced oil-red staining and hepatic triglyceride content (P < 0...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039067/prenatal-betaine-exposure-alleviates-corticosterone-induced-inhibition-of-cyp27a1-expression-in-the-liver-of-juvenile-chickens-associated-with-its-promoter-dna-methylation
#20
Yun Hu, Qinwei Sun, Yibo Zong, Jie Liu, Abdulrahman A Idriss, Nagmeldin A Omer, Ruqian Zhao
Sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) plays an important role in cholesterol homeostasis by degrading cholesterol to bile acids. Betaine can alleviate high-fat diet-induced hepatic cholesterol accumulation and maternal betaine treatment programs the hepatic expression of CYP27A1 in offspring. Excessive corticosterone (CORT) exposure causes hepatic cholesterol deposition in chickens, yet it remains unknown whether prenatal betaine modulates CORT-induced cholesterol accumulation in chicken liver later in life and whether it involves epigenetic gene regulation of CYP27A1...
May 15, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
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