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Betaine AND methylation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786674/choline-supplementation-prevents-a-hallmark-disturbance-of-kwashiorkor-in-weanling-mice-fed-a-maize-vegetable-diet-hepatic-steatosis-of-undernutrition
#1
Thaddaeus May, Kevin C Klatt, Jacob Smith, Eumenia Castro, Mark Manary, Marie A Caudill, Farook Jahoor, Marta L Fiorotto
Hepatic steatosis is a hallmark feature of kwashiorkor malnutrition. However, the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis in kwashiorkor is uncertain. Our objective was to develop a mouse model of childhood undernutrition in order to test the hypothesis that feeding a maize vegetable diet (MVD), like that consumed by children at risk for kwashiorkor, will cause hepatic steatosis which is prevented by supplementation with choline. A MVD was developed with locally sourced organic ingredients, and fed to weanling mice ( n = 9) for 6 or 13 days...
May 22, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786139/one-carbon-metabolite-ratios-as-functional-b-vitamin-markers-and-in-relation-to-colorectal-cancer-risk
#2
Björn Gylling, Robin Myte, Arve Ulvik, Per M Ueland, Øivind Midttun, Jörn Schneede, Göran Hallmans, Jenny Häggström, Ingegerd Johansson, Bethany Van Guelpen, Richard Palmqvist
One-carbon metabolism biomarkers are easily measured in plasma, but analyzing them one at a time in relation to disease does not take into account the interdependence of the many factors involved. The relative dynamics of major one-carbon metabolism branches can be assessed by relating the functional B-vitamin marker total homocysteine (tHcy) to transsulfuration (total cysteine) and methylation (creatinine) outputs. We validated the ratios of tHcy to total cysteine (Hcy:Cys), tHcy to creatinine (Hcy:Cre), and tHcy to cysteine to creatinine (Hcy:Cys:Cre) as functional markers of B-vitamin status...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778843/a-synbiotic-improves-the-immunity-of-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei-metabolomic-analyses-reveal-compelling-evidence
#3
Truong-Giang Huynh, Ann-Chang Cheng, Chia-Chun Chi, Kuo-Hsun Chiu, Chun-Hung Liu
In this study, we examined the synergistic effects of a diet-administered synbiotic comprising galactooligosaccharide (GOS) and the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 7-40 on immune responses, immune-related gene expressions, and disease resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. To unravel the regulatory role of the synbiotic in activating the immune system of shrimp, 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic analyses were used to investigate hepatopancreas metabolites, then significantly altered metabolites were confirmed in both the hepatopancreas and plasma by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and spectrophotometric analyses...
May 17, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693039/demethylase-jmjd6-as-a-new-regulator-of-interferon-signaling-effects-of-hcv-and-ethanol-metabolism
#4
Murali Ganesan, Irina Tikhanovich, Shiva Shankar Vangimalla, Raghubendra Singh Dagur, Weimin Wang, Larisa I Poluektova, Yimin Sun, David F Mercer, Dean Tuma, Steven A Weinman, Kusum K Kharbanda, Natalia A Osna
Background & Aims: Alcohol-induced progression of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is related to dysfunction of innate immunity in hepatocytes. Endogenously produced interferon (IFN)α induces activation of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) via triggering of the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) pathway. This activation requires protein methyltransferase 1-regulated arginine methylation of STAT1. Here, we aimed to study whether STAT1 methylation also depended on the levels of demethylase jumonji domain-containing 6 protein (JMJD6) and whether ethanol and HCV affect JMJD6 expression in hepatocytes...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626705/biosynthetic-pathways-of-glycinebetaine-in-thalassiosira-pseudonana-functional-characterization-of-enzyme-catalyzing-three-step-methylation-of-glycine
#5
Hakuto Kageyama, Yoshito Tanaka, Teruhiro Takabe
Betaine (trimethylglycine) is an important compatible solute that accumulates in response to abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity. Biosynthetic pathways of betaine have been extensively studied, but it remains to be clarified on algae. A diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana CCMP1335 is an important component of marine ecosystems. Here we show that the genome sequence of Thalassiosira suggests the presence of two biosynthetic pathways for betaine, via three step methylation of glycine and via two step oxidation of choline...
March 30, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606601/association-of-choline-and-betaine-levels-with-cancer-incidence-and-survival-a-meta-analysis
#6
Jiyoung Youn, Eunyoung Cho, Jung Eun Lee
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Evidences suggest possible link between betaine and choline, methyl group donors, and cancer progression. We examined the association between choline and betaine levels and cancer incidence and survival in a meta-analysis of observational studies. METHODS: We identified observational studies examining the association between choline and/or betaine levels from diet or blood and cancer incidence and survival by searching the PubMed and Web of Science databases for studies published up to Jan, 2018...
March 22, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546310/corticosterone-induced-lipogenesis-activation-and-lipophagy-inhibition-in-chicken-liver-are-alleviated-by-maternal-betaine-supplementation
#7
Yun Hu, Qinwei Sun, Yan Hu, Zhen Hou, Yibo Zong, Nagmeldin A Omer, Halima Abobaker, Ruqian Zhao
Background: We have shown previously that in ovo betaine injection can prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver induced by glucocorticoid exposure in chickens; yet it remains unknown whether feeding betaine to laying hens may exert similar effects in their progeny. Objective: In this study, we fed laying hens a betaine-supplemented diet, and the progeny were later exposed chronically to corticosterone (CORT) to test hepatoprotective effects and further elucidate underlying mechanisms...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542743/evaluating-excited-state-atomic-polarizabilities-of-chromophores
#8
Esther Heid, Patricia A Hunt, Christian Schröder
Ground and excited state dipoles and polarizabilities of the chromophores N-methyl-6-oxyquinolinium betaine (MQ) and coumarin 153 (C153) in solution have been evaluated using time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). A method for determining the atomic polarizabilities has been developed; the molecular dipole has been decomposed into atomic charge transfer and polarizability terms, and variation in the presence of an electric field has been used to evaluate atomic polarizabilities. On excitation, MQ undergoes very site-specific changes in polarizability while C153 shows significantly less variation...
March 28, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506183/characterization-of-metabolic-responses-to-healthy-diets-and-association-with-blood-pressure-application-to-the-optimal-macronutrient-intake-trial-for-heart-health-omniheart-a-randomized-controlled-study
#9
Ruey Leng Loo, Xin Zou, Lawrence J Appel, Jeremy K Nicholson, Elaine Holmes
Background: Interindividual variation in the response to diet is common, but the underlying mechanism for such variation is unclear. Objective: The objective of this study was to use a metabolic profiling approach to identify a panel of urinary metabolites representing individuals demonstrating typical (homogeneous) metabolic responses to healthy diets, and subsequently to define the association of these metabolites with improvement of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs)...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453804/probiotics-affect-one-carbon-metabolites-and-catecholamines-in-a-genetic-rat-model-of-depression
#10
Sandra Tillmann, Hussain M Awwad, Amanda R Eskelund, Giulia Treccani, Juergen Geisel, Gregers Wegener, Rima Obeid
SCOPE: Probiotics may influence one-carbon (C1) metabolism, neurotransmitters, liver function markers, or behavior. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male adult Flinders Sensitive Line rats (model of depression, FSL; n = 22) received Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175 (109 or 1010 colony-forming units per day) or vehicle for 10 weeks. The controls, Flinders Resistant Line rats (FRL, n = 8), only received vehicle. C1-related metabolites were measured in plasma, urine, and different tissues...
April 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452261/maternal-betaine-administration-modulates-hepatic-type-1-iodothyronine-deiodinase-dio1-expression-in-chicken-offspring-through-epigenetic-modifications
#11
Zhen Hou, Qinwei Sun, Yun Hu, Shu Yang, Yibo Zong, Ruqian Zhao
As a feed additive, betaine is widely used in livestock production for its ability to promote growth. Our previous studies had reported that maternal betaine supplementation altered hepatic metabolism in offspring. But it remains unknown whether and how maternal betaine modulates metabolism of thyroid hormones in the offspring chickens by epigenetic modification. In this study, one hundred and twenty Rugao yellow-feathered laying hens were randomly divided into two groups, and were fed basal diet with or without 0...
April 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29418056/micropolarity-and-hydrogen-bond-donor-ability-of-environmentally-friendly-anionic-reverse-micelles-explored-by-uv-vis-absorption-of-a-molecular-probe-and-ftir-spectroscopy
#12
Valeria R Girardi, Juana J Silber, Ruben Darío Falcone, N Mariano Correa
In the present work we show how two biocompatible solvents, methyl laurate (ML) and isopropyl myristate (IPM), can be used as a less toxic alternative to replace the nonpolar component in a sodium 1,4-bis-2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate (AOT) reverse micelles (RMs) formulation. In this sense, the micropolarity and the hydrogen-bond ability of the interface were monitored through the use of the solvatochromism of a molecular probe (1-methyl-8-oxyquinolinium betaine, QB) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)...
March 19, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400383/solvation-dynamics-in-polar-solvents-and-imidazolium-ionic-liquids-failure-of-linear-response-approximations
#13
Esther Heid, Christian Schröder
This study presents the large scale computer simulations of two common fluorophores, N-methyl-6-oxyquinolinium betaine and coumarin 153, in five polar or ionic solvents. The validity of linear response approximations to calculate the time-dependent Stokes shift is evaluated in each system. In most studied systems linear response theory fails. In ionic liquids the magnitude of the overall response is largely overestimated, and linear response theory is not able to capture the individual contributions of cations and anions...
February 14, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384213/fto-reduces-mitochondria-and-promotes-hepatic-fat-accumulation-through-rna-demethylation
#14
Huifang Kang, Zhiwang Zhang, Lin Yu, Yixing Li, Mingzhen Liang, Lei Zhou
Fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) is a RNA demethylase, whether FTO regulates fat metabolism through its demethylation is unclear. The results of this study confirmed that N6-methyladenosine (m6 A) is associated with fat accumulation both in vivo and in vitro. The data showed that FTO down-regulated m6 A levels, decreased mitochondrial content, and increased triglyceride (TG) deposition. However, an FTO (R316A) mutant lacking demethylation activity could not regulate mitochondria and TG content, indicating that FTO affects mitochondrial content and fat metabolism by modulating m6 A levels in hepatocytes...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379082/supplement-of-betaine-into-embryo-culture-medium-can-rescue-injury-effect-of-ethanol-on-mouse-embryo-development
#15
Di Zhang, Huaijiang Jing, Changfeng Dou, Ling Zhang, Xiaoqing Wu, Qingqing Wu, Haoyang Song, Dengkun Li, Fengrui Wu, Yong Liu, Wenyong Li, Rong Wang
Mammal embryos can be impaired by mother's excessive ethanol uptake, which induces a higher level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and interferes in one carbon unit metabolism. Here, our analysis by in vitro culture system reveals immediate effect of ethanol in medium on mouse embryo development presents concentration dependent. A preimplantation embryo culture using medium contained 1% ethanol could impact greatly early embryos development, and harmful effect of ethanol on preimplantation embryos would last during the whole development period including of reducing ratio of blastocyst formation and implantation, and deteriorating postimplantation development...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376352/mitotically-stable-modification-of-dna-methylation-in-igf2-h19-imprinting-control-region-is-associated-with-activated-hepatic-igf2-expression-in-offspring-rats-from-betaine-supplemented-dams
#16
Shu Yang, Nannan Zhao, Yang Yang, Yun Hu, Haibo Dong, Ruqian Zhao
The growth-promoting action of betaine involves activation of GH/IGF-1 signaling, yet it remains unclear whether insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), an imprinting gene, is affected by maternal dietary betaine supplementation. In this study, F1 offspring rats derived from dams fed basal or betaine-supplemented diet were examined at D21 and D63. Maternal betaine significantly upregulated the hepatic expression of IGF2 mRNA and protein in offspring rats at both D21 and D63, which was accompanied by enhanced hepatic IGF2 immunoreactivity and elevated serum IGF-2 level...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375826/dietary-betaine-activates-hepatic-vtgii-expression-in-laying-hens-associated-with-hypomethylation-of-gr-gene-promoter-and-enhanced-gr-expression
#17
Nagmeldin A Omer, Yun Hu, Yan Hu, Abdulrahman A Idriss, Halima Abobaker, Zhen Hou, Haibo Dong, Ruqian Zhao
Background: Vitellogenin (VTG) is a precursor of egg yolk proteins synthesized within the liver of oviparous vertebrates. Betaine is an important methyl donor that is reported to improve egg production of laying hens with an unclear mechanism. In the present study, we fed betaine-supplemented diet (0.5%) to laying hens for 4 wk and investigated its effect on VTGII expression in the liver. Results: Betaine did not affect chicken weight, but significantly ( P  < 0...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366935/glycine-betaine-rather-than-acting-only-as-an-osmolyte-also-plays-a-role-as-regulator-in-cellular-metabolism
#18
REVIEW
Ciria G Figueroa-Soto, Elisa M Valenzuela-Soto
For many years, glycine betaine (GB) has been widely studied as an osmolyte in plants and bacteria. In animal cells, GB is an osmolyte mainly in the kidneys, but in humans many studies have shown its role as a methyl donor in homocysteine metabolism in the liver. GB is also a protein stabilizer, and thus, it became known as an osmoprotector. In many organisms GB is synthesized from choline and can also be obtained from some foods. Over the last twenty years GB has gone from being considered simply as an osmolyte to being known as a cytoprotector involved in cell metabolism and as a chemical chaperone...
April 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331496/maternal-betaine-supplementation-attenuates-glucocorticoid-induced-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-through-epigenetic-modification-in-adult-offspring-rats
#19
Nannan Zhao, Shu Yang, Yimin Jia, Bo Sun, Bin He, Ruqian Zhao
There are lots of reports about alleviation of NAFLD by dietary supplements of betaine. However, it remains unclear whether maternal betaine supplementation can also ameliorate NAFLD in offspring. Hence, twenty pregnant rats were fed with a basal diet with or without betaine (1%), and then the female offspring rats were raised at 3 months of age followed by 3 weeks of physiological saline or dexamethasone in a dose of 0.1 mg/kg body mass every day via intraperitoneal injection. In this study, maternal betaine supplementation significantly (P<...
April 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329322/methylene-tetrahydrofolate-reductase-contributes-to-allergic-airway-disease
#20
Kenneth R Eyring, Brent S Pedersen, Kenneth N Maclean, Sally P Stabler, Ivana V Yang, David A Schwartz
RATIONALE: Environmental exposures strongly influence the development and progression of asthma. We have previously demonstrated that mice exposed to a diet enriched with methyl donors during vulnerable periods of fetal development can enhance the heritable risk of allergic airway disease through epigenetic changes. There is conflicting evidence on the role of folate (one of the primary methyl donors) in modifying allergic airway disease. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that blocking folate metabolism through the loss of methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (Mthfr) activity would reduce the allergic airway disease phenotype through epigenetic mechanisms...
2018: PloS One
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